Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Mountain View, California
Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains. From its origins as a stagecoach stop, it grew to a large suburb with a pedestrian-friendly downtown and a population of 74,066; the city borders Palo Alto and the San Francisco Bay to the north, Los Altos to the south, Moffett Federal Airfield and Sunnyvale to the east. Situated in the southern end of the Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northwest corner of Santa Clara county, Mountain View is home to many high technology companies. In 1956, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, the first company to develop silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley, was established in the city by William Shockley. Today, many of the largest technology companies in the world are headquartered in the city, including Google, Mozilla Foundation and Intuit; the original Byte Shop computer store was opened at 1063 El Camino Real, Mountain View, by Paul Terrell, the first 50 Apple I computers were sold from that location.
The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority integrates the city with the neighboring cities of Palo Alto, Los Altos, Sunnyvale. The Mexican land grant of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was given in 1842 by Alta California Governor Juan Alvarado to Francisco Estrada; this grant was passed on to Mariano Castro, who sold half of the land to Martin Murphy, Jr. Eventually, the former land grant became the cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale; the area, on the southwest shore of San Francisco Bay, was settled in 1852 as a stagecoach station. By the early 1900s, it was a shipping point for fruit and grain, as well as a center of religious book publishing, it was first known as the major center of Fremont Twp. before the first California 1852 census, for Santa Clara County. Which meant that it was a predecessor to Palo Alto. Mountain View Station named in 1864, had its beginnings earlier as a stagecoach stop on the route between San Francisco and San Jose, including the Butterfield Overland Mail.
Incorporated on November 7, 1902. Phyllis Ave. & El Camino Real of today, was closer to what was once the original town center and its San Jose Road. The early pioneers were buried at the old cemetery between Mercy & Church, off Castro Street, now the present city Library and park, aka Pioneer Park. Reverend Henry Merrill Henderson, born in Maryland, age 35, arrived in Spring of 1852, with his family to meet with relatives Ricketts and many others from Missouri and Kentucky, he was the first Baptist minister in town and soon was going by horse to Half-Moon Bay, McCartersville for services. His next-door neighbor arrived that year, Seligman Weilheimer and brother Samuel from Dossenheim, Germany, who built at that property, the first big general merchandise store in 1856; the Fremont twp. population was about 560 by 1860, less Mayfield Post office section, which began north of present San Antonio Road. The town's early growth was due to agriculture, William Bubb being a town figure, buying 80 acres to farm in October 1851, where he died in 1864.
His heirs intermarried in the area. Agriculture remained the primary industry into the middle of the 20th century; the U. S. Navy's adjacent 1000 acre Moffett Field Complex began after 1931 and brought many economic opportunities. After World War II, the population grew with the development of the aerospace and electronics industries. Between 1950 and 1960, the population grew from 6,563 to 30,889, an increase of 370.7%. Between 1929 and 1994, the city was the home of the Moffett Field Naval Air Station. In 1940, the city became the home of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, influencing the city's development of its aerospace and electronics industries. Today, high technology is the foundation of the local economy, there exist few remnants of the city's agricultural past. In 1990, Kevin Duggan began his position as city manager, he built a relationship with Google, Inc. and issued a long-term lease to that and other technology companies. As of 2014, those leases generate over $5 million per year in city revenue.
Duggan reinstituted a special tax district for the Shoreline area, a landfill and pig farm in 1990. That money allowed the city to create a large golf course on the site; the Castro Street downtown area benefited from a special tax district. In 2016, the city's voters approved a rent control ordinance. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 sq mi, of which 12.0 sq mi is land and 0.27 sq mi is water. Mountain View is located at the north end of State Route 85, where it meets U. S. Route 101. State Route 82 follows the route of the historic El Camino Real through Mountain View; the city is bounded to the northwest by Palo Alto, to the north by the Bay, to the south and southwest by Los Altos, to the east by Sunnyvale and Moffett Federal Airfield. To the west lie the Santa Cruz Mountains, after which the city is named and which separate it from the Pacific Ocean. To the east lies the Diablo Range; the two ranges demarcate the Santa Clara Valley. Most of Mountain View consists of residential neighborhoods.
Business parks are located in the North Shoreline neighborhood, north of Highway 101, east of Highway 85. Mountain View has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Summers are warm and dry, while winters a
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Incubus is an American rock band from Calabasas, California. The band was formed in 1991 by vocalist Brandon Boyd, lead guitarist Mike Einziger, drummer Jose Pasillas while enrolled in Calabasas High School and expanded to include bassist Alex "Dirk Lance" Katunich, Gavin "DJ Lyfe" Koppell. Incubus has attained commercial success, reaching multi-platinum sales, as well as releasing several successful singles. After their first two albums, Fungus Amongus and S. C. I. E. N. C. E; the band earned mainstream recognition with the release of their 1999 album Make Yourself which spawned several hits, including the band's highest charting song "Drive." Success continued with the albums Morning View and A Crow Left of the Murder.... Their sixth studio album, Light Grenades, debuted at No. 1 in 2006 and was followed by Incubus' first greatest hits album Monuments and Melodies in June 2009 and the band's 2011 album, If Not Now, When?. Incubus released an EP, Trust Fall, in early 2015, two years the band released their eighth studio album, titled 8, on April 21, 2017.
Worldwide, Incubus has sold over 19 million albums. Incubus was formed in 1991 by vocalist Brandon Boyd, guitarist Mike Einziger, bassist Alex Katunich and drummer Jose Pasillas, while the members were in high school, they existed as a band for some time before they gave themselves a name, having only chosen the band's name "Incubus" when required to supply a band name for an upcoming show. The band's early shows were at nightclubs on Los Angeles' Sunset Strip, including such well-known venues as the Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy and the Troubadour. Incubus produced many of their early recordings with Jim Wirt and Chillum Records in a Santa Monica studio, only able to work on their music during hours in which they were not in school. In 1995, Incubus added Gavin Koppell to the band and recorded their first two-song EP, Let Me Tell Ya'Bout Root Beer; this was followed by the debut album Fungus Amongus recorded with Wirt and released on Incubus' own label Stopuglynailfungus Music. In the following year, Incubus signed a seven-record deal with Sony's Immortal Records to become Epic Records.
The group was spotted by Epic/Immortal A&R Paul Pontius, responsible for signing Korn to the label. The 1997 six-track EP Enjoy Incubus was the band's first major-label release and was created so the band could present a recording while touring with Korn in Europe. S. C. I. E. N. C. E. Incubus' second studio album, was released on September 9, 1997. After their album release, they started opening for bands such as Korn and 311; this album marked somewhat of a stylistic departure from the band's more funk influenced early material, incorporating many more elements of nu metal. In February 1998, Incubus dismissed Koppell, they decided. A friend recommended Chris Kilmore to fill the position; the band asked him to join the band. Incubus participated in the Ozzfest and Family Values metal festivals and toured with System of a Down and Ultraspank during the fall. Chris Kilmore known as DJ Kilmore, replaced DJ Lyfe. After constant touring throughout 1998, after selling over 100,000 copies of S. C. I. E. N. C. E. Without the support of radio or television exposure, Incubus took a break for two years and released their critically acclaimed third album Make Yourself.
After just 2 weeks in the studio with producer Jim Wirt, the band was unhappy with the recordings and opted to continue recording without a producer. After another 3 weeks of recording, R. E. M./Nirvana producer Scott Litt took an interest in their songs and started taking part in the recording sessions focusing on songs like "Drive" and "Stellar". According to the band, Litt's involvement in the record came during the mixing process. Make Yourself was released on October 26, 1999; the album marked the beginning of a more commercially acceptable pop rock and alternative rock sound for the band, although several songs from the album still included elements of nu/alternative metal, such as downtuned riffs and layers of electronics. Right after their album's release, the band went on tour with Primus and Buckethead, a tour which lasted for the remainder of the year; the first song that kicked off the album, "Privilege", was featured on MTV Sports: Pure Ride for the PlayStation. The band released the single, "Pardon Me", but it was not well received by radio stations.
Brandon and Mike decided to perform a live acoustic version of the song at the few radio stations who were showing interest, this in turn spread the word of the song. Many radio stations began to play the acoustic version, including the influential Los Angeles radio giant KROQ-FM. With sparked interest in the song, radio stations began playing the studio version of "Pardon Me". In response, Incubus made a video for the song and released a six-song EP titled When Incubus Attacks on August 22, 2000; the EP contained the acoustic version of "Pardon Me". In its first week, the EP sold nearly 40,000 copies, peaked at No. 41 on the Billboard 200. To start off 2000, the band headed out on Tour with System of a Down, Mr. Bungle until March, at which point they embarked on a headline tour in clubs until April. Due to the success of "Pardon Me", Make Yourself reached Gold certification in April 2000. Incubus continued to tour overseas, returned home at the end of May to go on a tour of the United States with longtime friends 311.
"Stellar," the next single from the album was soon released, its video received afternoon airplay on MTV and
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
O'Shea Jackson Sr. known professionally as Ice Cube, is an American rapper and actor. Ice Cube gained recognition as a member of the hip hop group C. I. A. in 1984, which gained limited commercial success prior to disbanding three years later. Ice Cube, alongside Dr. Dre and Eazy E formed the group N. W. A, where he gained extreme notoriety as the group's primary songwriter and performer, noted for becoming one of the founding artists of gangsta rap, pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music, as well as visual imagery in music videos. After leaving N. W. A in December 1989, Ice Cube embarked on a successful solo career, releasing the albums AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted and Death Certificate, both of which have attained platinum certification in the United States, while being classed as defining albums of the 1990s. Much of his musical output has contained harsh socio-political commentary and storytelling, which has earned him several accolades from multiple publications and artists cited as an influence and one of the best rappers of all time.
Following the release of Death Certificate, Ice Cube transitioned into film, where his popularity was further enhanced by his starring role in Boyz n the Hood, where his performance was praised. He wrote and starred in the Friday film series, which contributed to reinventing his public image as a movie star. Ice Cube has featured in the Barbershop, Ride Along, XXX film series, while serving as a producer to several other films, including Straight Outta Compton, a biographical film depicting the career of N. W. A.. As a businessman, Ice Cube has founded his clothing line, Solo by Cube, as well as the 3 on 3 basketball league Big3, which predominately features retired NBA players. O'Shea Jackson was born on June 15, 1969, in Baldwin Hills, South Central Los Angeles, the son of Doris, a hospital clerk and custodian, Hosea Jackson, who worked as a groundskeeper at UCLA and a machinist, he has an older brother as well as a half-sister, murdered when Ice Cube was 12. His cousin is Teren Delvon Jones known as Del tha Funky Homosapien, a part of the rap group Hieroglyphics and who has worked with Gorillaz.
Jackson grew up on Van Wick Street in South Central Los Angeles. In his early teens, Jackson developed an interest in hip hop music, began writing raps in Los Angeles George Washington Preparatory High School's typewriting class. Jackson penned his first rap song in the ninth grade after a friend named "Kiddo", challenged him to write a song during a typewriting class. Kiddo lost. On the origins of his rapper name, Ice Cube says, he is quoted as saying "He threatened to slam me into a freezer and pull me out when I was an ice cube. I just started using that name, it just caught on."At the age of 16, Jackson sold his first song to future N. W. A. member Eazy-E. Jackson attended William Howard Taft High School in Woodland Hills, California, he enrolled at the Phoenix Institute of Technology in the fall of 1987 in Arizona. Being passionate about architecture, he studied architectural drafting, he returned to Los Angeles to pursue a rap career. Not sure of whether his rap career would work out, he would turn to become an architecture draftsman as a career backup.
With friend Sir Jinx, Ice Cube formed the C. I. A. and they performed at parties hosted by Dr. Dre. Dre soon entered the recording industry as a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru. Dre saw Cube's potential as a writer and had him assist with writing Wreckin Cru's big L. A. hit track, "Cabbage Patch" as well as joining Cube on a side partnership which the duo called Stereo Crew. Stereo Crew produced a twelve-inch record, "She's a Skag" released on Epic Records in 1986. While Dr. Dre was DJing at L. A. dance club Eve After Dark, Ice Cube would rap over his music parodying songs by other artists. One such example of this was the song "My Penis," a parody of Run-DMC's "My Adidas." In a 2015 interview, club-owner Alonzo Williams said that he felt that this song damaged his reputation and asked for it not to be performed. In 1987, Ice Cube released the Dr. Dre produced single My Posse under with his group C. I. A.. After the collaboration, Ice Cube showed Eazy-E the lyrics to "Boyz-n-the-Hood". Eazy-E, although rejecting the lyrics recorded the song for N.
W. A. and the Posse, the debut album for the group N. W. A that included Dr. Dre, MC Ren, DJ Yella. Ice Cube was the only member of N. W. A, not from Compton, California. By this point Ice Cube was a full-time member of N. W. A along with Dr. Dre and MC Ren. Ice Cube wrote Dr. Dre's and Eazy-E's rhymes for the group's landmark album, Straight Outta Compton, released in 1988. However, towards the end of 1989, Ice Cube found himself at odds with the group's manager, Jerry Heller, after rejecting Heller's proposed contract terms. Ice Cube wrote the lyrics to half of both Straight Outta Compton, Eazy-E's solo album, Eazy-Duz-It, but he was only paid $32,000 and his contract did not confirm that he was an official member of N. W. A; this led Ice Cube to leave the group and bring a private lawsuit against Jerry Heller, settled out of court. In response, the remaining N. W. A members attacked him on the EP 100 Miles and Runnin', on their next and final album, Niggaz4Life. In 1989, Ice Cube recorded his debut solo album, AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted, in New York with the Bomb Squad.
It was released in May 1990 and was an instant hit and contributing to the rising tide of rap's popularity in mainstream society. The album was charg
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi