Falsetto is the vocal register occupying the frequency range just above the modal voice register and overlapping with it by one octave. It is produced in whole or in part. Cited in the context of singing, falsetto, a characteristic of phonation by both sexes, is one of four main spoken vocal registers recognized by speech pathology; the term falsetto is most used in the context of singing to refer to a type of vocal phonation that enables the singer to sing notes beyond the vocal range of the normal or modal voice. The typical tone of falsetto register or M2, has a characteristic breathy and flute-like sound free of overtones—which is more limited than its modal counterpart in both dynamic variation and tone quality. However, William Vennard points out that while most untrained people can sound comparatively "breathy" or "hooty" when using falsetto production, there are in rarer cases individuals who have developed a much stronger falsetto sound production which has more "ring" to it; the modal voice, or modal register, falsetto register differ in the action of the vocal cords.
Production of the normal voice involves vibration of the entire vocal cord, with the glottis opening first at the bottom and at the top. Production of falsetto, on the other hand, vibrates only the ligamentous edges of the vocal folds while leaving each fold's body relaxed. Transition from modal voice to falsetto occurs when each vocal cord's main body, or vocalis muscle, enabling the cricothyroid muscles to stretch the vocal ligaments. William Vennard describes this process as follows: With the vocalis muscles relaxed it is possible for the cricothyroids to place great longitudinal tension upon the vocal ligaments; the tension can be increased in order to raise the pitch after the maximum length of the cords has been reached. This makes the vocal folds thin so; the vocalis muscles fall to the sides of the larynx and the vibration take place entirely in the ligaments. In the modal register, the vocal folds are seen to contact with each other during each vibration, closing the gap between them if just for a short time.
This closure cuts off the escaping air. When the air pressure in the trachea rises as a result of this closure, the folds are blown apart, while the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages remain in apposition; this creates an oval gap between the folds and some air escapes, lowering the pressure inside the trachea. Rhythmic repetition of this movement creates the note. In falsetto, the vocal folds are seen to be blown apart and in untrained falsetto singers a permanent oval orifice is left in the middle between the edges of the two folds through which a certain volume of air escapes continuously as long as the register is engaged. In skilled countertenors, the mucous membrane of the vocal folds contact with each other during each vibration cycle; the arytenoid cartilages are held in firm apposition in this voice register also. The length or size of the oval orifice or separation between the folds can vary, but it is known to get bigger as the pressure of air pushed out is increased; the folds are made up of fatty tissue.
The folds are covered on the surface by laryngeal mucous membrane, supported deeper down underneath by the innermost fibres of the thyroarytenoid muscle. In falsetto the extreme membranous edges, i.e. the edges furthest away from the middle of the gap between the folds, appear to be the only parts vibrating. The mass corresponding to the innermost part of the thyro-arytenoid muscle remains still and motionless; some singers feel a sense of muscular relief when they change from the modal register to the falsetto register. Research has revealed that not all speakers and singers produce falsetto in the same way; some speakers and singers leave the cartilaginous portion of the glottis open, only the front two-thirds of the vocal ligaments enter the vibration. The resulting sound, typical of many adolescents, may be pure and flutelike, but is soft and anemic in quality. In others, the full length of the glottis closes in each cycle. In still others, a phenomenon known as damping appears, with the amount of glottal opening becoming less and less as the pitch rises, until only a tiny slit appears on the highest pitches.
The mutational chink type of falsetto is considered inefficient and weak, but there is little information available about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the other two types. Both sexes are physically capable of phonating in the falsetto register. Prior to research done by scientists in the 1950s and 1960s, it was believed that only men were able to produce falsetto. One possible explanation for this failure to recognize the female falsetto sooner is that when men phonate in the falsetto register there is a much more pronounced change in timbre and dynamic level between the modal and falsetto registers than there is in female voices; this is due in part to the difference in the length and mass of the vocal folds and to the difference in frequency ranges. However, motion picture and video studies of laryngeal action prove that women can and do produce falsetto, electromyographic studies by several leading speech pathologists and vocal pedagogists provide further confirmation. Furthermore, the existence of a great many female yodelers throughout history demonstrates the female falsetto.
While scientific evidence has proven that women have a falsetto regist
Burl Ives Sings Little White Duck and Other Children’s Favorites is a 12-inch LP album of folk songs for children recorded by Burl Ives for Columbia Records between 1949 and 1951. The label, in 1950, crafted a "shared" 10-inch children's LP. On side one, Hollywood actor Victor Jory narrated Tubby the Tuba, while side two featured Burl Ives performing seven tunes under the title Animal Fair: Songs for Children; the catalog number was JL 8103. One year earlier, Animal Fair: Songs for Children had been presented separately on a two-disc 78-rpm set, using as a catalog number MJV 59. In 1956, another Ives endeavor for children appeared, containing "The Little White Duck" and six other ditties. Part of Columbia's brief House Party Series of 10-inch LPs, the album was called Children's Favorites, affixed with the catalog number CL 2570. Next, a new collection, expanded to 12 inches, combining these 14 Ives selections and 2 additional ones and entitled Burl Ives Sings Songs for All Ages, was issued by Columbia in 1957, bearing CL 980 as the catalog number.
Two years this album was shortened by two tracks, christened with its final title, Burl Ives Sings Little White Duck and Other Children's Favorites, reassigned to Columbia's budget label, Harmony Records, which employed HL 9507 as the catalog number. Being the customary practice in the vinyl marketplace of the 60s, this monaural platter wound up electronically enhanced for stereo, circa 1963, given the modified catalog number HS 14507. Columbia, in 1974, reissued the LP, again in simulated stereo, with the catalog number C 33183. At the same time, the label transferred the album to cassette tape, affixing the catalog number CT 33183. On November 22, 1988, Columbia unveiled the album in CD format, which upgraded the sound quality to digital stereo. Distribution of the disc was taken over by Sony Wonder on October 3, 1995; the 1974 LP cover retained for the CD, was designed by Ed Lee and Eloise Smith, with illustrations by Reynolds Ruffin. The CD is out of print, but it still can be purchased through online music sellers.
Moreover, all the album tracks are now available via MP3 downloading. "The Little White Duck" – 2:31 "The Little Engine That Could" – 2:42 "Mr. Froggie Went A-Courtin'" – 3:06 "The Donut Song" – 2:59 "Two Little Owls" – 1:50 "Fooba Wooba John" – 1:09 "The Grey Goose" – 3:03 "The Whale" – 1:33 "Buckeye Jim" – 1:34 "The Sow Took the Measles" – 1:50 "The Goat and the Train" – 1:21 "Mr. Rabbit" – 1:38 "The Tailor and the Mouse" – 1:16 "Mother Goose Songs" – 6:01
George Granville Gibson is a retired British Anglican priest and convicted sex offender. He was the Archdeacon of Auckland in the Diocese of Durham from 1993 to 2001. Gibson was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School and Barnsley College, he was a Mining Surveyor for the NCB from 1952 to 1962. He studied for ordination at Ripon College Cuddesdon. Gibson was a curate at St Paul, Cullercoats from 1971 to 1973. After that he was Team Vicar of Cramlington from 1973 to 1977, he was Interim Priest at St James the Great, Darlington from 2012 to 2014. Gibson was arrested in April 2014 in relation to historic sexual offences. In August 2016, he was found guilty of two counts of indecent assault, "not guilty of one serious sexual offence and four indecent assault charges", he had assaulted two men, who were 18 and 26 at the time of the offences, in the 1970s and 1980s when he was vicar at St Claire's Church, Newton Aycliffe. In October 2016, he was given a 12-month prison sentence. In 2018, he was further charged with three counts of indecent assault relating to a teenager in the 1970s and a young clergyman in the 1980s.
Sancho Ordóñez, was a count who lived in the 11th-century. His father was Ordoño Bermúdez, an illegitimate son of King Bermudo II of León, his mother was Fronilde Peláez a member of the high nobility as the daughter of Count Pelayo Rodríguez and his wife Gotina Fernández de Cea, daughter of Count Fernando Bermúdez de Cea and sister of Jimena, the mother of King Sancho Garcés III the Great, of Justa Fernández, married to Count Flaín Muñoz, he was named count between 1059 and 1061 when he appears with the title in several family transactions and royal charters, such as one dated 1061 at the Monastery of Samos when he confirms as Sanctius proles Ordonii comes. Count Sancho was a member of the Curia regis of his cousins King Fernando I and Sancha of León and in 1059 confirmed a private transaction between these monarchs and Fronilde Ovéquiz, he appears in charters issued by King Alfonso VI, including one dated 1071 when he confirms as Sancio Ordoniz comes a donation made by the king to Velasco Vela, in 1073 at the Monastery of Samos when the king named him one of the judges entrusted with settling a dispute between the abbot of the monastery and Ero Peláez.
In 1077, Count Sancho donated the properties in Villarín de Campos that he had inherited from his grandfather, count Pelayo Rodríguez, to the Cathedral of León. Before 1082, Count Sancho married Onneca Ovéquiz, daughter of Count Oveco Bermúdez and his wife Elvira Suárez, sister of counts Bermudo and Rodrigo Ovéquiz; the offspring of this marriage were: Oveco Sánchez, married Elvo Álvarez before 1085, with issue. One of their sons, Melendo Núñez, was the father of Nuño Meléndez, the first husband of Queen Urraca López de Haro, their firstborn, Count Alfonso Núñez, was the father of Teresa Alfonso, wife of Egas Moniz, the tutor of King Afonso I of Portugal, they were the parents of Sancho Núñez who married Infanta Sancha Henriques, daughter of Henry, Count of Portugal. Her filiation is attested in a charter dated January 26, 1108 when she declares herself the daughter of Count Sancho and granddaughter of Ordoño Bermudez, makes a donation of some of her estates in Sarria and Asma, confirmed by King Alfonso VI and by several bishops
Renewable energy sources are important for Azerbaijan, however there is lack of practicing renewable energy except hydro energy. One of the alternative sources of energy is the wind energy, it is best profitable due to the cost, ecological cleanness and its renewable properties compared to other alternative energy sources. Azerbaijan is one of those countries where windmills could be perfect fit due to geographical location. In particular, the Absheron peninsula, coastline of Caspian Sea and islands in the northwestern part of Caspian Sea, the Ganja-Dashkesan zone in the west of Azerbaijan and the Sharur-Julfa area of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are favorable areas. In 1999, Japan's Tomen Company, together with the Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Power Engineering and Energy, installed two towers with 30 and 40 meters in Absheron, average annual wind speed was determined to be 7.9-8.1 m/sec and feasibility study about the installation of windmills with a total capacity of 30 MWt had been prepared in Qobustan region.
Solar panel is one of the most favorable sources in the world, it is promising for sunny areas. The natural climate of Azerbaijan provides extensive opportunities to increase the production of electricity and thermal energy by utilizing solar energy. Thus, the amount of sunny hours is 2400–3200 hours in Azerbaijan during the year, this means that the amount of solar rays falling on the territory of Azerbaijan is superior compared other countries that can be estimated as one of the efficiency criteria for attracting investments in the use of solar energy; the development of utilization of solar energy can solve energy problems in several regions of Azerbaijan. From ecological point of view, water is the purest energy in the world; the production of electricity from this source is being increased since 1990. The specific weight of production power of hydroelectric power plants is 17.8 percent in the total energy system of the Republic. There are wide opportunities for mastering hydropower resources that have not been used so far in the country.
As a result of the construction of hydroelectric power plants, floodwater is regulated, electricity is ecologically produced, new irrigation systems are created. The rivers in the territory of Azerbaijan are favorable for small hydropower stations. There was no connection between Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic's energy system and the main energy system of the Republic, why medium and micro hydroelectric power stations need to be set up in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Biomass is an alternative source of energy. There are following sources of biomass in Azerbaijan: industrial waste which has ability to burn, wastes from forestry and wood processing field, agricultural crops and organic compounding wastes, wastes of household and communal areas, wastes from polluted areas by oil and oil products. According to the research, most of the production of waste is composed of biomass products in all sectors of the economy, it is possible to obtain gas and solid biomass which are used in electricity generation from those biomass substances.
Thus, more than 2.0 million tonnes of solid and industrial wastes were thrown to neutralization zones every year in Azerbaijan. Solid and industrial wastes processing can eliminate the difficulties of warming up of public buildings in Baku and major industrial cities of the country; the underground temperature is used in many countries in industry, agriculture and communal fields and in medicine. The territory of Azerbaijan is rich of thermal waters, they cover large areas such as the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, the Absheron peninsula, the Talysh mountain-slope zone, the Kura basin and territories around the Caspian Sea and Guba region. It is possible to cover part of thermal energy needs in household and other areas by utilizing thermal waters in the mentioned areas. There is high potential of alternative energy sources in Azerbaijan, perspectives on the creation of wind and small hydroelectric power stations: Thermal and Hydroelectric power stations are more important to cover Azerbaijan's energy needs.
Statistical data shows that this amount changes between 0.01-0.05 percent on alternative and renewable energy sources. Main article: State Agency on Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources The State Agency on Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources of the Republic of Azerbaijan was established by the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan dated February 1, 2013, for improving the management system in the field of alternative and renewable energy; the Charter of the State Agency on Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources was approved by the Decree of the Head of State on February 1, 2013. According to the Regulation, the Agency is the central executive body that carries out state policy and its regulation and efficient use of it in the field of alternative and renewable energy in Azerbaijan, effective organization of activities on alternative and renewable energy sources, coordination of activities in this field and state control; the Agency participates in the formation of uniform state policy in the relevant area, provides for carrying out of this policy as well as the development of alternative and renewable energy, the creation of infrastructure, the application of alternative and renewable energy in the economy and social sectors, energy production on State Agency on Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources, to carry out of events related to energy consumption and energy efficiency.
In 2014, 1480.0 million kWh of electricity was generated in the country by all renewable energy sources. This, according to estimated calculations, along with saving of 298,5 thousand tons of mazut or 429.2 million m3 of natural gas, prevents spreading to the at
SkyBitz is an American company based in Herndon, that provides machine to machine solutions for the tracking and management of mobile assets. Parent company Telular Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of Avista Capital Partners, an American private equity firm. SkyBitz is a remote asset tracking and information management service provider, specializing in real-time decision-making tools for companies with unpowered assets such as tractor-trailers, intermodal containers, rail cars, power generators, heavy equipment, other assets; the company's asset tracking solutions are delivered using a software as a service model to commercial, transportation and public safety customers, including sensitive shipment haulers of Arms and Explosives cargos. With the acquisition of commercial telematics companies Reltima and GPS North America in 2015, SkyBitz entered the local fleet management market. SkyBitz was founded in 1992 in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area under the name Eagle Eye Technologies, Inc. and used both DARPA and the United States Air Force SBIR funding to develop its patented Global Locating System.
GLS technology differs from traditional Global Positioning System technology in that positioning calculations are done centrally and automatically at an operations center instead of locally on each device. In early 2002, the company—now called SkyBitz—announced the commercial launch of its GLS technology. By 2007 SkyBitz had acquired more than 400 customers in North America and added two new products to its existing suite, it was ranked in Inc. 5000 for the first time that year, as well as in numerous Fast 500 programs from Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited. By 2012 SkyBitz had captured the interest of Telular Corporation, a global leader in connecting businesses and machines over wireless networks; the acquisition of SkyBitz by Telular for a total of $42 million was announced in December 2012. Less than a year private equity firm Avista Capital Partners completed its acquisition of Telular for a 31 percent premium to its stock market price. SkyBitz operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Telular and remains headquartered in the Washington, D.
C. metropolitan area. Today SkyBitz continues to utilize its GLS technology and offers a variety of other asset tracking solutions based on a portfolio of GPS units and sensors, they operate over many communications networks, ranging from Low Earth orbit and geostationary satellite systems to GSM/GPRS networks. In 2014 SkyBitz won two awards from M2M Evolution Magazine for its GPS-operating asset management product—the M2M Product of the Year Award for Exceptional Innovation and the M2M Evolution Asset Tracking Award. In 2014 SkyBitz began offering a subscription service, which amortizes all of the costs into one monthly recurring fee. Traditionally technology products and services are sold through the combination of an initial capital expense for the hardware and a monthly service fee; the SkyBitz subscription includes the hardware costs in a monthly subscription. In 1992 Matthew Schor started the company as Eagle Eye Location Services Corp; the firm was awarded its first SBIR contract from DARPA in July 1994 titled "Miniature, Affordable Satellite Beacon".
In November 1995 the company changed its name to Eagle Eye Technologies, Inc. and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency awarded Eagle Eye a $500K contract to miniaturize the RF front end of the satellite tag transceiver. In 1997 the Virginia Center for Innovative Technology provided a research grant that allowed Eagle Eye to work with professor Warren Stutzman at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia to further develop their technology. In 1998 the United States Air Force awarded Eagle Eye the first of another two contracts to miniaturize the tracking system and reduce its power consumption; the company's chief scientist, Mark Sullivan, as well as the vice president, James Kilfeather, received patents on technologies used by SkyBitz. The company's chief technical officer, Jay Brosius, led the design effort for the communications protocol and architecture. In October 1998 World Wireless Communications of Utah announced an agreement to produce a prototype mobile terminal employing Global Locating System for asset location.
Eagle Eye was able to demonstrate the GLS technology via the MSAT geostationary satellite built by Hughes Space and Electronics. In July 2000, Zero Gravity Venture Partners invested in a Series A venture capital round. Chris Farmer joined SkyBitz as Vice President, Business Development, after managing the firm's fund raising efforts. Raising capital at this time could not have been more fortuitous for SkyBitz, because the unforeseen events of 9/11 made raising capital more difficult, it took an extended year to close the next round of financing and bring the product and service to market. The dedication of the entire team culminated in the pre-production manufacturing of the product with Solectron, development of the web-based service, field testing with early key accounts. Landstar had found that SkyBitz met their requirements; these efforts attracted new investors to set the stage for market introduction in 2002. In early 2002, the company hired Michael Fitzgerald as CEO. Michael Fitzgerald had a stellar career in the trucking industry including one of the original management team at Federal Express.
The company subsequently announced the launch of the GLS technology. In November 2002, AIG Highstar Capital and Cordova Ventures led an $18 million Series B investment. Helen Bentley Delich via Helen Bentley & Associates received $34,000 to assist and advise SkyBitz as it commercially launched into the trucking and transportation industry. Landstar System, one of the