Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab, founded by the Persian Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Iran from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and controlled the castle of Masyaf in Syria. The group killed members of the Persian, Seljuq, the word for murder in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics and it dates back at least as far as recorded history. The Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a warlord of the rival Assyrians, with whom the Israelites were at war. King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants, Joab assassinated Absalom, King Davids son, chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.
His student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later, the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Kes failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. Whilst many assassination were performed by an individual or a small group, the earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe and this account is, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes.
The myth of the Curse of King Zvonimir is based on the legend of his assassination, in 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, in Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has ever been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11,1812. In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, there have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated in September of 1935, the Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, was almost killed by his own officers, indias Father of the Nation, Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30,1948, by Nathuram Godse
Social and community attitudes to the exposing of various body parts and laws covering what is referred to as indecent exposure vary significantly in different countries. It ranges from outright prohibition to prohibition of exposure of certain parts, such as the genital area. Decency is generally judged by the standards of the local community, such standards may be based on religion, morality or tradition, or justified on the basis of necessary to public order. Non-sexual exhibitionism or public nudity is considered indecent exposure. If sexual acts are performed, with or without an element of nudity, this can be considered gross indecency, in some countries, exposure of the body in breach of community standards of modesty is considered to be public indecency. The legal and community standards of what states of undress constitute indecent exposure vary considerably and these standards have varied over time, making the definition of indecent exposure itself a complex topic. It is generally accepted, at least in countries, that a naked human body is not in itself indecent.
That principle is reflected, for example, in depiction of the form in art of various forms. Nevertheless, as a rule, it is commonly expected that people when they appear in a public place will be appropriately attired. Inappropriateness is viewed in context, so that, for example, what may be appropriate on a beach may be inappropriate in a street, school or workplace. Depending on the context, some degree of inappropriateness may be tolerated, and perhaps described as eccentric, what is an inappropriate state of dress in a particular context depends on the standards of decency of the community where an exposure takes place. There is generally no implication that the state of dress objected to is of a nature, and if such an allegation were to be made. The standards of decency have varied over time, during the Victorian era, for example, exposure of a womans legs and some extent the arms, was considered indecent in much of the Western world. Hair was sometimes required to be covered in formal occasions as in a form a hat or bonnet.
As late as the 1930s and to some extent, the 1950s, an adult woman exposing her navel was considered indecent in the West into the 1960s and 1970s, and even as late as the 1980s. Moral values changed drastically during the 1990s and 2000s, which in turn changed the criteria for indecent exposure, Public exposure of the navel has been accepted during the 1990s, such as in beaches, while in the 2000s, the buttocks can be exposed while wearing a thong. Today, however, it is common for women to go topless at public beaches throughout Europe and South America. The effects may be enhanced by intended or unintended publication of a photograph or film of the act, breastfeeding in public does not constitute indecent exposure under the laws of the United States, Australia, or Scotland
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal, but it may mean any non-procreative sexual activity. Originally, the sodomy, which is derived from the story of Sodom. Sodomy laws in many countries criminalized these behaviors, and other disfavored sexual activities as well, in the Western world, many of these laws have been overturned or are not routinely enforced. The term is derived from the Ecclesiastical Latin peccatum Sodomiticum or sin of Sodom, Genesis tells how God wished to destroy the sinful cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Two angels are invited by Lot to take refuge with his family for the night, the men of Sodom surround Lots house and demand that he bring the messengers out so that they may know them. Lot protests that the messengers are his guests and offers the Sodomites his virgin daughters instead, the angels strike the Sodomites blind, so that they wearied themselves to find the door. In current usage, the term is used in law.
Laws prohibiting sodomy were seen frequently in past Jewish and Islamic civilizations, but the term has little modern usage outside Africa, Islamic countries, and these laws in the United States have been challenged and have sometimes been found unconstitutional or been replaced with different legislation. Many cognates in other languages, such as French sodomie, Spanish sodomía, in modern German, the word Sodomie has no connotation of anal or oral sex and specifically refers to bestiality. The same goes for the Polish sodomia, the Norwegian word sodomi carries both senses. In Danish, sodomi is rendered as unnatural carnal knowledge with someone of the sex or with animals. In Arabic and Persian, the word for sodomy, لواط, is derived from the source as in Western culture. Its direct reference is to Lot and a literal interpretation of the word is the practice of Lot. The word sod, a noun or verb used as an insult, is derived from sodomite and it is a general-purpose insult term for anyone the speaker dislikes without specific reference to their sexual behaviour.
Sod is used as slang in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and is mildly offensive. However, in New Zealand and Australia it is not considered offensive at all, but only coarse, because it is assumed, even if incorrect. While religion and the law have had a role in the historical definition and punishment of sodomy, sodomitical texts present considerable opportunities for ambiguity. Sodomy is both a real occurrence and an imagined category, in the course of the eighteenth century, what is identifiable as sodomy often becomes identified with effeminacy, for example, or in opposition to a discourse of manliness
A murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, in most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, possibly a life sentence where permitted. In many common law jurisdictions, a convicted of murder will receive a mandatory life sentence. In jurisdictions where capital punishment exists, the penalty may be imposed for such an act, however. The modern English word murder descends from the Proto-Indo-European mrtró which meant to die, the Middle English mordre is a noun from Anglo-Saxon morðor and Old French murdre.
Middle English mordre is a verb from Anglo-Saxon myrdrian and the Middle English noun, the elements of common law murder are, Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total, with advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life. Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission. of a human – This element presents the issue of life begins. At common law, a fetus was not a human being, life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath. By another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder, the requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate, Murder necessarily required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill.
The courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice, all that was required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes malice. The four states of mind recognized as constituting malice are, Under state of mind, intent to kill, thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill. In other words, intent follows the bullet, examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and even vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. In Australian jurisdictions, the risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death. Under state of mind, the doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape. Importantly, the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, as with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is usually codified in some form of legislation
In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another. Bigamy is a crime in most western countries, and when it occurs in context often neither the first nor second spouse is aware of the other. In countries that have laws, consent from a prior spouse makes no difference to the legality of the second marriage. In 393, the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I issued an edict to extend the ban on polygamy to Jewish communities. In 1000, Rabbi Gershom ben Judah ruled polygamy inadmissible within Ashkenazi Jewish communities, as a consequence, nominal Christian male bigamists were subjected to unprecedented harsh punishments, such as execution, galley servitude and prolonged imprisonment. McDougall argues that female bigamists were not as harshly punished due to womens perceived absence of moral agency, in ancient China, bigamy was a punishable offence, however and mistresses were tolerated as long as they were not acquired through an official marriage. A man, at any time, could only be married to one woman.
Issue with the wife enjoyed preference in inheritance and social status, most western countries do not recognize polygamous marriages, and consider bigamy a crime. Several countries prohibit people from living a polygamous lifestyle and this is the case in some states of the United States where the criminalization of a polygamous lifestyle originated as anti-Mormon laws, although they are rarely enforced. In diplomatic law, consular spouses from polygamous countries are exempt from a general prohibition on polygamy in host countries. In some such countries, only one spouse of a polygamous diplomat may be accredited, Illegal under the Criminal Code, sect 290. Up to 2 years of imprisonment, and up to 3 years for bigamy with soldiers, Legal if first wife consents Eritrea, Illegal. All the 27 countries of the European Union, iceland, Illegal according to the Icelandic Act on Marriage No. Up to 7 years of imprisonment, Republic of Ireland, Bigamy is a statutory offence. It is committed by a person who, being married to another person, the offence is created by section 57 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861.
This section replaces section 26 of the Act 10 Geo,4 c.34 for the Republic of Ireland. Iran, Legal with consent of first wife, rarely practiced, Legal only for Muslims but very rarely practiced. Up to ten years of imprisonment for others except in the state of Goa for Hindus due to its own civil code, considered from each tribe, theres legal and another said illegal
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviours of an offensive nature. It is commonly understood as behaviour that disturbs or upsets, in the legal sense, it is behaviour that appears to be disturbing or threatening. Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances, typically in the workplace, a hypothesis about the origin of the verb harasser is harace/harache, which was used in the 14th century in expressions like courre à la harache and prendre aucun par la harache. This dictionary suggests a relation of haro/hare with the old lower franconian *hara, the origin itself of harass is thought to be the old Scandinavian hârr with the Romanic suffix –as, which meant grey or dimmish horsehair. Controversial is the relation to the Arabic word for horse whose roman transliteration is faras. In those dictionaries the relationship with harassment were an interpretation of the hare as to urge/set a dog on, despite the fact that it should indicate a shout to come. The American Heritage Dictionary prudently indicates this origin only as possible, electronic harassment is the unproven belief of the use of electromagnetic waves to harass a victim.
Psychologists have identified evidence of auditory hallucinations, delusional disorders, or other disorders in online communities supporting those who claim to be targeted. Landlord harassment is the creation, by a landlord or his agents. Such a strategy is often sought because it avoids costly legal expenses, landlord harassment carries specific legal penalties in some jurisdictions, but enforcement can be very difficult or even impossible in many circumstances. It is a form of cyber bullying, Harassment directs multiple repeating obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing, for example, on the targets race, nationality, or sexual orientation. This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties. This may include stealing photos of the victim and their families, doctoring these photos in offensive ways, power harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a political nature, often occurring in the environment of a workplace including hospitals and universities.
It includes a range of behavior from mild irritation and annoyances to serious abuses which can even involve forced activity beyond the boundaries of the job description, power harassment is considered a form of illegal discrimination and is a form of political and psychological abuse, and bullying. This is humiliating, intimidating or abusive behaviour which is difficult to detect. This characteristically lowers a person’s self-esteem or causes one torment and this can take the form of verbal comments, engineered episodes of intimidation, aggressive actions or repeated gestures. Falling into this category is workplace harassment by individuals or groups mobbing, community-based psychological harassment, meanwhile, is stalking by a group against an individual using repeated distractions that the individual is sensitized to. The targeting of an individual because of their race or ethnicity, the harassment may include words and actions that are specifically designed to make the target feel degraded due to their race or ethnicity
A misdemeanor or misdemeanour is any lesser criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punished less severely than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions, many misdemeanors are punished with monetary fines. In the United States, the government generally considers a crime punishable with incarceration for one year or less to be a misdemeanor. All other crimes are considered felonies, many states employ this distinction. A misdemeanor is considered a crime of low seriousness, and a one of high seriousness. A principle of the rationale for the degree of punishment meted out is that the punishment should fit the crime, one standard for measurement is the degree to which a crime affects others or society. Measurements of the degree of seriousness of a crime have been developed, the distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has been abolished by several common law jurisdictions. The Republic of Ireland, a member of the Commonwealth. In the United States of America, the first time a person commits certain crimes, such as assault, it is a misdemeanor.
In some jurisdictions, those who are convicted of a misdemeanor are known as misdemeanants, jurisdictions such as Massachusetts are a notable exception where the maximum punishment of some misdemeanors is up to 2.5 years. People who are convicted of misdemeanors are punished with probation, community service, short jail term, or part-time imprisonment. Misdemeanors usually do not result in the loss of civil rights, such effects are known as the collateral consequences of criminal charges. This is more common when the misdemeanor is related to the privilege in question, the definition of a high crime is left to the judgment of Congress. In Singapore, misdemeanors generally are sentenced to months of jail sentence, depending on the jurisdiction, several classes of misdemeanors may exist, the forms of punishment can vary widely between those classes. For example, the federal and state governments in the United States divide misdemeanors into several classes, with certain classes punishable by jail time and others carrying only a fine.
In New York law, a Class A Misdemeanor carries a sentence of one year of imprisonment. In the United States, when a statute does not specify the class, legislators usually enact such laws when they wish to impose penalties that fall outside the framework specified by each class. First-time cannabis possession is a misdemeanor in Virginia punishable by up to 30 days in jail rather than the normal fines
Solicitation is the act of offering, or attempting to purchase, goods or services. Legal status may be specific to the time or place where occurs, in the United States, the term solicitation implies some part of commercial element, consideration, or payment. Unlike conspiracy, there is no overt step necessary for solicitation, one person can be a defendant and it is not necessary that the person commit the crime, nor is it necessary that the person solicited be willing or able to commit the crime. For example, if Alice commands Bob to assault Charlie, and Alice intends for Bob to assault Charlie, however, if Alice commands Bob to assault Charlie without intending that a crime be committed, there is no solicitation. Solicitation is subject to the doctrine of merger, which applies in situations where the person solicited commits the crime, city ordinances vary but may require a soliciting sign to be of a certain dimension to qualify for legal protection. Some signs are designed to clearly cite the city ordinance and describe the consequences to the solicitor, although certainly not required, such methods may be more effective at deterring unwanted solicitation
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud itself can be a wrong, a criminal wrong or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, a hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a wrong, fraud is a tort. Proving fraud in a court of law is said to be difficult. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in an action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction, in common law jurisdictions, as a criminal offence, fraud takes many different forms, some general and some specific to particular categories of victims or misconduct. The elements of fraud as a crime similarly vary, section 380 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for fraud in Canada,380.
In addition to the penalties outlined above, the court can issue a prohibition order under s.380.2. It can make an order under s.380.3. The Canadian courts have held that the offence consists of two elements, A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. The Supreme Court of Canada has held that deprivation is satisfied on proof of detriment, prejudice or risk of prejudice, it is not essential that there be actual loss. Deprivation of confidential information, in the nature of a secret or copyrighted material that has commercial value, has been held to fall within the scope of the offence. The BBC World Service reported in 2012 that the value lost through fraud in the UK was £66 billion a year. According to a review by the UK anti-fraud charity Fraud Advisory Panel business fraud accounted for £144bn, the FAP has been particularly critical of the support available from the police to victims of fraud in the UK outside of London. In July 2016 it was reported that fraudulent activity levels in the UK increased in the 10 years to 2016 from £52 billion to £193bn.
This figure would be an estimate, since as the former commissioner of the City of London Police, Adrian Leppard, has said. Donald Toon, director of the NCAs economic crime command, stated in July 2016, Fraud affects one in ten people in the UK
Bribery is the act of giving money, goods or other forms of recompense to a recipient in exchange for an alteration of their behavior that the recipient would otherwise not alter. Gifts of money or other items of value which are available to everyone on an equivalent basis. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a rebate and is not bribery. Giving the rebate to influence them to look favorably on the utilitys rate increase applications, however. The bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipients conduct, in economics, the bribe has been described as rent. Bribery in bureaucracy has been viewed as a reason for the higher cost of production of goods, one must be careful of differing social and cultural norms when examining bribery. Expectations of when a transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. Tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies, in some Spanish-speaking countries, bribes are referred to as mordida. In Arab countries, bribes may be called baksheesh or shay, french-speaking countries often use the expressions dessous-de-table, pot-de-vin, or commission occulte.
While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative connotation, the expression dessous-de-table can be understood as a commonly accepted business practice. In German, the term is Schmiergeld. The forms that bribery take are numerous, for example, a motorist might bribe a police officer not to issue a ticket for speeding, a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections might bribe a functionary for faster service. Bribery may take the form of a commission, a profit made by an agent, in the course of his employment. Euphemisms abound for this Bribers and recipients of bribery are likewise numerous although bribers have one common denominator, Bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion. The reason for this dissociation is to make the steps of a corrupt deal already an offence and, thus. Besides, such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be difficult to prove that two parties have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal. A grey area may exist when payments to smooth transactions are made, in some countries, this practice is the norm, often resulting from a developing nation not having the tax structure to pay civil servants an adequate salary.
Nevertheless, most economists regard bribery as a bad thing because it encourages rent seeking behaviour, a state where bribery has become a way of life is a kleptocracy
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to deprive the person of that property. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions, under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment. The word rob came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, among the types of robbery are armed robbery involving use of a weapon and aggravated robbery involving use of a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a place such as a sidewalk, street. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force, extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes blagging or stick-up, and steaming, in Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.
If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a minimum sentence of five years for the first offence. Robbery is an offence in the Republic of Ireland. Robbery is an offence in England and Wales. Aggravated theft Robbery is the offence of aggravated theft. Aggravated robbery There are no offences of aggravated robbery and this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was actually owed and his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See R v Skivington 1 QB166,2 WLR655,131 JP265,111 SJ72,1 All ER483,51 Cr App R167, CA. It was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, and R v Gomez, should apply, the threat or use of force must take place immediately before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery, the words or immediately after that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8.
The book Archbold said that the facts in R v Harman and it was held in R v Dawson and James that force is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury. This approach was confirmed in R v Clouden and Corcoran v Anderton, stealing may involve a young child who is not aware that taking other persons property is not in order