Isidore Singer was an editor of The Jewish Encyclopedia and founder of the American League for the Rights of Man. Singer was born in 1859 in Moravia, in the Austrian Empire, he studied at the University of Vienna and the Humboldt University of Berlin, receiving his Ph. D. in 1884. After editing the Allgemeine oesterreichische Literaturzeitung from 1885 to 1886, he became literary secretary to the French ambassador in Vienna. From 1887, he worked in Paris in the press bureau of the French foreign office and was active in the campaign on behalf of Alfred Dreyfus. In 1893 he founded a short-lived biweekly called La Vraie Parole as a foil to the anti-Jewish La Libre Parole. Singer moved to New York City in 1895 where he learned English and taught French, raising the money for the Jewish Encyclopedia he had envisioned. Over the course of his career, Singer proposed many projects which never won backing, including a multi-million-dollar loan to aid the Jews of Eastern Europe, a Jewish university open to students of any background, various encyclopedias about secular topics, a 25-volume publication series of Hebrew classics.
By 1911, the date of this latter proposal, "neither the Publication Society nor any body of respectable scholars would work with him," according to encyclopedist Cyrus Adler. Singer held liberal views which at times proved unpopular, he endorsed Jesus and the Christian New Testament and proposed a Hebrew translation. He founded the Amos Society to promote understanding among followers of monotheistic religions, his 1897 prospectus for the encyclopedia project called for harmony between religions. We have neither the desire to impose it on you. Make your peace with your God and your conscience as best you can," and, that said, let us cease to erect new synagogues, let us close our seminaries of theology, let us disintegrate, little by little, our ancient communal institutions. Due to the controversy of Singer's outlooks, his publisher, Funk & Wagnalls, agreed to the encyclopedia project only after divesting Singer of editorial control and appointing a board of prestigious Jewish scholars, including rabbis.
The Jewish Encyclopedia Funk & Wagnalls, 1901–1906 Russia at the Bar of the American People: A Memoir of Kinship. Funk & Wagnalls, 1904; the German Classics, with Kuno Francke: twenty volumes. A Religion of Truth and Peace: A Challenge to Church and Synagogue to Lead in the Realization of the Social and Peace Gospel of the Hebrew Prophets. Amos Society: 1924. Schwartz, S. R; the Emergence of Jewish Scholarship in America: The Publication of the Jewish Encyclopedia. Monographs of the Hebrew Union College, Number 13. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1991. ISBN 0878204121
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife Maria Theresa executed the real powers of those positions. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis traded the duchy to the ex-Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession in November 1738; the duchy and the ducal title to Lorraine and Bar passed to King Louis XV of France upon Leszczynski's death in 1766, though Francis and his successors retained the right to style themselves as dukes of Lorraine and Bar. Francis was born in Nancy, the oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, his wife Princess Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, he was connected with the Habsburgs through his grandmother Eleonore, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III. He was close to his brother Charles and sister Anne Charlotte. Emperor Charles VI favoured the family, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction.
He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis' older brother Leopold Clement. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, a real affection arose between them. At the age of 15, when he was brought to Vienna, he was established in the Silesian Duchy of Teschen, mediatised and granted to his father by the emperor in 1722. Francis succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry by John Theophilus Desaguliers at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" of Hungary in 1732.
He was not excited about this position. In June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg; when the War of the Polish Succession broke out in 1733, France used it as an opportunity to seize Lorraine, since France's prime minister, Cardinal Fleury, was concerned that, as a Habsburg possession, it would bring Austrian power too close to France. A preliminary peace was concluded in October 1735 and ratified in the Treaty of Vienna in November 1738. Under its terms, Stanisław I, the father-in-law of King Louis XV and the losing claimant to the Polish throne, received Lorraine, while Francis, in compensation for his loss, was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which he would inherit in 1737. Although fighting stopped after the preliminary peace, the final peace settlement had to wait until the death of the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737, to allow the territorial exchanges provided for by the peace settlement to go into effect. In March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
France had demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland. The Emperor considered other possibilities before announcing the engagement of the couple. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Elisabeth of Parma had wanted the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for her son Charles III of Spain; as a result, Elisabeth's sons could claim by right of being a descendant of Margherita. On 31 January 1736 Francis agreed to marry Maria Theresa, he hesitated three times. His mother Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. On 1 February, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared, they married on 12 February in the Augustinian Vienna. The wedding was held on 14 February 1736; the treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on 4 May 1736.
In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. On 24 January 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law; until Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine. Gian Gastone de' Medici, who died on 9 July 1737, was the second cousin of Francis, who had Medici blood through his maternal great-great-grandmother Marie de' Medici, Queen consort of France and Navarre. In June 1737 Francis went to Hungary again to fight against the Turks. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. On 17 December 1738 the couple travelled south, accompanied by his brother Charles to visit Florence for three months, they arrived on 20 January 1739. In 1744 Francis' brother Charles married a younger sister of Maria Theresa, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. In 1744 Charles became governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post he held until his death in 1780. Maria Theresa secured in the Treaty of Füssen his election to the Empire on 13 September 1745, in succession to Charles VII, she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions.
Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business c
Mikulov is a town in the Moravia, South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. The town is part of the historic Moravia region, located directly on the border with Lower Austria. In the south, a road border crossing leads to the neighbouring Austrian municipality of Drasenhofen; the highway is to be extended as the R52 expressway. Mikulov is situated between the Pavlovské vrchy hilly area and the edge of the Mikulov Highlands, stretching up to the Thaya river and the three Nové Mlýny reservoirs; the Pálava Protected Landscape Area begins in Mikulov, so does the Moravian Karst. After the Margraviate of Moravia was established, the settlement of Nikulsburch was first mentioned in a 1249 deed, issued by the Přemyslid margrave Ottokar II who granted it, including a castle, the surrounding area to the Austrian noble Henry I of Liechtenstein. In 1262 the possession was confirmed by Ottokar, Bohemian king since 1253. After King Rudolf I of Germany had defeated Ottokar at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, he vested Henry II of Liechtenstein with market rights in villa Nicolspurch.
German citizens were called in and lived there until their expulsion in 1945 according to the Beneš decrees. In 1526, the Anabaptist leader Balthasar Hubmaier came from Switzerland to Nikolsburg, where he was captured and arrested by the forces of the Habsburg king Ferdinand I in the following year; the town remained in the Liechtenstein family until 1560, in 1572 Emperor Maximilian II granted the fief to his ambassador to the Spanish court Adam von Dietrichstein. From 1575 until the 20th century, Nikolsburg remained the proprietary possession of the Dietrichstein noble family and its Mensdorff-Pouilly successors. In 1621, during the Thirty Years' War, Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein signed the Treaty of Nikolsburg with the Transylvanian prince Gabriel Bethlen at Mikulov Castle. Four years Emperor Ferdinand II and his aulic council met at the castle, where General Albrecht von Wallenstein received his commission and was elevated to a Duke of Friedland. Franz von Dietrichstein established the first Piarist college north of the Alps in Nikolsburg.
After a fire damaged the original Nikolsburg Castle in 1719, the Dietrichstein family reconstructed the château to its present appearance. After the Austro-Prussian War, Count Alajos Károlyi began work on a peace treaty in Nikolsburg that led to the Treaty of Prague in 1866; the beginning of the Jewish settlement in Nikolsburg dates as far as 1421, when Jews were expelled from Vienna and the neighboring province of Lower Austria by the duke of Austria, Albert II of Germany. The refugees settled in the town situated close to the Austrian border, some 85 kilometres from the Austrian capital, under the protection of the princes of Liechtenstein, additional settlers were brought after the expulsions of the Jews from the Moravian royal boroughs by the king Ladislaus the Posthumous after 1454; the settlement grew in importance and in the first half of the 16th century Nikolsburg became the seat of the regional rabbi of Moravia, thus becoming a cultural centre of Moravian Jewry. The famous rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel, said to have created the golem of Prague, officiated here for twenty years as the second regional rabbi between 1553 and 1573.
Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein, son of Adam von Dietrichstein, was a special protector of the Jews, whose taxes were necessary to finance the Thirty Years' War. In the first half of the 18th century, the congregation in Nikolsburg totalled over 600 families, being the largest Jewish settlement in Moravia; the census of 1754 decreed by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria ascertained that there were some 620 families established in Nikolsburg, i.e. the Jewish population of about 3,000 comprised half of the town's inhabitants. Only a small number of Jews could make their living in the town as artisans; the congregation suffered during the Silesian wars, when they had to furnish the monarchy with their share in the supertaxes exacted by the government of Maria Theresa from the Jews of Moravia. Quite a number of Nikolsburg Jews continued to earn their livelihood in Vienna, where they were permitted to stay for some time on special passports; the freedom of residence, conceded to the Jews in Austria in 1848, reduced the number of resident Jews in Nikolsburg to less than one-third of the population which it contained at the time of its highest development.
In 1904, there were 749 Jewish residents in the city, out of a total population of 8,192. In 1938, prior to the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the city population totaled about 8,000 German-speaking inhabitants. Out of these, 472 were Jewish at this time; the Jewish settlement in Nikolsburg ceased to exist during World War II, as only 110 managed to emigrate in time, 327 of Mikulov's Jews did not survive the Holocaust. Following World War II, the town's German population was brutally expelled between 1945-46 by the Czech Communist Government. In 1948, Mikulov's population was around 5,200. Mikulov is a centre of Czech wine-making due to its favorable geographic location and climate, as well as its unique history. Mikulov is not only the centre, but the namesake of, the Moravian wine sub-region vinarská podoblast Mikulovská. Twelve registered cadastral vineyard tracts are situated within the Mikulov wine village as defined under the Czech Viticulture Act. Other significant economic activities in Mikulov are the machine-making and clay industries, as well as oil found at the edge of the Viennese Basin.
Mikulov's historic buildings, such as Mikulov Castle, the surrounding wine country draw touri
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands are the three historical regions of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918 and the Czech Republic since 1 January 1969, which became independent on 1 January 1993. In a historical context, Czech texts use the term to refer to any territory ruled by the Kings of Bohemia, i.e. the lands of the Bohemian Crown as established by Emperor Charles IV in the 14th century. This would include territories like the Lusatias and the whole of Silesia, all ruled from Prague Castle at that time. After the conquest of Silesia by the Prussian king Frederick the Great in 1742, the remaining lands of the Bohemian Crown—Bohemia and Austrian Silesia—have been more or less co-extensive with the territory of the modern-day Czech Republic; the term Czech lands has been used to describe different things by different people. While the Czech name of Bohemia proper is Čechy, the adjective český refers to both "Bohemian" and "Czech".
The non-auxiliary term for the present-day Czech lands is Česko, documented as early as 1704. During the period of the First and Second Czechoslovak Republic the Czech lands were referred to as Historical lands in particular when mentioned together with Slovakia; the Bohemian lands had been settled by Celts from 5th BC until 2nd AD by various Germanic tribes until they moved on to the west during the Migration Period. At the beginning of the 5th century the population decreased vigorously and, according to mythology led by a chieftain Čech, the first Western Slavs came in the second half of the 6th century. In the course of the decline of the Great Moravian realm during the Hungarian invasions of Europe in the 9th and 10th century, the Czech Přemyslid dynasty established the Duchy of Bohemia. Backed by the East Frankish kings, they prevailed against the reluctant Bohemian nobility and extended their rule eastwards over the adjacent Moravian lands. In 1198 Duke Ottokar I of Bohemia received the royal title by the German anti-king Philip of Swabia.
Attached to his Kingdom of Bohemia was the Margraviate of Moravia established in 1182 and Kłodzko Land, the County of Kladsko. From the second part of the 13th century onwards, German colonists settled in the mountainous border area on the basis of the kings' invitation during the Ostsiedlung and lived alongside the Slavs; the Silesian lands north of the Sudetes mountain range had been ruled by the Polish Piast dynasty from the 10th century onwards. While Bohemia rose to a kingdom, the Silesian Piasts alienated from the fragmenting Kingdom of Poland. After in 1310 the Bohemian crown had passed to the mighty House of Luxembourg, nearly all Silesian dukes pledged allegiance to King John the Blind and in 1335 the Polish king Casimir III the Great renounced Silesia by the Treaty of Trentschin. King John had acquired the lands of Bautzen and Görlitz in 1319 and 1329, his son and successor Charles IV King of the Romans since 1346, incorporated the Silesian and Lusatian estates into the Bohemian Crown and upon his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor confirmed their indivisibility and affiliation with the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1367 Emperor Charles IV purchased the former March of Lusatia in the northwest, during the Thirty Years' War both Lusatias passed to the Electorate of Saxony by the Peace of Prague. After the Bohemian Crown passed to the House of Habsburg in 1526, the Bohemian crown lands together with the Kingdom of Hungary and the Austrian "hereditary lands" became part of the larger Habsburg Monarchy. In 1742 the Habsburg queen Maria Theresa lost the bulk of Silesia to Prussia upon the First Silesian War, part of the War of the Austrian Succession; the coat of arms of the Czech Republic incorporates those of the three integral Czech lands: Bohemia proper and Czech Silesia. The arms of Bohemia originated with the Bohemian kingdom, like those of Moravia with the Moravian margraviate; the arms of Czech Silesia originated as those of all of the historical region of Silesia, much of, now in Poland. Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Pánek, Jaroslav. A History of the Czech lands. Prague: Karolinum. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2
Funk & Wagnalls
Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia. The encyclopedia was renamed Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Encyclopedia in 1931 and in 1945, it was known as New Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, Universal Standard Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia; the last printing of Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia was in 1997. As of 2018, annual Yearbooks are still in production; the I. K. Funk & Company, founded in 1875, was renamed Funk & Wagnalls Company after two years, became Funk & Wagnalls Inc. Funk & Wagnalls Corporation. Isaac Kaufmann Funk founded the business in 1875 as I. K. Funk & Company. In 1877, Adam Willis Wagnalls, one of Funk's classmates at Wittenberg College, joined the firm as a partner and the name of the firm was changed to Funk & Wagnalls Company. During its early years, Funk & Wagnalls Company published religious books.
The publication of The Literary Digest in 1890 marked a shift to publishing of general reference dictionaries and encyclopedias. The firm published The Standard Dictionary of the English Language in 2 volumes in 1893 & 1895 and Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia in 1912. In 1913, the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language was published under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk; the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary was revised until 1943, a edition, supervised by Charles Earl Funk. The encyclopedia was based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia: "Especially are we indebted to the famous Chambers's Encyclopaedia... With its publishers we have arranged to draw upon its stores as as we have found it of advantage so to do."Wilfred J. Funk, the son of Isaac Funk, was president of the company from 1925 to 1940. Unicorn Press obtained the rights to publish the encyclopedia, by 1953 that firm began to sell the encyclopedia through a supermarket continuity marketing campaign, encouraging consumers to include the latest volume of the encyclopedia on their shopping lists.
Grocery stores in the 1970s in the Midwest kept about four volumes in a rotation, dropping the last and adding the latest until all volumes could be acquired with the initial first volume being 99 cents. The first several volumes were gold painted along the edges and the volumes were not; these volumes were $2.99 and toward the volumes the price had increased with the inflation of the 1970s. If one did not go shopping on a weekly basis, or delivery was spotty, there was a good chance that a volume might be missed to complete the set. In 1965, Funk & Wagnalls Co. was sold to Reader's Digest. In 1971, the company, now Funk and Wagnalls, was sold to Dun & Bradstreet. Dun and Bradstreet retained Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, but other reference works were relinquished to other publishers. In 1984, Dun & Bradstreet sold Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. to a group of Funk & Wagnalls executives, who in turn sold it to Field Corporation in 1988. In 1991, the company was sold to K-III Holdings, in 1993 Funk & Wagnalls Corporation acquired the World Almanac.
In 1998, as part of the Information division of Primedia Inc. the encyclopedia content appeared on the Web site "funkandwagnalls.com". This short-lived venture was shut down in 2001. Ripplewood Holdings bought Primedia's education division in 1999, which became part of Reader's Digest Association in 2007. In 2009, Funk & Wagnalls was acquired by World Book Encyclopedia. After failing to purchase rights to the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica and World Book Encyclopedia for its Encarta digital encyclopedia, Microsoft reluctantly used the text of Funk & Wagnalls encyclopedia for the first editions of its encyclopedia; this licensed text was replaced over the following years with content Microsoft created itself. 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the Old Testament 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the New Testament 1890 – The Literary Digest 1891 – The Encyclopedia of Missions 1893-95 – The Standard Dictionary of the English Language 1901/1906 – The Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 volumes 1906 – The World's Famous Orations, 10 volume set 1909 – Standard Bible Dictionary 1912 – Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia 1913 - 1943 The New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Two volumes 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 1 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 2 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 3 1920 – Funk and Wagnall's Student's Standard Dictionary of the English language 1927 – The World's One Hundred Best Short Stories, 10 volumes 1929 – Pocket Library of the World's Essential Knowledge, 10 volumes 1929 – The World's 1000 Best Poems, 10 volumes 1936 – A New Standard Bible Dictionary 1946 - Funk and Wagnalls New Practical Standard Dictionary, 2 volumes Re-Copyrighted in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954 1955 ***First hand account from volumes dated 1955.
1949/50 – Funk & Wagnalls standard dictionary of folklore and legend, 2 volumes. A one-volume edition with minor revisions was released in 1972. 1957 – The Fashion Dictionary 19?? – Funk & Wagnalls standard handbook of synonyms and prepositions 1968 – Handbook of Indoor Games & Stunts 1971 – Standard Dictionary of the English Language
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral