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Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus; the official family names are Latin in origin. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for recognizing a family. Taxonomists take different positions about descriptions, there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time; the publishing of new data and opinions enables adjustments and consensus. The naming of families is codified by various international bodies using the following suffixes: In fungal and botanical nomenclature, the family names of plants and algae end with the suffix "-aceae", with the exception of a small number of historic but used names including Compositae and Gramineae. In zoological nomenclature, the family names of animals end with the suffix "-idae".

The taxonomic term familia was first used by French botanist Pierre Magnol in his Prodromus historiae generalis plantarum, in quo familiae plantarum per tabulas disponuntur where he called the seventy-six groups of plants he recognised in his tables families. The concept of rank at that time was not yet settled, in the preface to the Prodromus Magnol spoke of uniting his families into larger genera, far from how the term is used today. Carolus Linnaeus used the word familia in his Philosophia botanica to denote major groups of plants: trees, ferns, so on, he used this term only in the morphological section of the book, discussing the vegetative and generative organs of plants. Subsequently, in French botanical publications, from Michel Adanson's Familles naturelles des plantes and until the end of the 19th century, the word famille was used as a French equivalent of the Latin ordo. In zoology, the family as a rank intermediate between order and genus was introduced by Pierre André Latreille in his Précis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel.

He used families in some but not in all his orders of "insects". In nineteenth-century works such as the Prodromus of Augustin Pyramus de Candolle and the Genera Plantarum of George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker this word ordo was used for what now is given the rank of family. Families can be used for evolutionary and genetic studies because they are more stable than lower taxonomic levels such as genera and species. Systematics, the study of the diversity of life Cladistics, the classification of organisms by their order of branching in an evolutionary tree Phylogenetics, the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms Taxonomy Virus classification List of Anuran families List of Testudines families List of fish families List of families of spiders

Ectoedemia festivitatis

Ectoedemia festivitatis is a moth of the family Nepticulidae. It is found in Nepal and northern Vietnam, it is more widespread in south-eastern Asia. The habitat consists of degraded forest or shrub vegetation in mountainous areas; the wingspan is 4.0-6.6 mm. Adults are on wing in August and from January to March. There are two or more generations per year; the larvae feed on shrubby species of Hypericum species, including Hypericum beanii, H. henryii, H. hookerianum, H. uralum, H. petiolulatum and H. oblongifolium. They mine the leaves of their host plant; the mine consists of a long and sinuous gallery following the leaf margin, with black to brown linear frass, abruptly widening into a blotch with scattered brown frass concentrated in the centre and adhering to the upper epidermis. The mine is swollen; the larva spins a cocoon inside a prepared silken tunnel, which leads to an exit slit, which the larva makes prior to spinning its cocoon

Paris, Kentucky

Paris is a home rule-class city in Bourbon County, United States. It lies 18 miles northeast of Lexington on the Stoner Fork of the Licking River. Paris is the seat of its county and forms part of the Lexington–Fayette Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census it had a population of 8,553. Joseph Houston settled a station in the area in 1776, but was forced to relocate due to prior land grants. In 1786, Lawrence Protzman purchased the area of present-day Paris from its owners, platted 250 acres for a town, offered land for public buildings in exchange for the Virginia legislature making the settlement the seat of the newly formed Bourbon County. In 1789, the town was formally established as Hopewell after New Jersey, his hometown; the next year it was renamed Paris after the French capital to match its county and honor the French assistance during the American Revolution. Among the early settlers in the late 18th and early 19th centuries were French refugees who had fled the excesses of their own revolution.

One Frenchman was noted in a 19th-century state history as having come from Calcutta, via Bengal, settled here as a schoolteacher. The post office was known as Bourbontown or Bourbonton in the early 19th century, but there is no evidence that this name was formally applied to the town itself, it was incorporated as Paris in 1839 and again in 1890. Paris is the "sister city" of Lamotte-Beuvron in France. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.0 square miles, of which 5.9 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.52%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,183 people, 3,857 households, 2,487 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,351.2 per square mile. There were 4,222 housing units at an average density of 621.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.23% White, 12.71% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 1.35% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.62% of the population.

There were 3,857 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,872, the median income for a family was $37,358. Males had a median income of $29,275 versus $21,285 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,645. About 17.5% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.2% of those under age 18 and 15.9% of those age 65 or over.

Paris has the Paris-Bourbon County Library. The Main Street stretch of Paris is a product of much time and money put into the preservation and revitalization of historic buildings downtown. With a handful of new restaurants garnering attention from the Central Kentucky region and beyond, a variety of downtown Paris businesses are reaping the benefits; the Main Street Program in Paris has been active since 1992. From 2006 to 2008, fifteen buildings were renovated at a favorable time for financing such projects. More renovations were underway. Many projects used grants to renovate façades, under a program administered through GOLD, a state-funded program that works with Renaissance on Main to reward communities that "take steps to revitalize and maintain vibrant, economically sound development in Kentucky's downtown areas."Downtown Paris ARTWALK, sponsored by the Paris Main Street Program, founded by Miranda Reynolds and Steve Walton, has become a major social and artistic event in downtown Paris.

The Nannine Clay Wallis Arboretum, located at 616 Pleasant Street, is a 4-acre arboretum, home to the Garden Club of Kentucky. Many of the trees on the grounds were planted in the 1850s. Nannine Clay Wallis continued the tradition of planting the latest tree introductions when her father bought the property in 1900. New trees are always being added to the collection, her daylilies and those hybridized by a former GCKY president and other flowers are featured. Admission is free; the Hopewell Museum, located at 800 Pleasant Street, is free and open to the public on Wednesday through Saturday afternoons. The museum is closed the month of January; the Beaux Arts structure was served as the area's first post office. Duncan Tavern, located in Courthouse Square, is home to the Kentucky Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution; the stone structure was built in 1788 by Major Joseph Duncan. It now houses an extensive genealogical collection, is open to the public for tours Tuesday through Saturday for tours.

The Vardens Building, located at 509 Main Street, is an example of Victorian architecture and interior design. Remodeled in 1891, the building housed Vardens and Son Druggists from 1888 to 1953; the "new" façade features pressed-metal Corinthian columns embellished with rosettes. For the inside, Varden had South African mahogany apothecary cabinets made to show his wares. To accent the cabinetry he ordered; the three-story building once had a surgeon and dental office on the second floor. The Varde

Howard Christie

Howard Christie was an American producer of films and television. Christie was born in Orinda and graduated from Oakland Technical High School in 1929, he attended UC Berkeley, where he was a center on the Cal Bears football team and an All-American. He had planned to study medicine, but became interested in Hollywood after playing a small part in a 1935 anti-Communist comedy movie called Fighting Youth. After his initial exposure to Hollywood and the film making industry, Christie developed a preference for the production side of the business, he began as an assistant production manager at Universal transitioned to assistant director, director. He became a producer, a role which he filled until his retirement in 1970. After serving as associate producer on the 1945 Deanna Durbin film Lady on a Train, he produced Westerns and comedies, he produced more than 40 films including Against All Flags, Away All Boats, several Ma and Pa Kettle movies, several Abbott and Costello movies including Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man and Costello Go to Mars and Costello Meet the Mummy, Abbott and Costello Meet the Keystone Kops.

In the late 50s, as Universal reduced its production of western and comedy films, Christie moved into television. He became a vice president in Universal Studios’ television division, he was responsible for the production of several popular Western-themed TV series, notably Wagon Train for the entirety of its 8-year, 280-episode life. He was involved in the production of several other TV westerns, including 30 episodes of Laredo and five episodes of The Virginian, he retired in 1970 at age 58, died in 1992 in Oak View, California. Howard Christie on IMDb

167th Volksgrenadier Division (Wehrmacht)

The 167th Volksgrenadier Division the 167th Infantry Division was a German Army infantry division in World War II. The 167th Infantry Division was formed in the Bavarian capital of Munich in November 1939, absorbing the 7th, it was at this point that its commanding officer, Colonel Gilbert, was promoted to major general, shortly before his replacement by Lieutenant General Oskar Vogl. The division took part in the initial 1940 invasion of France with Army Group C, capturing Ouvrage Kerfent and Ouvrage Bambesch - two components of the Maginot Line - between 20–21 June; the division remained in occupied France until February 1941, when it returned to its garrison in Bavaria. In August 1940, Major General Hans Schönhärl took over as commanding officer, being promoted to lieutenant general in December. In June 1941, the division was transferred to the occupied Polish capital of Warsaw as the Axis forces began their assault on the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. In August, Schönhärl was replaced as commanding officer by Major General Verner Schartow, himself replaced by Major General Wolf Trierenberg.

On December 17, Red Army forces succeeded in punching a hole in the 167th's sector, only to be forced back by support from the 112th Infantry, with some tank support. The Division took part in the Battle of Moscow, Battle of Kursk, against the Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive, where the 167th Infantry Division was disbanded due to heavy losses in January 1944; the re-created division, now designated 167. Volksgrenadierdivision, took part in the Ardennes Offensive. On New Years Day, it, along with the 5th Parachute Division, aided the panzers in defending the area around the Belgian town of Lutrebois in Luxembourg. While the three were able to hold off the approaching Americans and dealt heavy casualties to their enemies, the situation elsewhere in the Ardennes was different and the 167th was ordered to fall back. Major General Martin Gilbert Major General Oskar Vogl Lieutenant General Hans Schönhärl Major General Verner Schartow Lieutenant General Wolf-Günther Trierenberg Colonel Hans Hüttner Lieutenant General Hanskurt Höcker Germany: December 1939 to May 1940 France: June 1940 to February 1941 Germany: March to May 1941 Eastern front, central section: June 1941 to April 1942 Netherlands: May 1942 to February 1943 Eastern front, southern section: March 1943 to February 1944 Ardennes and Eifel: December 1944 - April 1945 Franz Mayrhofer, Geschichte des Grenadier-Regiment 315 der bayrischen 167.


Alfons Novickis

Alfons Novickis was a Latvian footballer. Novickis rose to fame as a great footballing talent aged just 15 when he worked as a paper-boy at a publishing company, his first senior football club was LNJS Riga for which he played in 1926. In 1928 Novickis played with RFK and joined Riga Vanderer, the club for which he played the best and last years of his career. On 27 July 1929 Novickis made his international debut for Latvia. In total Novickis played 9 international matches for Latvia national football team between 1929 and 1931. Just as as Novickis' star had risen in Latvian football, he fell down. After a 0–6 loss to Sweden in a friendly match on 26 July 1931 Novickis along with several other Latvian internationals made a bad public appearance under alcohol on the way back to Riga and as a result of it Novickis and Alberts Tauriņš were disqualified by the Latvian Football Federation for a year. In the autumn of 1931 Novickis joined the army and on 3 November he committed suicide by shooting himself.

It was speculated that Novickis had killed himself because of some unknown disease and alcohol