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Vernon Philander

Vernon Darryl Philander is a South African former international cricketer. He was a right-handed bowling all-rounder, he played for the South Africa national cricket team and Cape Cobras in South African domestic cricket. In December 2019, ahead of a Test series against England, Philander announced that the series would be his last series before retiring from international cricket. Philander was chosen for the emerging players tournament in Australia, took 3 for 30, as well as hitting 59 off 50 balls in the final against New Zealand A. South Africa would go on to win the tournament. Philander has played English county cricket, firstly for Middlesex in April & May 2008, Somerset in April & May 2012, Kent in July 2013. In October 2018, he was named in Durban Heat's squad for the first edition of the Mzansi Super League T20 tournament. In September 2019, he was named in the squad for the Cape Town Blitz team for the 2019 Mzansi Super League tournament. Philander made his ODI debut against Ireland at Belfast.

He took 4 for a match-winning performance. Philander enjoyed a tremendous start to his international career. On 9 November 2011, Philander made his Test debut against Australia, was awarded Man of the Match after taking 5–15 in Australia's second innings, in which Australia was dismissed for 47, that country's lowest completed test innings total since 1902, he was Man of the Series, with 14 wickets at 13.92 and two five-wicket hauls across the two tests. The following month he took five wickets in each innings in the first test of South Africa's home series against Sri Lanka, he became the fifth player in history to take five wickets in an innings in each of his first three tests. These performances led to him being awarded a national contract by Cricket South Africa in January 2012. In the series in New Zealand which began in March 2012, Philander picked up five wickets in the first test at Dunedin, which ended a draw, he followed this up with a match-winning performance in the second test at Hamilton where he picked up 4–70 and 6–44 for the second 10-wicket haul of his career.

In the third test at Wellington, he excelled once again. During the course of this innings, he bowled New Zealand batsman Doug Bracewell for his 50th test wicket in only his 7th match, thus became the second-fastest bowler to claim 50 wickets; the only bowler to get to the mark faster was Charles Turner. He went wicketless in the second innings. In October 2012, alongside Dale Steyn and Morné Morkel, Philander was part of a South African pace attack bowling coach and former test cricketer Allan Donald called the best the country had produced. In 2013, he was one of the South African bowlers who bowled out New Zealand for 45, the lowest Test Match total of the millennium; as of May 2013 he was rated by the ICC as the second-best bowler and the third-best all-rounder in the world. The best bowler and all-rounder being fellow South Africans Dale Steyn and Jacques Kallis, respectively. On 20 December 2013, Philander took his 100th test wicket in the first test against India in Johannesburg, he needed only 19 matches to reach his 100 wickets, the joint-sixth-fastest ever.

Earlier the same day he scored an anchor-innings of 59 runs, batting at number 8, showing off his versatility for the Proteas. These efforts led him to achieve the number 1 ranking in ICC Test Bowling Rankings for the year 2013. On 12 November 2016, Philander took his tenth five-wicket haul in Tests, during the second Test against Australia. Australia was bowled out for 85 runs, their lowest in a home Test in 32 years; this was third time by Philander, in which the opposition has been dismissed for fewer than 100 and Philander has taken a five-for. List of international cricket five-wicket hauls by Vernon Philander List of South Africa cricketers who have taken five-wicket hauls on Test debut Vernon Philander at ESPNcricinfo Vernon Philander at Wisden India

Gromov's systolic inequality for essential manifolds

In the mathematical field of Riemannian geometry, M. Gromov's systolic inequality bounds the length of the shortest non-contractible loop on a Riemannian manifold in terms of the volume of the manifold. Gromov's systolic inequality was proved in 1983. Technically, let M be an essential Riemannian manifold of dimension n. Gromov's inequality takes the form n ≤ C n vol ⁡, where Cn is a universal constant only depending on the dimension of M. A closed manifold is called essential if its fundamental class defines a nonzero element in the homology of its fundamental group, or more in the homology of the corresponding Eilenberg–MacLane space. Here the fundamental class is taken in homology with integer coefficients if the manifold is orientable, in coefficients modulo 2, otherwise. Examples of essential manifolds include aspherical manifolds, real projective spaces, lens spaces. Gromov's original 1983 proof is about 35 pages long, it relies on a number of inequalities of global Riemannian geometry. The starting point of the proof is the imbedding of X into the Banach space of Borel functions on X, equipped with the sup norm.

The imbedding is defined by mapping a point p of X, to the real function on X given by the distance from the point p. The proof utilizes the coarea inequality, the isoperimetric inequality, the cone inequality, the deformation theorem of Herbert Federer. One of the key ideas of the proof is the introduction of filling invariants, namely the filling radius and the filling volume of X. Namely, Gromov proved a sharp inequality relating the systole and the filling radius, s y s π 1 ≤ 6 F i l l R a d, valid for all essential manifolds X, it was shown by Brunnbauer that the filling invariants, unlike the systolic invariants, are independent of the topology of the manifold in a suitable sense. Guth and Ambrosio & Katz developed approaches to the proof of Gromov's systolic inequality for essential manifolds. Stronger results are available for surfaces, where the asymptotics when the genus tends to infinity are by now well understood, see systoles of surfaces. A uniform inequality for arbitrary 2-complexes with non-free fundamental groups is available, whose proof relies on the Grushko decomposition theorem.

Filling area conjecture Gromov's inequality Gromov's inequality for complex projective space Loewner's torus inequality Pu's inequality Systolic geometry Ambrosio, Luigi. Brunnbauer, M. "Filling inequalities do not depend on topology", J. Reine Angew. Math. 624: 217–231 Gromov, M. "Filling Riemannian manifolds", J. Diff. Geom. 18: 1–147, MR 0697984, Zbl 0515.53037, PE euclid.jdg/1214509283 Guth, Larry, "Volumes of balls in large Riemannian manifolds", Annals of Mathematics, 173: 51–76, arXiv:math/0610212, doi:10.4007/annals.2011.173.1.2, MR 2753599 Katz, Mikhail G. Systolic geometry and topology, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, 137, Providence, R. I.: American Mathematical Society, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-8218-4177-8

Ronald Niebour

Ronald Niebour was a British cartoonist who used the penname NEB. He is best known for his pocket cartoons in the Daily Mail. Ronald Niebour was born in Streatham, London, on 4 April 1903, he was educated at Barry County School in South Wales which he attended with Leslie Illingworth, his colleague as a cartoonist on the Daily Mail. After two years in the Merchant Navy Niebour became a schoolteacher, teaching metalwork and handicrafts for three years at schools in Birmingham and Kendal. Niebour was self-taught as an artist, his was the Football Cartoonist for the Barry Dock News and the Cardiff Evening Express. He became the Sports Cartoonist of the Oxford Mail, before joining the staff of the Birmingham Gazette and the Birmingham Evening Despatch. After submitting some sketches, Niebour joined the Daily Mail in London on 26 September 1938 working on the Woman's Page and the Gardening Notes. After the outbreak of World War II he changed to drawing pocket cartoons, which became popular. At the end of the war one of his cartoons was found in a file in the ruins of Hitler's Chancellery.

Niebour drew advertisements and worked for Punch. Niebour retired from the Daily Mail on 1 December 1960 and died at his home in Benajarafe, near Málaga, Spain, on 19 July 1972. "NEB, Roland Niebour". The Political Cartoon Gallery. Retrieved 22 May 2019

Publius Cluvius Maximus Paullinus

Publius Cluvius Maximus Paullinus was a Roman senator, who held a number of imperial appointments during the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. He was suffect consul during an undetermined nundinium between 139 and 143, he is known from inscriptions. His relationship to Gaius Marius Marcellus Octavius Publius Cluvius Rufus, suffect consul in 78, is unknown; the polyonymous nature of the name of this earlier consul suggests he was born Publius Cluvius and adopted by one Gaius Marius Marcellus. An inscription from Labicum, where Paullinus and his son Publius Cluvius Maximus Paullinus are buried, provides us the details of his cursus honorum, he began his career as a member of the quattuorviri viarum curandarum, or overseer of the streets and public places of Rome, one of the magistracies that comprised the vigintiviri. Next he was commissioned military tribune of Legio V Macedonica, at the time stationed at Troesmis in Moesia Inferior, he was elected quaestor, which he served in the public province of Achaea.

Upon completion of this traditional Republican magistracy he would be enrolled in the Senate. The traditional Republican magistracy of plebeian tribune followed, after that praetor. After he completed his duties as praetor, Paullinus was entrusted with the important duty of acting as messenger between Hadrian and the Senate, delivering a letter to the emperor, in Africa at the time; the fact of Hadrian's location allows us to date this appointment by the Senate to the year 128. This was followed by his appointment to prefectus frumenti dandi, or overseer of the grain supply for Rome; the next office listed on the inscription from Labicum is sevir equitum Romanorum, or the official presiding over the annual review of the equites in Rome. Its location here is odd: this office is held around the time one is quaestor; this abnormally raises the suspicion that what we have here is a stone-carver's mistake on the order of these offices. This is followed by another item of interest: Paullinus was twice selected to serve as legatus or assistant to two different governors: the first was to the governor of Achaea, the second of Asia.

Serving as a legatus provided an important opportunity for a younger Senator to form a bond with an older and more influential Senator. Alföldy dates the first tenure as legatus to the term 133/134, the second to 134/135; these notices would gain more interest if the dating were either more precise or confident, for one could identify the Senators Paullinus was a legatus for, shed a little light on the relationships of the Roman Senate. If the dates Alföldy provides are correct he might have been legatus to Gaius Julius Severus consul in Achaea, to Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus in Asia. However, if Eck is correct about the dates, we do not have a name for the governor in Achaea, but the governor Paullinus served in Asia would have been Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus. After completing his duties as a legatus to the proconsular governor of Asia, whoever he was, Paullinus received the province of Sicilia to govern. After he returned to Rome, Paullinus received a commission to command Legio XIV Gemina stationed at Carnuntum.

Paullinus was appointed curator viae Flaminiae. Paullinus entered his consulate, the record of his life is not as detailed. From another source we know he was appointed governor of Moesia Superior, which Alföldy dates from the year 146 to 149. If Ronald Syme is correct with his chronology, Paullinus was associated with a troublesome allocation of the province of Asia. Around the year 157 the sortition awarded this much-desired province to Herodes Atticus, but the rhetor declined the offer. Paullinus accepted the office.

L'Arl├ęsienne (short story)

L'Arlésienne is a short story, written by Alphonse Daudet and first published in his collection Letters From My Windmill in 1869. On a commission from Léon Carvalho, the author transformed the story in 1872 into a play in three acts and five tableaux with music and chorus. Georges Bizet wrote incidental music for the play's first production on 1 October 1872, at the Vaudeville Theatre; the play was not closed after only 21 performances. The music score was used for two suites of the same name, the first established by Bizet himself in November 1872, the second after Bizet's 1875 death, by Ernest Guiraud. Another play was scheduled for the night of 1 October 1872, but it was withdrawn by the censors at the last minute and L'Arlésienne was substituted. Many of the patrons were less than happy with this change. Daudet's play formed the basis of the Italian opera L'arlesiana, text by Leopoldo Marenco, music by Francesco Cilea. On 8 March 1999, BBC Radio 4 broadcast an adaptation of Daudet's play entitled The Girl from Arles, written by and translated from the French by Michael Robson and directed by Enyd Williams, with Frances Jeater as Rose Mamaï, John Woodvine as Balthazar, Mary Wimbush as Madame Renaud, Geoffrey Whitehead as Francet Mamaï, Gavin Muir as Mitifio, Giles Fagan as Frederi, Tilly Gaunt as Vivette and Ben Crowe as Marc.

The play is set in France. L’Arlésienne, which translates to "the girl from Arles", is loved by a young peasant Fréderi. However, upon discovering her infidelity prior to their wedding date, Fréderi approaches madness, his family tries at great length to "save" their son, but Fréderi commits suicide by jumping off a balcony. Because the title character is never shown in the play, Arlésienne is used in modern French to describe a person, prominently absent from a place or a situation in the plot of a literary work