A false document is a technique, employed to create verisimilitude in a work of fiction, where an author tries to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected suspension of disbelief for a work of art by inventing and inserting documents that appear to be factual. The goal of a false document is to convince an audience. A forged document, the Zinoviev Letter, helped bring the downfall of the first Labour Government in Britain. Conspiracies within secret intelligence services have occurred more leading Harold Wilson to put in place rules to prevent in the 1960s phone tapping of members of Parliament, for example; the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination, was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. Artist JSG Boggs's life and work have been extensively explored by author and journalist Lawrence Weschler. Boggs drew currency with exceptional care and accuracy, but he only drew one side.
He attempted to buy things with the piece of paper upon which he has drawn the currency. His goal was to pass each bill for its face value in common transactions, he bought lunch and lodging in this manner, after the transactions were complete, his bills fetched many times their face value on the art market. Boggs did not make any money from the much larger art market value of his work, only from reselling the goods bought, the change and receipts and other such materials, he was arrested in many countries, there was much controversy surrounding his work. Orson Welles' F for Fake is a prime example of a film, both about falsification as well as having falsified moments within the film; the movie follows the exploits of a famous art forger, his biographer Clifford Irving, the subsequent fake autobiography of Howard Hughes that Irving tries to publish. The issues of veracity and forgery are explored in the film, while at the same time, Welles tricks the audience by incorporating fake bits of narrative alongside the documentary footage.
There is a long history of producers creating tie-in material to promote and merchandise movies and television shows. Tie-in materials as far-ranging as toys, lunch boxes, clothing and so on have all been created and in some cases generate as much or more revenue as the original programming. One big merchandising arena is publishing. In most cases such material is not considered canon within the show's mythology. With the rise of the Internet, in-canon online material has become more prominent. A number of hoaxes have involved false documents: Salamander Letter The Report From Iron Mountain The Oera Linda book The Hitler Diaries The Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau Pseudepigrapha are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past. Pseudepigraphy covers the false ascription of names of authors to works to authentic works that make no such claim within their text, thus a accepted but incorrect attribution of authorship may make a authentic text pseudepigraphical.
Assessing the actual writer of a text locates questions of pseudepigraphical attribution within the discipline of literary criticism. In biblical studies, the term pseudepigrapha refers to an assorted collection of Jewish religious works thought to be written c. 300 BC to 300 AD. They are distinguished by Protestants from the Deuterocanonical books or Apocrypha, the books that appear in extant copies of the Septuagint from the fourth century on, the Vulgate but not in the Hebrew Bible or in Protestant Bibles; the Catholic Church distinguishes only between the deuterocanonical and all the other books, that are called biblical apocrypha, a name, used for the pseudepigrapha in the Catholic usage. In addition, two books considered canonical in the Orthodox Tewahedo churches, viz. Book of Enoch and Book of Jubilees, are categorized as pseudepigrapha from the point of view of Chalcedonian Christianity. Alternate reality game A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century, an anti-Semitic forgery Donation of Constantine Epistolary novel False documentation Fictional book Forgery Frame tale Literary forgery Fictitious entry Questioned document examination Voynich manuscript Pseudepigrapha Curtis Peebles.
Watch the Skies: A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth, Smithsonian Institution, ISBN 1-56098-343-4
Khaypudyr Bay or Khaypudyrskaya Bay is a gulf in Russia, located in the Pechora Sea between the coastline of the Yugorsky Peninsula and the lowlands and marshy areas in the mainland south of Dolgiy Island. Its latitude is 68° 30' N and the longitude 59° 30' E; the Khaypudyr Bay has a smaller bay within a larger one. The length of the wider gulf is of 80 km, mouth width - 60 km; the smaller inner bay is considered to be the Khaypudyr Bay proper. Its shape is rounder and it is located on the southwest shore of the larger one, its length is 33 km and the width of its northward-facing mouth is 15 km. Its waters are shallow, with an average depth between 1 and 2 m only; the surface water temperature is 7C during summertime. The gulf freezes up during winter; the rivers Naulyakha, Talotayakha and Korotaikha flow into the Khaypudyr Bay. This bay and its surroundings belong to the Nenets Autonomous Okrug administrative region of the Russian Federation, an autonomous okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast. Location: Birdlife: Environmental pollution: Studies of bivalves in the Khaypudyr Bay
"Toulouse" is a song by Dutch DJ and music producer Nicky Romero. It was released as a single on December 19, 2011 in the Netherlands and January 2, 2012 in the United States through Spinnin' Records. A music video for the song was uploaded to YouTube on May 9, 2012; the music video for the song, lasting four minutes and twenty seconds, was unofficially uploaded on May 9, 2012 to YouTube. It was directed by Timo Pierre Rositzki and has garnered over 411 million views as of May 2019. On May 8th, 2017, the official video has been taken down due to a copyright claim by Spinnin' Records, the label for this song, however as of June 2017, the copyright claim was retracted. Throughout the video, several people can be seen wearing Guy Fawkes masks. Despite the fact that the song was named "Toulouse", the music video was filmed in Hamburg, including in the Reeperbahn district. Spinnin' — SP451Spinnin' — SP487
Copper chloride called cuprous chloride, is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. The substance is a white solid sparingly soluble in water, but soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Impure samples appear green due to the presence of copper chloride. Copper chloride was first prepared by Robert Boyle in the mid-seventeenth century from mercury chloride and copper metal: HgCl2 + 2 Cu → 2 CuCl + HgIn 1799, J. L. Proust characterized the two different chlorides of copper, he prepared CuCl by heating CuCl2 at red heat in the absence of air, causing it to lose half of its combined chlorine followed by removing residual CuCl2 by washing with water. An acidic solution of CuCl was used for analysis of carbon monoxide content in gases, for example in Hempel's gas apparatus; this application was significant during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when coal gas was used for heating and lighting. Copper chloride is produced industrially by the direct combination of copper metal and chlorine at 450–900 °C: 2 Cu + Cl 2 ⟶ 2 CuCl Copper chloride can be prepared by reducing copper chloride with sulfur dioxide, or with ascorbic acid that acts as a reducing sugar: 2 CuCl 2 + SO 2 + 2 H 2 O ⟶ 2 CuCl + H 2 SO 4 + 2 HCl 2 CuCl 2 + C 6 H 8 O 6 ⟶ 2 CuCl + 2 HCl + C 6 H 6 O 6 Many other reducing agents can be used.
Copper chloride has the cubic zincblende crystal structure at ambient conditions. Upon heating to 408 °C the structure changes to hexagonal. Several other crystalline forms of CuCl appear at high pressures. Copper chloride is a Lewis acid, classified as soft according to the Hard-Soft Acid-Base concept. Thus, it tends to form stable complexes with soft Lewis bases such as triphenylphosphine: CuCl + P3 → 4Although CuCl is insoluble in water, it dissolves in aqueous solutions containing suitable donor molecules, it forms complexes with halide ions, for example forming H3O+ CuCl2− with concentrated hydrochloric acid. It is attacked by CN−, S2O32−, NH3 to give the corresponding complexes. Solutions of CuCl in HCl or NH3 absorb carbon monoxide to form colourless complexes such as the chloride-bridged dimer 2; the same hydrochloric acid solutions react with acetylene gas to form. Ammoniacal solutions of CuCl react with acetylenes to form the explosive copper acetylide, Cu2C2. Complexes of CuCl with alkenes can be prepared by reduction of CuCl2 by sulfur dioxide in the presence of the alkene in alcohol solution.
Complexes with dienes such as 1,5-cyclooctadiene are stable: In absence of other ligands, its aqueous solutions are unstable with respect to disproportionation into Cu and CuCl2. In part for this reason samples in air assume a green coloration; the main use of copper chloride is as a precursor to the fungicide copper oxychloride. For this purpose aqueous copper chloride is generated by comproportionation and air-oxidized: Cu + CuCl2 → 2 CuCl 4 CuCl + O2 + 2 H2O → Cu3Cl24 + CuCl2Copper chloride catalyzes a variety of organic reactions, as discussed above, its affinity for carbon monoxide in the presence of aluminium chloride is exploited in the COPureSM process. CuCl is used with carbon monoxide, aluminium chloride, hydrogen chloride in the Gatterman-Koch reaction to form benzaldehydes. In the Sandmeyer reaction. Treatment of an arenediazonium salt with CuCl leads to an aryl chloride, for example: The reaction has wide scope and gives good yields. Early investigators observed that copper halides catalyse 1,4-addition of Grignard reagents to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones led to the development of organocuprate reagents that are used today in organic synthesis: This finding led to the development of organocopper chemistry.
For example, CuCl reacts with methyllithium to form "Gilman reagents" such as 2CuLi, which find extensive use in organic synthesis. Grignard reagents form similar organocopper compounds. Although other copper compounds such as copper iodide are now more used for these types of reactions, copper chloride is still recommended in some cases: Here, Bu indicates an n-butyl group. Without CuCl, the Grignard reagent alone gives a mixture of 1,2- and 1,4-addition products. Copper chloride is an intermediate formed from copper chloride in the Wacker process. CuCl is used as a catalyst in Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. National Pollutant Inventory – Copper and compounds fact sheet The COPureSM Process for purifying CO utilizing a copper chloride complex
In algebra, a purely inseparable extension of fields is an extension k ⊆ K of fields of characteristic p > 0 such that every element of K is a root of an equation of the form xq = a, with q a power of p and a in k. Purely inseparable extensions are sometimes called radicial extensions, which should not be confused with the similar-sounding but more general notion of radical extensions. An algebraic extension E ⊇ F is a purely inseparable extension if and only if for every α ∈ E ∖ F, the minimal polynomial of α over F is not a separable polynomial. If F is any field, the trivial extension F ⊇ F is purely inseparable. Several equivalent and more concrete definitions for the notion of a purely inseparable extension are known. If E ⊇ F is an algebraic extension with prime characteristic p the following are equivalent:1. E is purely inseparable over F. 2. For each element α ∈ E, there exists n ≥ 0 such that α p n ∈ F. 3. Each element of E has minimal polynomial over F of the form X p n − a for some integer n ≥ 0 and some element a ∈ F.
It follows from the above equivalent characterizations that if E = F such that α p n ∈ F for some integer n ≥ 0 E is purely inseparable over F. If F is an imperfect field of prime characteristic p, choose a ∈ F such that a is not a pth power in F, let f = Xp − a. F has no root in F, so if E is a splitting field for f over F, it is possible to choose α with f = 0. In particular, α p = a and by the property stated in the paragraph directly above, it follows that F ⊇ F is a non-trivial purely inseparable extension. Purely inseparable extensions do occur naturally. If K is a field of characteristic p, if V is an algebraic variety over K of dimension greater than zero, the function field K is a purely inseparable extension over the subfield Kp of pth powers; such extensions occur in the context of multiplication by p on an elliptic curve over a finite field of characteristic p. If the characteristic of a field F is a prime number p, if E ⊇ F is a purely inseparable extension if F ⊆ K ⊆ E, K is purely inseparable over F and E is purely inseparable over K. Furthermore, if is finite it is a power of p, the characteristic of F. Conversely, if F ⊆ K ⊆ E is such that F ⊆ K and K ⊆ E are purely inseparable extensions E is purely inseparable over F.
An algebraic extension E ⊇ F is an inseparable extension if and only if there is some α ∈ E ∖ F such that the minimal polynomial of α over F is not a separable polynomial. If E ⊇ F is a finite degree non-trivial inseparable extension is divisible by the characteristic of F. If E ⊇ F is a finite degree normal extension, if K = Fix ( Gal ( E
Triangle Park is a former American football stadium located in Dayton, Ohio. The stadium was home to the Dayton Triangles of the National Football League from 1920 to 1929, it had a capacity of 5,000 spectators. It was located at the confluence of the Great Miami Stillwater River. On October 3, 1920, it hosted the first NFL game against the Columbus Panhandles. Triangle Park is a park in the city of Dayton, known formally as Triangle Park Pavilion, located on 1700 Embury Park Rd. near Island Metro Park in North Dayton. Its features include both a baseball/softball diamond and a soccer field and it can be booked for special events. In 2019, in honor of the NFL's centennial season, the league announced that it would fund the construction of a new artificial turf field at Triangle Park, make donations to local youth football programs. Additionally, the Cincinnati Bengals planned to host a practice on the newly constructed field in late July or early August 2019. In response to the announcement by the NFL to build the new turf field, a Native American filed to halt and cease the project, to protect a supposed American Indian burial site located at Triangle Park.
Ohio's state historic preservation office stated that the burial sites are a "considerable distance" from the proposed site of the field. Despite this, the city of Dayton announced that they would postpone breaking ground on the new field until officials could be certain that the construction would not disturb anything of historical value. On May 15, 2019, the city of Dayton scrapped the field, after a survey discovered a "unique and sizable anomaly" in the area, "potentially prehistoric"; the training camp practice was held at Welcome Stadium instead. In July 2019, the NFL announced that it would construct the field at Dayton's Kettering Field park