Statistics Norway is the Norwegian statistics bureau. It was established in 1876. Relying on a staff of about 1,000, Statistics Norway publish about 1,000 new statistical releases every year on its web site. All releases are published both in Norwegian and English. In addition a number of edited publications are published, all are available on the web site for free; as the central Norwegian office for official government statistics, Statistics Norway provides the public and government with extensive research and analysis activities. It is administratively placed under the Ministry of Finance but operates independently from all government agencies. Statistics Norway has a board appointed by the government, it relies extensively on data from registers, but are collecting data from surveys and questionnaires, including from cities and municipalities. Statistics Norway was established in 1876; the Statistics Act of 1989 provides the legal framework for Statistics Norway's activities. Statistics Norway has been criticized in 2018 for misrepresenting employment levels for African and Asian immigrants due to employment was counted from 1 weekly hour of work.
Counting full-time employment as 30 hours of work per week, the figures were lower. While official figures show that 35.2% of Pakistani female immigrants are employed, only 20% are in full time employment. The agency is led by a Director General. Geir Axelsen, Director General, Birger Vikøren, acting Director General Christine Meyers, Director General. In the autumn of 2017 resigned from that position after Finance Minister Siv Jensen declared that Myers no longer had her confidence; the conflict was the question of. Kostra Official website
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War; the amendment was bitterly contested by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore regarding the 2000 presidential election, Obergefell v. Hodges regarding same-sex marriage; the amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, Equal Protection Clause.
The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, nullifying the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. Since the Slaughter-House Cases, the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted to do little; the Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without a fair procedure. The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy; the Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people, including all non-citizens, within its jurisdiction. This clause has been the basis for many decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups.
The second and fourth sections of the amendment are litigated. However, the second section's reference to "rebellion, or other crime" has been invoked as a constitutional ground for felony disenfranchisement; the fourth section was held, in Perry v. United States, to prohibit a current Congress from abrogating a contract of debt incurred by a prior Congress; the fifth section gives Congress the power to enforce the amendment's provisions by "appropriate legislation". Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed, but when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, having taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof, but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4; the validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave.
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern States; because the full population of fre
Canadian nationality law
Canadian nationality law is promulgated by the Citizenship Act since 1977. The Act determines, eligible to be, a citizen of Canada; the Act replaced the previous Canadian Citizenship Act in 1977 and has gone through four significant amendments, in 2007, 2009, 2015 and 2017. Canadian citizenship is obtained by birth in Canada on the principle of jus soli, or birth abroad when at least one parent is a Canadian citizen or by adoption by at least one Canadian citizen under the rules of jus sanguinis, it can be granted to a permanent resident who has lived in Canada for a period of time through naturalization. Immigration and Citizenship Canada is the department of the federal government responsible for citizenship-related matters, including confirmation, grant and revocation of citizenship. On 19 June 2017, the Act has been amended for a fourth time by the 42nd Canadian Parliament. A set of changes has taken effect throughout 2017 and 2018 as a result with regard to naturalization requirements and citizenship deprivation procedures.
After Canadian Confederation was achieved in 1867, the new Dominion's "nationality law" closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom and all Canadians were classified as British subjects. Section 91 of the British North America Act, 1867, passed by the British Parliament in London, gave the Parliament of Canada authority over "Naturalization and Aliens"; the Immigration Act, 1910, for example, created the status of "Canadian citizen". This distinguished those British subjects who were born, naturalized, or domiciled in Canada from those who were not, but was only applied for the purpose of determining whether someone was free of immigration controls; the Naturalization Act, 1914, increased the period of residence required to qualify for naturalization in Canada as a British subject from three years to five years. A separate additional status of "Canadian national" was created under the Canadian Nationals Act, 1921, with the immediate purpose of securing Canadian participation in the newly created Court of International Justice, but with the broader aim "to define a particular class of British subjects who, in addition to having all the rights and all the obligations of British subjects, have particular rights because of the fact that they are Canadians".
Its purpose was "to recognize, a Canadian and, not". Canadian independence from Britain was obtained incrementally between 1867 and 1982. In 1931, the Statute of Westminster provided that the United Kingdom would have no legislative authority over Dominions without the request and consent of that Dominion's government to have a British law become part of the law of the Dominion; the law left the British North America Acts within the purview of the British parliament, because the federal government and the provinces could not agree on an amending formula for the Canadian constitution. When, in 1982, the British and Canadian parliaments produced the mutual Canada Act 1982 and Constitution Act 1982, which included a constitutional amendment process, the UK ceased to have any legislative authority whatsoever over Canada. By the 1930s and the outbreak of World War II, Canada's naturalization laws consisted of a hodgepodge of confusing acts, which still retained the term "British subject" as the nationality and citizenship of "Canadian nationals".
This conflicted with the nationalism that arose following the First and Second World Wars, the accompanying desire to have the Dominion of Canada's sovereign status reflected in distinct national symbols. This, plus the muddled nature of existing nationality law, prompted the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act, 1946, which took effect on 1 January 1947. On that date, Canadian citizenship was conferred on British subjects who were born, naturalized or domiciled in Canada. Subsequently, on 1 April 1949, the Act was extended to Newfoundland, upon the former British Dominion joining the Canadian confederation as the province of Newfoundland; the 1947 Act was revised again on 15 February 1977, when the new Citizenship Act came into force. From that date, multiple citizenship became legal. However, those who had lost Canadian citizenship before that date did not automatically have it restored until 17 April 2009, when Bill C-37 became law; the 2009 act limited the issuance of citizenship to children born outside Canada to Canadian ancestors to one generation abroad.
Bill C-24 in 2015 further granted Canadian citizenship to British subjects with ties to Canada but who did not qualify for Canadian citizenship in 1947. There are four ways. Among them, only citizenship by birth is granted automatically with limited exceptions, while citizenship by descent or adoption is acquired automatically if the specified conditions have been met. Citizenship by grant, on the other hand, must be approved by the Minister of Immigration and Citizenship. In general, persons born in Canada on or after 1 January 1947 (or 1 April 1949 if born in Newfoundland an
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
Presidency of Donald Trump
The presidency of Donald Trump began at noon EST on January 20, 2017, when Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States, succeeding Barack Obama. A Republican, Trump was a businessman and reality television personality from New York City at the time of his 2016 presidential election victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. While Trump lost the popular vote by nearly 3 million votes, he won the Electoral College vote, 304 to 227, in a presidential contest that American intelligence agencies believe was targeted by a Russian sabotage campaign. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, with political scientists and historians describing the phenomenon as unprecedented in modern American politics. Trump repealed environmental protections intended to address anthropogenic climate change, he ended the Clean Power Plan, withdrew from the Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation, urged for subsidies to increase fossil fuel production, calling man-made climate change a hoax. Trump failed in his efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act, but signed legislation eliminating the individual mandate provision.
He enacted a partial repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis and withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which lowered corporate and estate taxes, most individual income tax rates on a temporary basis. Trump's interventionist and unilateralist foreign policy drew the United States closer to Saudi Arabia and Israel, he agreed to sell 110 billion dollars of arms to Saudi Arabia, recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, withdrew the United States from the Iran Deal, issued a controversial executive order denying entry into the U. S. to citizens from several Muslim-majority countries. Trump's demand for federal funding of a U. S.–Mexico border wall resulted in the 2018–2019 government shutdown and followed with Trump's declaration of a national emergency regarding the U. S. southern border. He ended the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. Trump appointed Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court.
After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey in 2017, a special counsel was appointed to take over an existing FBI investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 elections and related matters, including coordination or links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government. Of Trump campaign advisors and staff, six were indicted and five pled guilty to criminal charges brought in the Special Counsel investigation. Trump has denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, criticized people or groups related to the investigation over 1,000 times, which included calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". According to Trump appointed Attorney General William Barr's summary of the report presented to Congress, the report found no evidence that Donald Trump or members of his campaign "conspired or coordinated" with Russia, although Russia did attempt to influence the 2016 election in Trump's favor. According to Barr, the report did not conclude that Trump criminally obstructed justice, nor did it exonerate him.
The New York Times reported on April 3 that some members of the Mueller investigation had told associates they believe Barr's letter did not adequately portray their findings, which they considered to be more troubling for Trump than reported. The next day, the Washington Post reported that members of Mueller’s team reported that the evidence gathered on obstruction of justice was “much more acute than Barr suggested.” These members of Mueller's team revealed that they believed that the evidence showed Trump obstructed justice, but that the entire team could not draw a conclusion because they lacked an unanimous consensus. They denied Barr's conclusion that the evidence presented in the Mueller Report was not sufficient to launch a criminal investigation. Trump has had a stable polarized approval rating hovering in the high-30 percent to mid-40 percent range throughout his presidency. On November 9, 2016, Republicans Donald Trump of New York and Governor Mike Pence of Indiana won the 2016 election, defeating Democrats former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton of New York and Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia.
Trump won 304 electoral votes compared to Clinton's 227, though Clinton won a plurality of the popular vote. In the concurrent congressional elections, Republicans maintained majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Trump made false claims that massive amounts of voter fraud – up to 5 million illegal votes – in Clinton's favor occurred during the election, he called for a major investigation after taking office. Numerous studies have found no evidence of widespread voter fraud. Prior to the election, Trump named Chris Christie as the leader of his transition team. After the election, Vice President-elect Mike Pence replaced Christie as chairman of the transition team, while Christie became a vice-chairman alongside Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, retired Army Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, former presidential candidate Ben Carson, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich. Trump's transition team launched the website greatagain.gov. Trump was inaugurated on January 20, 2017.
Accompanied by his wife, Melania Trump, Donald Trump was sworn in by Chief Justice John Roberts. In his seventeen-minute inaugural address, Trump made a broad condemnation of contemporary America, pledging to end "American carnage" and saying that America's "wealth and confidence has dissipated". Trump repeated the "Ameri