Golden age of American animation
The golden age of American animation was a period in the history of U. S. animation that began with the advent of sound cartoons in 1928 and continued until around 1972, by which time theatrical animated shorts had begun losing to the newer medium of television animation. Many popular characters emerged from this period, including Bugs Bunny, Mickey Mouse, Daffy Duck, Donald Duck, Popeye and Jerry, Porky Pig, Betty Boop, Woody Woodpecker, Mighty Mouse, Mr. Magoo, Pink Panther, Elmer Fudd, the Fox and the Crow and Junior, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, Barney Bear, the first animated adaptation of Superman and Little Lulu, among others. Feature length animation had begun during this period, most notably with Walt Disney's first films: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia and Bambi. Began animation on television with the first animated series from 1949 to the early 1960s. Walt Disney decided to become a newspaper cartoonist drawing comic strips; however nobody would hire Disney, so his older brother Roy, working as a banker at the time, got him a job at the Pesmen-Rubin Art Studio where he created advertisements for newspapers and movie theaters.
Here he met fellow cartoonist Ub Iwerks, the two became friends and in January 1920, when their time at the studio expired they decided to open up their own advertising agency together called Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists. The business however got off to a rough start and Walt temporarily left for the Kansas City Film and Ad Co. to raise money for the fleeting company and Iwerks soon followed as he was unable to run the business alone. While working here he made commercials for local theaters using crude cut-out animation. Disney decided to become an animator, he borrowed a camera from work and rented a book from the local library called Animated Cartoons: How They Are Made, Their Origin and Development by Edwin G. Lutz and decided that cel animation would produce better quality and decided to open up his own animation studio. Disney teamed up with Fred Harman and made their first film, The Little Artist, nothing more than an artist taking a cigarette break at his work desk. Harman soon dropped out of the venture, but Disney was able to strike a deal with local theater owner Frank L. Newman and animated a cartoon all by himself entitled Newman Laugh-O-Grams screened in February 1921.
Walt quit his job at the film and ad company and incorporated Laugh-O-Gram Films in May 1922, hired former advertising colleagues as unpaid "students" of animation including Ub Iwerks and Fred Harman's brother, Hugh Harman. Throughout 1922 the company produced a series of "modernized" adaptations of fairy tales including Little Red Riding Hood, The Four Musicians of Bremen and the Beanstalk, Jack the Giant Killer and the Three Bears, Puss in Boots and Tommy Tucker's Tooth, the latter being a live-action film about dental hygiene. None of these films turned a profit; the last film made by the company was a short called Alice's Wonderland. Loosely inspired by Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland; the film was never complete however as the studio went bankrupt in the summer of 1923. Upon the closure of Laugh-O-Grams, Walt worked as a freelance filmmaker before selling his camera for a one-way ticket to Los Angeles. Once arriving he moved in with his Uncle Robert and his brother Roy, recovering at a nearby government hospital from tuberculosis he had suffered during the war.
After failing to get a job as a director of live-action films he sent the unfinished Alice's Wonderland reel to short-subjects distributor Margaret J. Winkler of Winkler Pictures in New York. Winkler was distributing both the Felix the Cat and Out of the Inkwell cartoons at the time, but the Fleischer brothers were about to leave to set up their own distribution company, Red Seal Films, Felix producer Pat Sullivan was fighting with Winkler. Once Walt received the notice on October 15, he convinced Roy to leave the hospital and help him set-up his business; the next day, on October 16, 1923, Disney Bros. Cartoon Studio opened its doors at a small rented office two blocks away from his uncle's house with Roy managing business and Walt handling creative affairs, he convinced Virginia Davis's parents which caused the first official Alice short, Alice's Day at Sea, to be released on January 1, 1924. Ub Iwerks was re-hired in February 1925 and the quality of animation on the Alice series improved.
Around that time, Davis was replaced with Maggie Gay and the cartoons started to focus less on the live-action scenes and more the animated scenes those featuring Alice's pet sidekick Julius, who bore an uncanny resemblance to Felix the Cat. In February 1926, Disney built a larger studio at 2719 Hyperion Avenue and changed the name of the company to Walt Disney Cartoons. In November 1923, Winkler married Charles Mintz and handed over the business to him when she fell pregnant a few months later. Mintz was described as a cold and ruthless chain-smoking tyrant, he looked us over like an admiral surveying a row of stanchions." While Winkler had offered gentle critiques and encouragement, Mintz communicated to Disney in a harsh and
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
The iron maiden is a torture and execution device, consisting of an iron cabinet with a hinged front and spike-covered interior, sufficiently tall to enclose a human being. The first stories citing the iron maiden were composed in the 19th century; the use of iron maidens is a myth from the 18th century, heightened by the belief that people of the Middle Ages were uncivilized. Despite its reputation as a medieval instrument of torture, there is no evidence of the existence of iron maidens before the early 19th century; the device, known in German as the "Eiserne Jungfrau", looked similar to an Egyptian mummy sarcophagus. Wolfgang Schild, a professor of criminal law, criminal law history, philosophy of law at the Bielefeld University, has argued that putative iron maidens were pieced together from artifacts found in museums to create spectacular objects intended for exhibition. Several 19th-century iron maidens are on display in museums around the world, including the San Diego Museum of Man, the Meiji University Museum, several torture museums in Europe.
The 19th-century iron maidens may have been constructed as probable misinterpretation of a medieval Schandmantel, made of wood and metal but without spikes. Inspiration for the iron maiden may have come from the Carthaginian execution of Marcus Atilius Regulus as recorded in Tertullian's "To the Martyrs" and Augustine of Hippo's The City of God, in which the Carthaginians "packed him into a tight wooden box, spiked with sharp nails on all sides so that he could not lean in any direction without being pierced", or from Polybius' account of Nabis of Sparta's deadly statue of his wife, the Iron Apega; the most famous iron maiden that popularized the design was that of Nuremberg, first displayed as far back as 1802. The original was lost in the Allied bombing of Nuremberg in 1945. A copy "from the Royal Castle of Nuremberg", crafted for public display, was sold through J. Ichenhauser of London to the Earl of Shrewsbury in 1890 along with other torture devices, after being displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, was taken on an American tour.
This copy was auctioned in the early 1960s and is now on display at the Medieval Crime Museum, Rothenburg ob der Tauber. Historians have ascertained. According to Siebenkees' colportage, it was first used on August 1515, to execute a coin forger; the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden was named after the torture device. There is a tale written by the famous author of Dracula, Bram Stoker, that can be found in a little book titled "Tales of Horror", "The Iron Maiden" is the second of three tales, it is a shivering and ghastly one, as if there was some sort of magical and unknown force acting on the scene, characters are inexplicably driven by this force. The Iron Maiden is the torture device found at the Castle of Nurenberg, whose atmosphere is added to make the scene more strange and awful, although at the beginning the tale refers just to a casual walk of three people by the region. "Iron Maiden" was the nickname given to a research centrifuge gondola designed for submerging a human body in water to counteract the effects of high-g acceleration, at the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory of the Johnsville Naval Air Development Center.
In 1958, researcher R. Flanagan Gray survived, experiencing 31.25 Gs for five seconds using AMAL's Iron Maiden. In 2003, Time magazine reported that an iron maiden was found outside the Iraqi Football Association office of Uday Hussein in Iraq. Brazen bull Ducking stool Jürgen Scheffler. "Der Folterstuhl - Metamorphosen eines Museumsobjektes". Zeitenblicke. Retrieved January 25, 2006. "Vortrag von Klaus Graf: Mordgeschichten und Hexenerinnerungen". Mondzauberin. Archived from the original on August 28, 2004. Retrieved July 11, 2007. "Das leckt die Kuh nicht ab - "Zufällige Gedanken" zu Schriftlichkeit und Erinnerungskultur der Strafgerichtsbarkeit". Archived from the original on August 2, 2003. Retrieved July 11, 2007. Media related to Iron Maiden at Wikimedia Commons Infernal Device: Iron Maiden at Occasional Hell
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we
Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Leon Schlesinger Productions and voiced by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. Though a similar character debuted in the WB cartoon Porky's Hare Hunt and appeared in a few subsequent shorts, the definitive character of Bugs is credited to have made his debut in director Tex Avery's Oscar-nominated film A Wild Hare. Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray and white rabbit, famous for his flippant, insouciant personality, he is characterized by a Brooklyn accent, his portrayal as a trickster, his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" Due to Bugs' popularity during the golden age of American animation, he became an American cultural icon and the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment, he can thus be seen in the older Warner Bros. company logos. Since his debut, Bugs has appeared in various short films, feature films, compilations, TV series, music records, video games, award shows, amusement park rides, commercials.
He has appeared in more films than any other cartoon character, is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world, has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. According to Chase Craig, who wrote and drew the first Bugs Bunny comic Sunday pages and the first Bugs comic book, "Bugs was not the creation of any one man. In those days, the stories were the work of a group who suggested various gags, bounced them around and finalized them in a joint story conference." A rabbit with some of the personality of Bugs, though looking different, was featured in the film Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. It was co-directed by an uncredited Cal Dalton; this cartoon has an identical plot to Avery's Porky's Duck Hunt, which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig is again cast as a hunter tracking a silly prey, more interested in driving his pursuer insane and less interested in escaping. Hare Hunt replaces the little black duck with a small white rabbit; the rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers," and Mel Blanc gave the character a voice and laugh much like those he would use for Woody Woodpecker.
The rabbit character was popular enough with audiences that the Termite Terrace staff decided to use it again. According to Friz Freleng and Dalton had decided to dress the duck in a rabbit suit; the white rabbit had a shapeless body. In characterization, he was "a rural buffoon", he was loud, zany with a guttural laugh. Blanc provided him with a hayseed voice; the rabbit comes back in Prest-O Change-O, directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house; the rabbit harasses them but is bested by the bigger of the two dogs. This version of the rabbit was cool and controlled, he was otherwise silent. The rabbit's third appearance comes in Hare-um Scare-um, directed again by Hardaway; this cartoon—the first in which he is depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one—is notable as the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the film, gave the character a name, he had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet.
In promotional material for the cartoon, including a surviving 1939 presskit, the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny. In his autobiography, Blanc claimed that another proposed name for the character was "Happy Rabbit." In the actual cartoons and publicity, the name "Happy" only seems to have been used in reference to Bugs Hardaway. In Hare-um Scare-um, a newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway." Animation historian David Gerstein disputes that "Happy Rabbit" was used as an official name, believing that the only usage of the term was from Mel Blanc himself in humorous and fanciful tales he told about the character's development in the 1970s and 1980s. Thorson had been approached by Tedd Pierce, head of the story department, asked to design a better rabbit; the decision was influenced by Thorson's experience in designing hares. He had designed Max Hare in Toby Tortoise Returns. For Hardaway, Thorson created the model sheet mentioned, with six different rabbit poses.
Thorson's model sheet is "a comic rendition of the stereotypical fuzzy bunny". He had a pear-shaped body with a protruding rear end, his face had large expressive eyes. He had an exaggerated long neck, gloved hands with three fingers, oversized feet, a "smart aleck" grin; the end result was influenced by Walt Disney Animation Studios' tendency to draw animals in the style of cute infants. He had an obvious Disney influence, but looked like an awkward merger of the lean and streamlined Max Hare from The Tortoise and the Hare, the round, soft bunnies from Little Hiawatha. In Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera, the rabbit first meets Elmer Fudd; this time the rabbit looks more like the present-day Bugs and with a similar face—but retaining the more primitive voice. Candid Camera's Elmer character design is different: taller and chubbier in the face than the modern model, though A
Big Bad Wolf
The Big Bad Wolf is a fictional wolf appearing in several cautionary tales that include some of Aesop's Fables and Grimms' Fairy Tales. Versions of this character have appeared in numerous works, has become a generic archetype of a menacing predatory antagonist. "Little Red Riding Hood", The Three Little Pigs, "The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids", the Russian tale Peter and the Wolf, reflect the theme of the ravening wolf and of the creature released unharmed from its belly, but the general theme of restoration is old. The dialog between the wolf and Little Red Riding Hood has its analogies to the Norse Þrymskviða from the Elder Edda. Instead, the gods sent him; when the giants note Thor's unladylike eyes and drinking, Loki explains them as Freyja not having slept, or eaten, or drunk, out of longing for the wedding. Folklorists and cultural anthropologists such as P. Saintyves and Edward Burnett Tylor saw Little Red Riding Hood in terms of solar myths and other occurring cycles, stating that the wolf represents the night swallowing the sun, the variations in which Little Red Riding Hood is cut out of the wolf's belly represent the dawn.
In this interpretation, there is a connection between the wolf of this tale and Skoll or Fenrir, the wolf in Norse mythology that will swallow the sun at Ragnarök. Ethologist Dr. Valerius Geist of the University of Calgary, Alberta wrote that the fable was based on genuine risk of wolf attacks at the time, he argues that wolves were in fact dangerous predators, fables served as a valid warning not to enter forests where wolves were known to live, to be on the look out for such. Both wolves and wilderness were treated as enemies of humanity in that time. "The Boy Who Cried Wolf" "The Dog and the Wolf" "The Priest and the Wolf" "The Wolf and the Crane" "The Wolf and the Lamb" "The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing" "Little Red Riding Hood" "The Wolf and the Fox" "The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids" The Three Little Pigs Peter and the Wolf The Big Bad Wolf known as Zeke Midas Wolf or Br'er Wolf, was a fictional character from Walt Disney's animation Three Little Pigs, directed by Burt Gillett and first released on May 27, 1933.
The Wolf's voice was provided by Billy Bletcher. As in the folktale, he was a threatening menace; the short introduced the Wolf's theme song, "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?", written by Frank Churchill. The Wolf is shown as wearing red pants, green suspenders and white gloves, he doesn't, wear a shirt or shoes. The Wolf has a taste for disguising himself, but both the audience and the Practical Pig can see through the Wolf's disguises. With each successive short, the Wolf exhibits a fondness for dressing in drag, "seduces" Fiddler and Fifer Pigs, who become clueless as to his disguises with each installment, with such disguises as "Goldilocks the Fairy Queen", Little Bo Peep, a mermaid. In an interview with Melvyn Bragg in the early 1980s, the British actor Laurence Olivier said that Disney's Big Bad Wolf was based on a detested American theatre director and producer called Jed Harris; when Olivier produced a film version of Shakespeare's Richard III, he based some of his mannerisms on Harris, his physical appearance on the wolf.
The short was so popular that Walt Disney produced several sequels, which featured the Wolf as the villain. The first of them was named after him: The Big Bad Wolf directed by Burt Gillett and first released on April 14, 1934. In the next of the sequels, Three Little Wolves, he was accompanied by three just-as-carnivorous sons; the fourth cartoon featuring the Three Little Pigs and the Wolf, The Practical Pig, was released in 1939. During World War II, a final, propaganda cartoon followed, produced by The National Film Board of Canada: The Thrifty Pig. At the end of each short, the Wolf is dealt with by the resourceful thinking and hard work of Practical Pig. In the original short, he falls into a boiling pot prepared by the pigs. In The Big Bad Wolf, Practical pours popcorn and hot coals down his pants. In the final two shorts, Practical invents an anti-Wolf contraption to deal with the Wolf, shown to be powerless against the marvels of modern technology; the "Wolf Pacifier" in Three Little Wolves entraps him, chases him with a buzz-saw, hits his head with rolling pins, kicks him in the butt with boots, punches his face with boxing gloves, tars and feathers him before firing him out of a cannon, all accomplished automatically and in time to a version of "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?".
In The Practical Pig, the wolf falls into Practical Pig's trap and is subjected to the Lie Detector, which washes his mouth out with soap, whacks his hands with rulers, or pulls down his pants and spanks him when he tells a lie. The machine's punishment grows harsher and harsher the more he lies, until it is spinning him around, smacking his head and scrubbing his bottom; when he tells the truth, he is shot away by a rocket stuck up his shirt. The Wolf made appearances in other Disney cartoons. In Old King Cole, with the exception of Practical and Fiddler, the Wolf is seen going to Old King Cole's castle with Little Red Riding Hood, on, he is seen dancing with Little Red Riding Hood while dancing along with the other Fairy Tale characters during the jamboree in Old King Cole's castle. In Toby Tortoise Returns and the Wolf made cameo appearances during the boxing match between Toby Tortoise and Ma
Warner Bros. Cartoons
Warner Bros. Cartoons, Inc. was the in-house division of Warner Bros. during the Golden Age of American animation. One of the most successful animation studios in American media history, it was responsible for the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoon short subjects; the characters featured in these cartoons, including Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig and Tweety, are among the most famous and recognizable characters in the world. Many of the creative staff members at the studio, including directors and animators such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Robert McKimson, Tex Avery, Robert Clampett, Arthur Davis and Frank Tashlin, are considered major figures in the art and history of traditional animation; the Warner animation division was founded in 1933 as Leon Schlesinger Productions, an independent company which produced the popular Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies animated short subjects for release by Warner Bros. Pictures. In 1944, Schlesinger sold the studio to Warner Bros.. Cartoons, Inc. until 1963.
Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies were subcontracted to Freleng's DePatie–Freleng Enterprises studio from 1964 until 1967. The Warner Bros. Cartoons studio re-opened in 1967 before shutting its doors for good two years later. A successor company, Warner Bros. Animation, was established in 1980. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising originated the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short subjects in 1930 and 1931, respectively. Both cartoon series were produced for Leon Schlesinger at the Harman-Ising Studio on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, with Warner Bros. Pictures releasing the films to theaters; the first Looney Tunes character was the Harman-Ising creation The Talk-ink Kid. Despite the fact that Bosko was popular among theater audiences, he could never match the popularity of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, or Max Fleischer's Betty Boop. In 1933, Harman and Ising parted company with Schlesinger over financial disputes, took Bosko with them to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as a result, Schlesinger set up his own studio on the Warner Bros. lot on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood.
The Schlesinger studio got off to a slow start, continuing their one-shot Merrie Melodies and introducing a Bosko replacement named Buddy into the Looney Tunes. Disney animator Tom Palmer was the studio's first senior director, but after the three cartoons he made were deemed to be of unacceptable quality and rejected by the studio, former Harman-Ising animator/musical composer Isadore "Friz" Freleng was called in to replace Palmer and rework his cartoons where every cartoon Freleng directed from 1933 to 1963 was created/directed by Freleng's musical compositions and methods; the studio formed the three-unit structure that it would retain throughout most of its history, with one of the units headed by Ben "Bugs" Hardaway, the other by Earl Duvall, replaced by Jack King a year later. In 1935, Freleng helmed the Merrie Melodies cartoon I Haven't Got a Hat, which introduced the character Porky Pig. Hardaway and King departed, a new arrival at Schlesinger's, Fred "Tex" Avery, took Freleng's creation and ran with it.
Avery directed a string of cartoons starring Porky Pig that established the character as the studio's first bona fide star. Schlesinger gradually moved the Merrie Melodies cartoons from black and white, to two-strip Technicolor in 1934, to full three-strip Technicolor in 1936; the Looney Tunes series would be produced in black-and-white for much longer, until 1943. Because of the limited spacing conditions in the Schlesinger building at 1351 N. Van Ness on the Warner Sunset lot and his unit – including animators Robert Clampett and Chuck Jones – were moved into a small building elsewhere on the Sunset lot, which Avery and his team affectionately dubbed "Termite Terrace." Although the Avery unit moved out of the building after a year, "Termite Terrace" became a metonym for the classic Warner Bros. animation department in general for years after the building was abandoned and torn down. During this period, four cartoons were outsourced to the Ub Iwerks studio. Schlesinger was so impressed by Clampett's work on these shorts that he opened a fourth unit for Clampett to head, although for tax reasons this was technically a separate studio headed by Schlesinger's brother-in-law, Ray Katz.
From 1936 until 1944, animation directors and animators such as Freleng, Clampett, Arthur Davis, Robert McKimson, Frank Tashlin worked at the studio. During this period, these creators introduced several of the most popular cartoon characters to date, including Daffy Duck, Elmer Fudd, Bugs Bunny, Tweety. Avery left the studio in 1941 following a series of disputes with Schlesinger, who shortly after closed the studio for two weeks due to a minor strike similar to the better known one that occurred at Disney. A few months earlier he banished all unionized employees in what became known in retrospect as the "Looney Tune Lockout". Clampett and several of his key animators took over Avery's former unit, while Clampett's own position as director of the Schlesinger-Katz studio was taken by Norm McCabe, a Clampett animator whose cartoons focused in war-related humor. By 1942, the