Mid-Continent Public Library
Mid-Continent Public Library known as Consolidated Library District #3, is a consolidated public library system serving Clay and Jackson Counties in Missouri, with headquarters in Independence, Missouri. Mid-Continent Public Library is the largest public library system in the U. S. state of Missouri by number of volumes and size of budget. Its collection ranks among the 100 largest libraries in America, which includes university and private collections, is among the nation's 20 largest public library systems. On May 8, 2014, the Mid-Continent Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service during a ceremony at the White House in Washington D. C; the medal is the country's highest honor awarded by the Institute of Library Services. Mid-Continent Public Library's roots go back to the Independence Public Library, formed by the Independence Library Association in 1892 and the creation of the Citizens Improvement Association Library in Excelsior Springs in the 1890s. After World War II, Clay and Jackson counties formed countywide library systems.
They began collaborating in the early 1960s, on November 10, 1965 Clay and Jackson formed the Mid-Continent Public Library Service as a joint administrative body, though each library retained separate governing boards and budgets. Though they remained separate, their combined resources allowed them to merge administrative costs. Gaining the name Mid-Continent Public Library in 1968, the library system was well on its way to achieving its goal. Separating library services from school districts enabled them to expand library services to rural areas, which presently did not have services. Platte County joined the group in 1968. In 1978, seven years after the state legislature passed a law allowing for consolidated multi-county library systems, the Clay and Jackson libraries merged to form Consolidated Library District No. 3. Platte County joined a year later. A notable librarian, James A. Leathers, was influential in the creation of a regional library system and became the first Director of Mid-Continent Public Library Service.
His focus was to provide education and recreation to the public. His desire was for the library to serve all individuals regardless of age, he aimed to provide services for the young as well as the elderly; the library system is overseen by a Library Board of twelve members, four appointed by County Commissioners in each of the service region's three counties. It has 31 branches in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area of Missouri located in Kansas City, Liberty, Lee’s Summit, Blue Springs, Grain Valley, other cities, it hosts two installations at community centers in partnership with the Kansas City Parks and Recreation Department that provide automated library services and public Internet access. In 1994, the Mid-Continent Public Library began to see advances in technology, it made improvement with circulation, intra-library loan, online catalogs. In 1995, dial-up Internet access was provided for catalog use. In 1996, the full access to Internet was provided. In 2001, WorldCat was added to the online databases.
In fiscal 2008-2009, the collection held 3,544,072 items. Total annual circulation was 9,183,005 items, it filled 1,773,586 intra- and interlibrary loans. Branch libraries served 4,673,737 visitors. Total attendance at live programming events for adults and families and for children was 318,639 patrons; the system has 466,344 registered borrowers. Annual circulation for the year exceeded one-half million items for each of the Mid-Continent Library’s five busiest branches: Liberty, Lee’s Summit, Colbern Road, North Independence, Blue Springs South; the system has one of the nation’s largest Summer Reading Programs, completed by 106,846 patrons in fiscal 2009. It is known for its array of services, including more than 250 online learning tools and research databases with remote access, downloadable audiobooks, Library-by-Mail for homebound patrons. Library branches offer self-checkout machines and self-service hold pick-ups, LCD flat-panel monitors on every on-site public access computer. Most branches offer free wi-fi access.
The library system partners with local foundations. On 21 June 2008, Mid-Continent Public Library inaugurated the Midwest Genealogy Center in Independence, Missouri, it is the largest stand-alone public genealogy research facility in America. The 52,000-square-foot building houses a unique collection of records in completely open stacks, it holds 80,000 family history books, 100,000 local history items, 565,000 rolls of microfilm, 7,000 maps. It contains all available U. S. federal population census records and federal indexes, Civil War histories and naturalization records, ship passenger lists, Native American records, biographical archives, manuscripts pertaining to the American slave trade and the Antebellum South, Papers of the St. Louis Fur Trade, a large variety of state records for Missouri and other states such as state censuses, tax records, penitentiary records, military service records, compiled records of Missouri Union and Confederate Army soldiers 50 Missouri newspapers, local newspaper indexes to obituaries and weddings, genealogical periodicals.
The center has 10,000 volumes available for circulation in the “Genealogy from the Heartland Collection” created from donations by the American Family Records Association, Missouri State Genealogical Association, Heart of America Genealogical Society, Gann Family Assoc
Baptism for the dead
Baptism for the dead, vicarious baptism or proxy baptism today refers to the religious practice of baptizing a person on behalf of one, dead—a living person receiving the rite on behalf of a deceased person. Baptism for the dead is best known as a doctrine of the Latter Day Saint movement, which has practiced it since 1840, it is practiced by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, where it is performed only in dedicated temples, as well as in several other current factions of the movement. Those who practice this rite view baptism as an essential requirement to enter the Kingdom of God, therefore practice baptism for the dead to offer it by proxy to those who died without the opportunity to receive it; the LDS Church teaches that those who have died may choose to accept or reject the baptisms done on their behalf. The modern term itself is derived from a phrase "baptised for the dead" occurring in one verse of the New Testament, though the meaning of that phrase is an open question among scholars.
Early heresiologists Epiphanius of Salamis and Chrysostom attributed the practice to the Cerinthians and to the Marcionites, whom they identified as heretical "Gnostic" groups. For that reason, the practice was forbidden by the early Church, is therefore not practiced in modern mainstream Christianity, whether Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, or any Protestant churches. In the practice of the LDS Church, a living person, acting as proxy, is baptized by immersion on behalf of a deceased person of the same sex. After giving a short prayer, which includes the name of the deceased individual, the proxy is immersed in the water brought up again. Baptism for the dead is an ordinance of the church, performed only in temples, is based on the belief that baptism is required for entry into the Kingdom of God; some members of the early Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints believed in baptism for the dead, but it was never sanctioned by that organization and was considered controversial.
At a 1970 church world conference, a revelation and two letters written by Joseph Smith appertaining to baptism for the dead were removed as sections and placed in the appendix of the RLDS Church's Doctrine and Covenants. In the Restoration Branches movement, which broke from the RLDS Church in the 1980s, the question of baptism for the dead is at best unsettled. Many adherents reject the validity of the ordinance completely. Others regard it a legitimate rite, the permission for, withdrawn by God since the Latter Day Saints failed to complete the Nauvoo Temple within the specified time frame. Other Latter-day Saint denominations that accept baptism for the dead include the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and The Church of Jesus Christ; the Strangite Church performed baptisms for the dead during the 1840s in Voree and during the 1850s on Beaver Island, Michigan. In each case, the practice was authorized by on the basis of what James J. Strang reported as a revelation; the question of whether the Strangite Church still practices proxy baptism is an open one, but belief is considered orthodox.
As part of their sacraments, the New Apostolic Church and the Old Apostolic Church practice baptism for the dead, as well as Communion and Sealing to the Departed. In this practice a proxy or substitute is baptised in the place of an unknown number of deceased persons. According to NAC and OAC doctrine the deceased do not enter the body of the substitute. Outside of Christianity, proxy baptisms were practiced by the Mandaeans of Iran. Mormon scholar, John A. Tvedtnes says: "Baptism for the dead was performed by the dominant church until forbidden by the sixth canon of the Council of Carthage; some of the smaller sects, continued the practice." He does not give the text of that canon, which, if it is included in what has been called the Code of Canons of the African Church as canon 18, reads: "It seemed good that the Eucharist should not be given to the bodies of the dead. For it is written:'Take, Eat', but the bodies of the dead can neither'take' nor'eat'. Nor let the ignorance of the presbyters baptize those who are dead."Tertullian attributes the practice of 1 Corinthians "baptised for the dead" to the Marcionites.
Epiphanius of Salamis reported that he had heard it said that, among followers of Cerinthus, if one of them died before baptism, another was baptized in that person's name: For their school reached its height in this country, I mean Asia, in Galatia as well. And in these countries I heard of a tradition which said that when some of their people died too soon, without baptism, others would be baptized for them in their names, so that they would not be punished for rising unbaptized at the resurrection and become the subjects of the authority that made the world. John Chrysostom mockingly attributes to the Marcionites of the late 4th century a similar practice: if one of their followers, being prepared for baptism died before receiving baptism, the dead person's corpse was addressed with the question whether he wished to be baptized, whereupon another answered affirmatively and was baptized for the dead person. To the superstitious practice of baptizing dead bodies John A. Tvedtnes applies the term "baptism for the dead": That baptism for the dead was indeed practiced in some orthodox Christian circles is indicated by the decisions of two late fourth century councils.
The fourth canon of th
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage and printing. Microform images are reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used. All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more the latter. Three formats are common: microfilm and aperture cards. Microcards known as "microopaques" a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs, in 1839, he achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer's wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on microphotographs as a personal hobby, did not document his procedures; the idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process "somewhat trifling and childish".
Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography influenced Glaisher, he called it "the most remarkable discovery of modern times", argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents. The pigeon post was in operation while Paris was besieged during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Charles Barreswil, proposed the application of photographic methods with prints of a reduced size; the prints were on photographic paper and did not exceed 40mm to permit insertion in the pigeon's quill. The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers' unwieldy but consulted materials.
He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, that a one-foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes. In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format. Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical and Cultural Documentation, he saw microfiche as a way to offer a stable and durable format, inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, where items were printed on demand for interested patrons. In the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his "Checkograph" machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy's invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its "Recordak" division.
Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library. Binkley, which looked at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials. In 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations, in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service. In 1935, Kodak's Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film; this method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at its annual meeting in 1936, when it endorsed microforms. Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserve broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its "Foreign Newspaper Project" to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.
Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, filmslides. The year 1938 saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International was established by Eugene Power. For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001. Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been used for archival storage of engineering information. For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment, they specify punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card; this permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.
Aperture card mounted microfilm is 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts aroun
Genealogy known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members; the results are displayed in charts or written as narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to preserve the past for future generations, a sense of self-satisfaction in accurate storytelling. Amateur genealogists pursue their own ancestry and that of their spouses. Professional genealogists may conduct research for others, publish books on genealogical methods, teach, or produce their own databases, they may work for companies that provide software or produce materials of use to other professionals and to amateurs. Both try to understand not just where and when people lived, but their lifestyles and motivations.
This requires—or leads to—knowledge of antiquated laws, old political boundaries, migration trends, historical socioeconomic or religious conditions. Genealogists sometimes specialize in a particular group. Bloodlines of Salem is an example of a specialized family-history group, it welcomes members who can prove descent from a participant of the Salem Witch Trials or who choose to support the group. Genealogists and family historians join family history societies, where novices can learn from more experienced researchers; such societies serve a specific geographical area. Their members may index records to make them more accessible, engage in advocacy and other efforts to preserve public records and cemeteries; some schools engage students in such projects as a means to reinforce lessons regarding immigration and history. Other benefits include family medical histories with families with serious medical conditions that are hereditary; the terms "genealogy" and "family history" are used synonymously, but some offer a slight difference in definition.
The Society of Genealogists, while using the terms interchangeably, describes genealogy as the "establishment of a Pedigree by extracting evidence, from valid sources, of how one generation is connected to the next" and family history as "a biographical study of a genealogically proven family and of the community and country in which they lived". The term "family history" may be more popular in Europe, "genealogy" more popular in the United States. In communitarian societies, one's identity is defined as much by one's kin network as by individual achievement, the question "Who are you?" would be answered by a description of father and tribe. New Zealand Māori, for example, learn whakapapa to discover. Family history plays a part in the practice of some religious belief systems. For example, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a doctrine of baptism for the dead, which necessitates that members of that faith engage in family history research. In societies such as Australia or the United States, there was by the 20th century growing pride in the pioneers and nation-builders.
Establishing descent from these was, is, important to lineage societies such as the Daughters of the American Revolution and The Mayflower Society. Modern family history explores new sources of status, such as celebrating the resilience of families that survived generations of poverty or slavery, or the success of families in integrating across racial or national boundaries; some family histories emphasize links to celebrity criminals, such as the bushranger Ned Kelly in Australia. The growing interest in family history in the media coupled with easier access to online records has allowed those who are curious to do so to start investigating their ancestry; this curiosity can be strong among those whose family histories were lost or unknown due to, for example, adoption or separation from family as a result of bereavement. In Western societies the focus of genealogy was on the kinship and descent of rulers and nobles arguing or demonstrating the legitimacy of claims to wealth and power; the term overlapped with heraldry, in which the ancestry of royalty was reflected in their coats of arms.
Modern scholars consider many claimed noble ancestries to be fabrications, such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that traced the ancestry of several English kings to the god Woden. Some family trees have been maintained for considerable periods; the family tree of Confucius has been maintained for over 2,500 years and is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest extant family tree. The fifth edition of the Confucius Genealogy was printed in 2009 by the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee. In modern times, genealogy became more widespread, with commoners as well as nobility researching and maintaining their family trees. Genealogy received a boost in the late 1970s with the television broadcast of Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley's account of his family line. With the advent of the Internet, the number of resources readil
Family History Research Wiki
The Family History Research Wiki provides handbook reference information, educational articles to help genealogists find and interpret records of their ancestors. It is a free-access, free-content, online encyclopedia on a wiki, hosted as part of the FamilySearch site, it is sponsored by FamilySearch, a non-profit organization, a genealogical arm of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Anyone with access to the Internet may read any of the over 82,850 articles, all articles can be edited by registered users. Registration is free. Most of the articles in this Wiki are about a place such as a town, state, province, or nation; such articles suggest. Every nation worldwide has at least one article. There are more articles for places in the United States and Europe. So far, there are comparatively fewer pages for Africa, Australia, Latin America, or the Pacific Islands. Contributors are invited to add any information about places to help researchers find, use, or better understand an ancestor's records.
For example, information about local record idiosyncrasies, record gaps or record-loss, jurisdictional boundary changes, records housed in unusual places, or tips for using the records more is encouraged. Reference information about local jurisdictions, contact information, record start and stop dates, social life and customs that affected local record keeping are welcome. Content for a place-article may include maps, primary repository contact information, organization date, parent jurisdiction, internal sub-divisions such as towns or counties, boundary changes, record loss if any, neighboring localities, local record types, local migration routes, other local libraries, societies, or museums. Other types of pages in Family History Research Wiki are about: record types: descriptions, how to find them, how to interpret them short articles describing how to use a specific source like the Hamburg Passenger Lists, or Ontario Land Records articles that explain how to corroborate similar multiple sources such as Tracing Immigrant Origins or U.
S. military records finding aids about specific reference tools and how to use them ethnic, religious, or political groups research descriptions of significant repositories: libraries, societies, museums, or Family History Centers with material of value to genealogical researchers how to use selected genealogical software programs research methodology—teaching the strategies or techniques for finding ancestors migration routes like ports, canals, trails and railroads and their associated records 20 foreign-language word lists which give English translations of phrases found in genealogical documents letter-writing guides to help researchers write letters in foreign languages to local record repositories handwriting guides help readers understand old forms of handwriting or foreign alphabets calendar information which might be listed in some genealogical documents, for example Fixed and Moveable Feast Days for Sweden blank genealogical forms such as family group records or pedigree charts links to thousands of significant genealogical databases online links to video lessons about how-to-do genealogical research illustrations in articles include maps, clickable maps, repository images and record type examplesThe Family History Research Wiki is not a database of ancestors' names, family stories, or pedigrees.
Nor is it a place for genealogical queries, or message boards—however, it explains and links to such sites. Advertising, or product reviews would be inappropriate. Religious doctrines, church policies, religious images do not belong on the Family History Research Wiki except where they directly impact genealogical research; the Family History Library in Salt Lake City has over four thousand branches worldwide called Family History Centers. These centers have volunteer staff. To help these volunteers better answer questions about research, a series of "research outlines" and other publications by the Family History Library were developed starting about 1988; when the Family History Research Wiki was launched in late 2007, the electronic copies of the old paper publications of the Family History Library were transferred into the wiki to become part of over 162 new articles. Of those articles, 86 were front-page-articles each linked to about 25 related topical sub-pages. For example, the front-page New Jersey Genealogy article was linked directly to the associated New Jersey Biography, New Jersey Cemeteries, New Jersey Census pages, among others.
Much of the early structure and phrasing of the wiki can be attributed to these publications. The old paper "research outlines" were the original kernel from which the Family History Research Wiki has grown; the Family History Research Wiki was launched 14 December 2007. The wiki began on Plone wiki software. However, it was soon discovered that MediaWiki software would be a better platform, so in January 2008 it was moved to the MediaWiki 1.17.1. In late March 2016 it was moved to a newer, more-stable Wiki platform, WikiMedia 1.23.10, which does not require as much attention from FamilySearch computer engineers. Following the English language edition introduction in late 2007, the Family History Research Wiki has been rolled out in other languages; as of July 2014 it is available in 11 languages: English Deutsch Español Français Italiano 日本語 한국어 Portug
Provo is the third-largest city in Utah, United States. It is 43 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest county seat of Utah County. Provo lies between the cities of Orem to Springville to the south. With a population at the 2010 census of 115,264, Provo is the principal city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area, which had a population of 526,810 at the 2010 census, it is Utah's second-largest metropolitan area after Salt Lake City. Provo is the home of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Provo has the LDS Church's largest Missionary Training Center; the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion-dollar startups. The city's Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002. Sundance Resort is 13 miles northeast, at Provo Canyon. In 2015, Forbes cited Provo among the "Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs," and the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that Utah County had the year's highest job growth.
In 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No. 2 city on its list of Best Places for Careers. Provo was ranked first for first in health/well-being; the Provo area was called Timpanogas, a Numic word meaning "rock river". The area was inhabited by the Timpanogos, it was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah. The ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people; the area served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator. Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area, in 1776, he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Joaquin. Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin Desert; the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas or Come Pescado. In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, just north of Timpanogos Mountain.
At first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of disputes over land and cattle, tensions rose; because of the reported stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders "to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future." This ended in modern-day Pleasant Grove, Utah. The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands. In 1849, 33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War; the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog. Fort Utah was renamed Provo in 1850 for Étienne Provost, an early French-Canadian trapper who arrived in the region in 1825. 1850 saw the construction of the first school house in Provo, built within Utah Fort. As more Latter-day Saints moved in Provo grew as a city, it soon came to be nicknamed The Garden City with the large number of fruit orchards and gardens there.1872 saw the railroad reach Provo.
It was this year that the Provo Woolen Mills opened. They were the first large factory in Provo and employed about 150 people mainly skilled textile laborers who had immigrated from Britain. Provo lies in the Utah Valley at an elevation of 4,549 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.2 square miles, of which 41.7 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles, or 5.66%, is water. The Wasatch Range contains many peaks within Utah County along the east side of the Wasatch Front. One of these peaks, known as Y Mountain, towers over the city. There is a large hillside letter Y made of whitewashed concrete halfway up the steep mountain, built in the early part of the 20th century to commemorate Brigham Young University. Wild deer still roam the mountains; the geography allows for hiking, skiing and other outdoor activities. Provo has a humid continental climate bordering on a humid subtropical climate or hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with four distinct seasons.
Overall, annual rainfall at the location of Brigham Young University is around 19.75 inches or 500 millimetres. The wettest calendar year in Provo has been 1983 with 37.54 inches and the driest 2002 with 10.65 inches. Winters are cold with substantial snowfall averaging 57.2 inches or 1.45 metres and a record monthly total of 66.0 inches in January 1918, during which the record snow cover of 34 inches or 0.86 metres was record on the 17th. Seasonal snowfall has ranged from 127.5 inches in 1983–84 to a mere 10.1 inches in 2014–15. Cold weather may occur when cold air from over the Continental Divide invades the region: although only four mornings fall to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C during an average winter and this temperature was not reached at all between 1999 and 2006, during the cold January 1917, seventeen mornings fell this cold. By contrast, in several recent winters like 1994–95, 1995–96, 19
Temple (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a temple is a building dedicated to be a House of the Lord. Temples are considered by church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Upon completion, temples are open to the public for a short period of time. During the open house, the church conducts tours of the temple with missionaries and members from the local area serving as tour guides, all rooms of the temple are open to the public; the temple is dedicated as a "House of the Lord", after which only members who are deemed worthy are permitted entrance. They are not churches or meetinghouses designated for public weekly worship services, but rather are places of worship open only to the faithful where certain rites of the church must be performed. There are 162 dedicated temples, 12 under construction, 35 announced. At present, there are temples in many U. S. states, as well as in many countries across the world. Several temples are at historical sites of the LDS Church, such as Nauvoo and Palmyra, New York.
The importance of temples is emphasized in weekly meetings, regular participation in "temple work" is encouraged for all Latter-day Saints. Within temples, members of the church make covenants, receive instructions, perform sacred ceremonies and ordinances, such as baptism for the dead and anointing, the endowment, eternal marriage sealings. Ordinances are a vital part of the theology of the church, which teaches that they were practiced by the Lord's covenant people in all dispensations. Additionally, members consider the temple a place to commune with God, seek God's aid, understand the will of God, receive personal revelation. Latter Day Saints cite various Old Testament references to temple ordinances such as those found in Exodus 29:4–9, Exodus 28:2–43 and Leviticus 8:6–13; the words "HOLINESS TO THE LORD" can be found on LDS temples as referenced in Exodus 28:36. The Tabernacle was considered a "portable temple" by the children of Israel in the Old Testament; the first Latter-day Saint temple ceremonies were performed in Kirtland, but differed from the endowment performed on the second floor of Joseph Smith's Red Brick Store in Nauvoo and the Nauvoo Temple.
Kirtland ordinances included the washing of the feet ordinance. For nearly four years, beginning in 1842, Smith's Red Brick Store functioned as a de facto temple—the site of the first washings, anointings and sealings. In contrast, the grand edifice known as the Nauvoo Temple was in operation for only two months before the Latter Day Saints left Illinois for the West. Preparations to initiate the first members of Smith's Quorum of the Anointed, or Holy Order, as it was known, were made on May 3, 1842; the walls of the second level of the Red Brick Store were painted with garden-themed murals, the rooms fitted with carpets, potted plants, a veil hung from the ceiling. All the while, the ground level continued to operate as Smith’s general mercantile. After the early events of the succession crisis, Brigham Young assumed control of the church's headquarters at Nauvoo, Illinois. While he and the rest of the Quorum of the Twelve made contingency plans for abandoning the city, he may have hoped that it would not prove necessary.
For example, in early 1845, Young convened a conference at the Norwegian colony at Norway and announced a plan to build a Latter-day Saint town there with a temple for the use of the Norwegian Latter Day Saints. Meanwhile, Young urged the Latter-day Saints in Nauvoo to redouble their efforts to finish the temple. By the end of 1845, the building was sufficiently finished to allow temple ordinances to be performed. Ordinances continued to be performed in early 1846. A small crew remained in the city and continued to work on the temple until April 30, 1846, when it was formally dedicated in a private ceremony by Joseph Young, the senior of the Seven Presidents of the Seventy, it was used for three months abandoned in late summer 1846. The completed temple was destroyed by fire, the remaining structure was demolished by a whirlwind. Upon reaching the Great Basin, Brigham Young began to build settlements based on the City of Zion plan and designated four of these to contain temples: Salt Lake City, St. George and Logan.
The St. George Temple was the first to be completed followed by Logan and Manti; the Salt Lake Temple took 40 years to complete because of various delays. It was dedicated in 1893. Latter-day Saint temple building halted until the presidency of Joseph F. Smith, who announced two additional temples: Cardston, Lāʻie, Hawaiʻi. Cardston became the first Latter-day Saint temple dedicated outside of the United States. Smith broke with the previous tradition of building temples with lower courts. Temples had been larger, but the Laie Hawaii Temple was smaller than the Nauvoo Temple had been. Both Cardston and Laie were dedicated under church president Heber J. Grant, as was a temple in Mesa, Arizona. George Albert Smith dedicated the next temple in Idaho. David O. McKay dedicated five additional temples including one in Bern, Switzerland—which was the first temple dedicated in Europe and the first temple to use film recording of the endowment rather than live actors. Joseph Fielding Smith dedicated a temple in Ogden and Harold B. Lee dedicated its twin in