United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree with a high grade point average. A distinction is made between graduate schools and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business, speech-language pathology, or law; the distinction between graduate schools and professional schools is not absolute, as various professional schools offer graduate degrees and vice versa. Many universities award graduate degrees. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and used elsewhere, "postgraduate education" is used in English-speaking countries to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree; those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students", or in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented towards professional training, the degrees may consist of coursework, without an original research or thesis component; the term "graduate school" is North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not refer to medical school, only refers to law school or business school. Graduate students in the humanities and social sciences receive funding from the school and/or a teaching assistant position or other job. Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction is offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level.
At the Ph. D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions denote other divisions. Graduate degrees in Brazil are called "postgraduate" degrees, can be taken only after an undergraduate education has been concluded". Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area, take from 1 to 2 years to complete. Sometimes it can be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and a MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more to Business and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Stricto sensu graduate degrees: degrees for those who wish to pursue an academic career. Masters: 2 years for completion. Serves as additional qualification for those seeking a differential on the job market, or for those who want to pursue a PhD. Most doctoral programs in Brazil require a master's degree, meaning that a Lato Sensu Degree is insufficient to start a doctoral program. Doctors / PhD: 3–4 years for completion. Used as a stepping stone for academic life. In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures; the Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies. Its mandate is to promote and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision and professional development.
Admission to a master's program requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades ranging from B+ and higher, recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are requir
Jon Llewellyn Kyl is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Arizona from 1995 to 2013 and again in 2018. Kyl was appointed to the Senate on September 2018, succeeding the late John McCain. A member of the Republican Party, he held Arizona's other seat in the U. S. Senate from January 1995 to January 2013, serving alongside McCain. Kyl was Senate Minority Whip from 2007 until 2013; the son of U. S. Representative John Henry Kyl and Arlene Kyl, Kyl was born and raised in Nebraska and lived for some time in Iowa, he received his bachelor's law degree from the University of Arizona. He worked in Phoenix, Arizona as an attorney and lobbyist before winning election to the United States House of Representatives, where he served from 1987 to 1995, he was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1994 and continued to be re-elected by comfortable margins until his retirement in January 2013. In 2006, he was recognized by Time magazine as one of America's Ten Best Senators. Kyl was ranked by National Journal in 2007 as the fourth-most conservative U.
S. Senator, he has been a fixture of Republican policy leadership posts, chairing the Republican Policy Committee and the Republican Conference. In December 2007, he became Senate Minority Whip, he was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2010 for his persuasive role in the Senate. Kyl announced in February 2011 that he would not seek re-election to the Senate in 2012 and would retire at the end of his third term, he expressly ruled out running for further office except, the Vice Presidency. After leaving the Senate in 2013, he worked as an attorney in private practice and worked to shepherd the Supreme Court nomination of Brett Kavanaugh. In September 2018, Kyl was appointed by Governor Doug Ducey to serve in the Senate seat left vacant by the death of John McCain. At a press conference accepting the appointment, Kyl announced that he would not run for the remainder of the term following the 2020 special election. Kyl is the first person to return to the Senate via appointment since New Hampshire Republican Norris Cotton in 1975.
He resigned from the Senate at the end of December 31, 2018, was succeeded by Martha McSally, appointed to the seat. Kyl was born in Oakland, the son of Arlene and John Henry Kyl, a teacher at Nebraska State Teachers College, his father served as a Congressman from Iowa after moving his family to Iowa. After graduating from high school in 1960, Kyl attended the University of Arizona, where he earned a bachelor's degree in 1964, graduating with honors. Kyl is a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, he earned a law degree in 1966 at the University of Arizona's James E. Rogers College of Law, served as editor-in-chief of the Arizona Law Review. Before entering politics, he was a lawyer and lobbyist with Jennings, Strouss & Salmon in Phoenix, Arizona, he worked as an attorney at Mountain States Legal Foundation in Denver, prior to running for office. Jon Kyl is a Presbyterian. Kyl is married to Caryll Collins, they have four grandchildren. Kyl served in the House of Representatives from 1987 to 1995.
He was first elected in 1986 against Democrat Philip R. Davis, 65% to 35%, he was re-elected in 1988 against Gary Sprunk of the Libertarian party, 87% to 13%. Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security Committee on Finance United States Senate Finance Subcommittee on Taxation and IRS Oversight United States Senate Finance Subcommittee on Health Care United States Senate Finance Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction Kyl was elected by his fellow Senate Republicans to a succession of leadership posts: Policy Committee chairman, Conference chairman, most Senate Minority Whip. Kyl's ascension to Minority Whip makes him the first Arizonan to hold such an influential Senate leadership post since Democrat Ernest W. McFarland served as Senate Majority Leader from 1951 to 1953.
Kyl is the only Arizona Republican to hold such a powerful leadership position. On September 4, 2018, it was announced that Kyl had been appointed by Republican Arizona governor Doug Ducey to take the Senate seat of the late senator John McCain until the end of the year, after the latter had died of cancer. Kyl is the first person to return to the Senate via appointment since 1975, when Sen. Norris Cotton from New Hampshire was appointed back to the Senate after the disputed election of 1974. Kyl is only the sixth person to return to the Senate via appointment since the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. Kyl voted in favor of the confirmation of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court, he resigned from the Senate one minute before midnight on December 31, 2018, was succeeded by former congresswoman Martha McSally a Republican. Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Airland Subcommittee on Seapower Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee on Indian Affairs Kyl is considered to be a conservative and was ranked by National Journal as the fourth-most conservative United States Senator in their March 2007 conservative/liberal rankings.
In addition, in April 2006, Kyl was
Viet D. Dinh
Viet D. Dinh is a lawyer and a conservative legal scholar who served as an Assistant Attorney General of the United States from 2001 to 2003, under the presidency of George W. Bush. Born in Saigon, in the former South Vietnam, he was the chief architect of the USA PATRIOT Act and is a former member of the Board of Directors of News Corporation. Dinh was born in Saigon, South Vietnam, he and his family emigrated to the United States in 1978, three years after Vietnam had embraced communism. They settled in Portland, but moved to Fullerton, two years later. Dinh joined the restarted debate team at Fullerton High under coaches Gary Reed and Jacqueline Reedy as a senior, who encouraged him to apply to Harvard University. Dinh graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1990 with an A. B. in Government and Economics. While at Harvard, he was a member of the Phoenix S. K. Club, he attended Harvard Law School, where he was a Class Marshal, an Olin Research Fellow in Law and Economics, Bluebook editor of the Harvard Law Review, received his Juris Doctor magna cum laude in 1993.
After graduating from law school, Dinh served as a law clerk to Judge Laurence H. Silberman of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit and to U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor during the 1994 Term. Dinh has served as Associate Special Counsel to the U. S. Senate Whitewater Committee, as Special Counsel to Senator Pete V. Domenici for the Impeachment Trial of President Bill Clinton, as counsel to the Special Master in re Austrian and German Bank Holocaust Litigation, he is a member of the District of Supreme Court bars. In late 2003, he was one of a group of prominent U. S. security officials hired by ChoicePoint to advise the company on developing its government homeland security contracts. In 2006 he joined Kenneth Starr in challenging the constitutionality of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Dinh serves on or has served on the boards of the News Corporation, The Orchard Enterprises, Inc. Liberty’s Promise, the American Judicature Society, the Transition Committee for California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Section on National Security Law of the Association of American Law Schools, the ABA Section on Administrative Law.
He resides in Washington, D. C. teaches at Georgetown University Law Center, is a partner at Kirkland & Ellis. In September 2016, Kirkland hired all of the attorneys at the firm Dinh founded, Bancroft PLLC. Dinh's representative publications include Defending Liberty: Terrorism and Human Rights in the Helsinki Monitor and Corporate Governance in a Multinational Business Enterprise in the Journal of Corporation Law, Financial Sector Reform and Economic Development in Vietnam in Law and Policy in International Business, he was writing a book Judicial Authority and Separation of Powers and published The USA Patriot Act: Preserving Life and Liberty in 2008. He published a piece of fiction in the Chicago Review in 2004. In September 2006 Dinh received publicity for representing Tom Perkins, a former Hewlett-Packard director involved in the company's pretexting scandal; the emails between Perkins and Larry Sonsini, a corporate lawyer involved with Board of Directors decisions for many Corporations were forwarded to reporters and became public.
Dinh, along with fellow News Corp. board member, fellow lawyer, Corporation executive Joel Klein, took over the investigation of the News of the World phone hacking affair and related Corporation issues in July, 2011, from News International UK Chief Executive, Rebekah Brooks. Brooks' own possible involvement in the phone hacking scandal made her unable to continue as an impartial investigator. Tom Perkins on the News Corp. board, was one who recommended Dinh for the investigation role. It emerged after he was appointed to the board investigation that Dinh is godfather to one of Lachlan Murdoch's children and friend of Lachlan since 2003. Further, in 1992, a decade before he met Lachlan, Dinh wrote of his sister, held in a Hong Kong refugee camp, in the New York Times, which led to NBC TV coverage and to a series of articles in the South China Morning Post; the Post was owned by Rupert Murdoch, Dinh's articles there were credited with helping free his sister. The personal ties to Murdoch interests and family were debated as Dinh took the role in the phone-hacking investigation.
Dinh served as Assistant Attorney General of the United States from 2001 to 2003, under the presidency of George W. Bush, he was confirmed in the Senate by a vote of 96 to 1, with the sole No vote coming from Hillary Clinton. As the official responsible for federal legal policy, Dinh worked with issues of illicit drugs, racial profiling in federal law enforcement, exploitation of children, human trafficking, DNA technology, gun violence, civil and criminal justice procedural reform. Dinh was involved in the selection and confirmation of 100 district and 23 appellate judges in his role representing the U. S. Department of Justice. After 9/11, Dinh conducted a comprehensive review of DOJ priorities and practices, played a key role in developing the USA PATRIOT Act and revising the Attorney General's Guidelines, which govern federal law enforcement activities and national security investigations. Dinh is Professor of Law at Georgetown University Law Center, his expertise lies in constitutional law, corporations law, the law and economics of development.
He is currently Co-Director of the Asian Law & Policy Studies Program. He served as Co-Director of the Joint Program in Law and Business Administration, from 1998–99, his family was separated in 1975 when his father, Phong Dinh, was being held
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented Delaware in the U. S. Senate from 1973 to 2009. Biden was born in Scranton and lived there for ten years before moving with his family to Delaware, he became an attorney in 1969 and was elected to the New Castle County Council in 1970. He was first elected to the U. S. Senate in 1972, when he became the sixth-youngest senator in American history. Biden was re-elected to the upper house of Congress six times and was the fourth most senior senator when he resigned to assume the vice presidency in 2009. Biden was a long-time former chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, he opposed the Gulf War in 1991, but advocated U. S. and NATO intervention in the Bosnian War in 1994 and 1995. He voted in favor of the resolution authorizing the Iraq War in 2002 but opposed the surge of U. S. troops in 2007. He has served as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention, civil liberties.
Biden led the efforts to pass the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, the Violence Against Women Act. He chaired the Judiciary Committee during the contentious U. S. Supreme Court nominations of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. Biden unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and in 2008, both times dropping out after lackluster showings. In 2008, Biden was chosen as the running mate of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama. After being elected vice president, Biden oversaw infrastructure spending aimed at counteracting the Great Recession and helped formulate U. S. policy toward Iraq up until the withdrawal of U. S. troops in 2011. His ability to negotiate with congressional Republicans helped the Obama administration pass legislation such as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010, which resolved a taxation deadlock. Biden was reported to have advised President Obama against approving the 2011 military mission that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden, though he has disputed this.
Obama and Biden were re-elected in 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney and his running mate, Paul Ryan. In October 2015, after months of speculation, Biden announced he would not seek the presidency in the 2016 elections. In one of the final acts of his term in January 2017, President Obama awarded Biden the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction. After completing his second term as vice president, Biden joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was named the Benjamin Franklin Professor of Presidential Practice; as of March 2019, Biden was reported to be considering a 2020 presidential run, after a mid-2018 Hill/HarrisX poll placed him at the top among potential Democratic presidential candidates. Biden was born on November 20, 1942, at St. Mary's Hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, to Catherine Eugenia Biden and Joseph Robinette Biden Sr, he was the first of four siblings in a Catholic family, with two brothers. His mother was of Irish descent, with roots variously attributed to County Louth or County Londonderry.
His paternal grandparents, Mary Elizabeth and Joseph H. Biden, an oil businessman from Baltimore, were of English and Irish ancestry, his paternal great-great-great grandfather, William Biden, was born in Sussex and immigrated to the United States. His maternal great-grandfather, Edward Francis Blewitt, was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate. Biden's father had been prosperous earlier in his life but suffered several business reversals by the time his son was born. For several years the family had to live with the Finnegans; when the Scranton area went into economic decline during the 1950s, Biden's father could not find enough work. In 1953, the Biden family moved to an apartment in Claymont, where they lived for a few years before moving to a house in Wilmington, Delaware. Joe Biden Sr. was more successful as a used car salesman, the family's circumstances were middle class. Biden attended the Archmere Academy in Claymont where he was a standout halfback/wide receiver on the high school football team.
He played on the baseball team as well. During these years, he participated in an anti-segregation sit-in at a Wilmington theatre. Academically, he was an above-average student, was considered a natural leader among the students, was elected class president during his junior and senior years, he graduated in 1961. He earned his bachelor's in 1965 from the University of Delaware, with a double major in history and political science, graduating with a class rank of 506 out of 688, his classmates were impressed by his cramming abilities, he played halfback with the Blue Hens freshman football team. In 1964, while on spring break in the Bahamas, he met and began dating Neilia Hunter, from an affluent background in Skaneateles, New York, attended Syracuse University, he told her that he aimed to become a senator by the age of 30 and President. He dropped a junior year plan to play for the varsity football team as a defensive back, enabling him to spend more time visiting out of state with her, he entered Syracuse University College of Law, receiving a half scholarship based on financial need with some additional assistance based on academics.
By his own description, he found law school to be "th
Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from California. She took office on November 4, 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Feinstein was Mayor of San Francisco from 1978 to 1988. Born in San Francisco, Feinstein graduated from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. In the 1960s, she worked in city government, she was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1969, she served as the board's first female president in 1978, during which time the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk drew national attention. Feinstein succeeded Moscone as Mayor of San Francisco and became the first woman to assume the position. During her tenure, she led the renovation of the city's cable car system, oversaw the 1984 Democratic National Convention. After losing a race for governor in 1990, Feinstein won a 1992 special election to the U. S. Senate. Feinstein was first elected on the same ballot as her peer Barbara Boxer, the two women became California's first female U.
S. Senators. Feinstein has been re-elected five times since and in the 2012 election, she received 7.75 million votes--the most popular votes in any U. S. Senate election in history. Feinstein was the author of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban which expired in 2004. In 2013, she introduced a new assault weapons bill. Feinstein is the first and only woman to have chaired the Senate Rules Committee and the Select Committee on Intelligence. To date, she is the only woman to have presided over a U. S. presidential inauguration. At the age of 85, Feinstein is the oldest sitting U. S. Senator. Upon the retirement of Barbara Mikulski in January 2017, Feinstein became the longest-tenured female U. S. Senator serving in the Senate. Having won reelection in 2018 to a six-year term expiring in January 2025, Feinstein will become the longest serving woman Senator in history should she serve her full term. Feinstein was born Dianne Emiel Goldman in San Francisco, to Betty, a former model, Leon Goldman, a surgeon.
Feinstein's paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Poland. Her maternal grandparents, the Rosenburg family, were from Russia. While they were of German-Jewish ancestry, they practiced the Russian Orthodox faith, as was required for Jews residing in Saint Petersburg. Feinstein graduated from Convent of the Sacred Heart High School, San Francisco in 1951 and from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. Prior to elected service, Feinstein was appointed by then-California Governor Pat Brown to serve as a member of the California Women's Parole Board. Feinstein served as a fellow at the Coro Foundation in San Francisco. In 1969, Feinstein was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, she remained on the Board for nine years. During her tenure on the Board of Supervisors, she unsuccessfully ran for mayor of San Francisco twice, in 1971 against mayor Joseph Alioto, in 1975, when she lost the contest for a runoff slot by one percentage point, to supervisor John Barbagelata.
Because of her position, Feinstein became a target of the New World Liberation Front, an anti-capitalist and terrorist group which carried out bombings in California in the 1970s. The NWLF placed a bomb on the windowsill of the Feinstein home, they shot out the windows of a beach house she owned. She was elected president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1978 with initial opposition from Quentin Kopp. On November 27, 1978, Moscone and supervisor Harvey Milk were assassinated by a rival politician, Dan White, who had resigned from the Board of Supervisors two weeks earlier. Feinstein was in City Hall at the time of the shootings and discovered Milk's body after hearing the shots; that day Feinstein announced the assassinations had occurred. As President of the Board of Supervisors upon the death of Moscone, Feinstein succeeded to the mayoralty on December 4, 1978. Feinstein served out the remainder of Moscone's term and was elected in her own right in 1979, she served a full second term.
One of Feinstein's first challenges as mayor was the state of the San Francisco cable car system, shut down for emergency repairs in 1979. Feinstein helped win federal funding for the bulk of the work; the system closed for rebuilding in 1982 and the work was completed just in time for the 1984 Democratic National Convention. Feinstein oversaw planning policies to increase the number of high-rise buildings in San Francisco. Feinstein was seen as a moderate Democrat in one of the country's most liberal cities; as a supervisor, she was considered part of the centrist bloc that included Dan White and was opposed to Moscone. As mayor, Feinstein angered the city's large gay community by refusing to march in a gay rights parade and by vetoing domestic partner legislation in 1982. In the 1980 presidential election, while a majority of Bay Area Democrats continued to support Senator Ted Kennedy's primary challenge to President Jimmy Carter after it was clear Kennedy could not win, Feinstein was a strong supporter of the Carter–Mondale ticket.
She was given a high-profile speaking role on the opening night of the August Democratic National Convention, urging delegates to reject the Kennedy delegates' proposal to "open" the convention, thereby allowing delegates to ignore their states' popular vote, a proposal, soundly defeated. In the run-up to the 1984 Democratic National Convention, there was considerable media and public specu