Carloman of Bavaria
Carloman was a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia, Hemma, daughter of a Bavarian count, his father appointed him margrave of Pannonia in 856, upon his father's death in 876 he became King of Bavaria. He was appointed by King Louis II of Italy as his successor, but the Kingdom of Italy was taken by his uncle Charles the Bald in 875. Carloman only conquered it in 877. In 879 he was incapacitated by a stroke, abdicated his domains in favour of his younger brothers: Bavaria to Louis the Younger and Italy to Charles the Fat. Carloman's birth date is unknown, but was around 828 or 830, his naming can be connected to his father's push to rule Alemannia around the time of his father's assembly of Worms in 829. The first member of the Carolingian dynasty named Carloman had ruled Alemannia in 741–48, subjugated it to the Franks. Carloman was old enough to participate in the civil war of 840–43, waged between his father and his uncles and Charles the Bald.
His first record public appearance is as the leader of an army of reinforcements from Bavaria and Alemannia which he brought to his father at Worms in 842. He subsequently led them in battle alongside his uncle against his other uncle, it was the beginning of a warlike career. Notker of Saint Gall, who bewailed the decline of the dynasty a generation called Carloman bellicosissimus. In October 848, Carloman was present at his father's council in Regensburg, where the Slavic commander Pribina was rewarded for his service in defending the Bavarian frontier. In the charter confirming the grant, Carloman signed his name first among the secular magnates. In the 840s, Carloman had a liaison with Liutswind, daughter of the Bavarian count Ratolt and sister-in-law of Count Sigihard of the Kraichgau; this was Carloman's first politically independent action, it confirms his close connexion to Bavaria. Around 850, Liutswind bore him Arnulf; this name was chosen because it was distinctly dynastic, yet had never been used by a reigning king and was thus appropriate for an illegitimate eldest son.
The choice of the name is the surest evidence that Liutswind and Carloman were not married. Around 860, Arnulf and his cousin, the illegitimate son of Carloman's brother Louis, were both in Koblenz at the court of their grandfather, overseeing their military education and holding them to ensure the good behaviour of their fathers. In 856, Louis first associated Carloman with his rule by appointing him prefect to the Pannonian March, the Bavarian borderland fronting Great Moravia and Lower Pannonia, he did not give Carloman the traditional prefect's seat at Tulln in Pannonia. Instead, according to the Annales Fuldenses, he was given the title "prefect of the Carantanians" and posted further south, in a more peripheral region in a design to keep him from trying to seize power from his father. From 857 on Carloman and his brother were occasional witnesses to their father's charters. In 862 Carloman tried to extend the territory under his control, but was defeated. In 865 the partition of East Francia "along ethnic lines" which Louis had been preparing was publicised at Frankfurt: all three of his sons had been given positions of importance along the frontiers and had been married into the local aristocracy of the regions marked out for them.
Carloman married the daughter of a Bavarian military leader named Ernest, whom the Annales Bertiniani describe as "the greatest of all the king's great men". This marriage must have taken place before Ernest's disgrace and dismissal in 861, for Louis the German disapproved of his second son's seeking a marriage with family, disgraced in 858–59. Carloman was not given the title king during his father's lifetime, the latter retained control over bishoprics, fiscal lands and important judicial cases. Carloman's letter to his father from 869 survives. By the 870s, according to the Annales Bertiniani, at the time being composed by Archbishop Hincmar of Reims, Carloman's mother, was encouraging her husband to favour Carloman over his brothers; this is the first recorded involvement of Emma in politics, it may relate to Louis's illness during 869–70. On the other hand, historian Ernst Dümmler thought Carloman must have been a "mamma's boy". On 12 August 875, Louis II of Italy died and his kingdom was claimed by Louis the German for his sons Carloman and Charles and by Charles the Bald.
Pope John VIII, dealing with the constant threat of raiders from Muslim Sicily, sided with Charles the Bald. Carloman led an army into Italy, where he granted a diploma to the monastery of San Clemente a Casauria, one of Louis II's most favoured houses. In the diploma Carloman declared himself Louis's chosen successor. According to the Annales Fuldenses, Charles had to offer him "a huge sum in gold and silver and precious stones" to get him to leave Italy. On 28 August 876, Louis died and his sons became kings in their allotted kingdoms. On 6 October 877, Charles the Bald died and that month Carloman succeeded in having himself elected King of Italy by the nobles assembled in Pavia; the lure of Italy was "the looting, acceptable when a king first took over a kingdom", providing rewards that could be shared out among followers and more than offset the cost of raising an army and crossing the Alps. Carloman was one of only two Car
Louis the German
Louis "the German" known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia, ruled from 843-876 AD. Grandson of emperor Charlemagne and the third son of emperor of Francia, Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, he received the appellation Germanicus shortly after his death in recognition of Magna Germania of the Roman Empire, reflecting the Carolingian's assertions that they were the rightful descendants of the Roman Empire After protracted clashes with his father and his brothers, Ludwig received the East Frankish Empire in the 843 Treaty of Verdun, his attempts to conquer the West Frankish Empire of his half-brother Charles the Bald in 858-59 were unsuccessful. The 860s were marked by a severe crisis, with the East Frankish rebellions of the sons, as well as struggles to maintain supremacy over his realm. In the Treaty of Meerssen he acquired Lotharingia for the East Frankish Empire in 870. On the other hand, he failed to claim both the title of Emperor and Italy. In the East, Ludwig was able to reach a longer-term peace agreement in 874 after decades of conflict with the Moravians.
Due to a decline in the written form in administration and government, Ludwig's reign predates Ottonian times. His early years were spent at the court of his grandfather, whose special affection he is said to have won; when the emperor Louis the Pious divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis was made the ruler of Duchy of Bavaria, following the practice of emperor Charlemagne of bestowing a local kingdom to a close family member who would serve as his lieutenant and local governor. Louis ruled from the old capital of the Bavarii. In 825 he became involved in wars with the Sorbs on his eastern frontier. In 827 he married Hemma, sister of his stepmother Judith of Bavaria, both daughters of Welf, whose possessions ranged from Alsace to Bavaria, it was not until 826. In 827 he married the Welf Hemma, a sister of the Empress Judith - his stepmother who had married his father in his second marriage. In 828 and 829 he undertook two campaigns against the Bulgarians who wanted to penetrate into Pannonia without great success.
During his time as Unterkönig, he tried to extend his rule to the Rhine-Main area. His involvement in the first civil war against his father's reign was limited, but in the second his elder brothers, Lothair I King of Italy, Pepin I, Duke of Aquitaine, persuaded him to invade Alamannia which their father had given to their young half-brother Charles the Bald. In 832 he was driven back by his father. Louis the Pious to no effect. Upon his swift reinstatement, the emperor Louis made peace with his son Louis and restored Bavaria to him in 836. Louis was the instigator of the third civil war, which began in 839. A strip of his land having been given to the young half-brother Charles, Louis invaded Alamannia again; this time emperor Louis responded and soon the younger Louis was forced into the far southeastern corner of his realm, the March of Pannonia. Peace was made by force of arms. After the civil war which followed the death of emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun in three parts, with Louis becoming the King of East Francia, a region that spanned the Elbe drainage basin from Jutland southeasterly through the Thuringian Forest into modern Bavaria.
When the emperor Louis died in 840, Lothair I claimed the whole Empire, Louis allied with Charles the Bald, defeated Lothair I and their nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine, son of Pepin I of Aquitaine, at the Battle of Fontenoy in June 841. In June 842 the three brothers met on an island in the river Saône to negotiate a peace, each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms; this developed into the Treaty of Verdun, concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands lying east of the Rhine, together with a district around Speyer and Mainz, on the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria, Thuringia and Saxony. Louis may be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 crushed the Stellinga rising in Saxony, in 844 he compelled the Obotrites to accept his authority and put their prince, Gozzmovil, to death. Thachulf, Duke of Thuringia undertook campaigns against the Bohemians and other tribes, but was not successful in resisting the ravaging Vikings.
After the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, Lothar laid claim to all the imperial rights established in the Ordinatio of 817. As a result, Louis the German and Charles the Bald forged an alliance. Lothar I offered his nephew Pippin II, the son of 838 deceased Pippin I. an alliance. At the Battle of Fontenoy, Ludwig the German and Charles the Bald fought against Lothar I and Pippin II in June 841. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. According to the Annals of Fulda, it was the biggest bloodbath the Franks had experienced since time immemorial. At the same time, it was Louis's last battle in the struggle for the unification of the kingdom. In 852 Louis sent his son Louis the Younger to Aquitaine, where nobles had grown resentful of Charles the Bald's rule; the younger Louis did not set out until 854, returned the following year. Starting from 853 Louis made repeated attempts to gain the t
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir. By the marriage of Francis of Lorraine to Maria Theresa in 1736, with the success in the ensuing War of the Austrian Succession, the House of Lorraine was joined to the House of Habsburg, was now known as Habsburg-Lorraine. Francis, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918. Although its senior agnates are the Dukes of Hohenberg, the house is headed by Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, oldest grandson of the last emperor Charles I; the house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family.
The Renaissance dukes of Lorraine tended to arrogate to themselves claims to Carolingian ancestry, as illustrated by Alexandre Dumas, père in the novel La Dame de Monsoreau. What is more securely demonstrated is that in 1048 Emperor Henry III gave the Duchy of Upper Lorraine first to Adalbert of Metz and to his brother Gerard whose successors retained the duchy until the death of Charles the Bold in 1431. After a brief interlude of 1453–1473, when the duchy passed in right of Charles's daughter to her husband John of Calabria, a Capetian, Lorraine reverted to the House of Vaudemont, a junior branch of House of Lorraine, in the person of René II who added to his titles that of Duke of Bar; the French Wars of Religion saw the rise of a junior branch of the Lorraine family, the House of Guise, which became a dominant force in French politics and, during the years of Henri III's reign, was on the verge of succeeding to the throne of France. Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots came from this family.
Under the Bourbon monarchy the remaining branch of the House of Guise, headed by the duc d'Elbeuf, remained part of the highest ranks of French aristocracy, while the senior branch of the House of Vaudemont continued to rule the independent duchies of Lorraine and Bar. Louis XIV's imperialist ambitions forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg. After neither Emperor Joseph I nor Emperor Charles VI produced a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's yet unborn daughter, Maria Theresa. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. At Charles's death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I; the Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, survived, the War of the Austrian Succession. Francis and Maria Theresa's daughters Marie Antoinette and Maria Carolina became Queens of France and Naples-Sicily, respectively.
Apart from the core Habsburg dominions, including the triple crowns of Austria and Bohemia, several junior branches of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine reigned in the Italian duchies of Tuscany and Modena. Another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico. In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek, their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austro-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinand's younger brother, was universally regarded as the head of the house until his death in 2011, it was at Nancy, the former capital of the House of Vaudemont, that the former crown prince married Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen in 1951. The following is a list of ruling heads of the house of Ardennes-Metz and its successor houses of Lorraine and Habsburg-Lorraine, from the start of securely documented genealogical history in the 11th century.
Adalbert, Duke of Upper Lorraine r. 1047/8 Gérard, Duke of Lorraine, r. 1048–1070 Theodoric II r. 1070–1115 Simon I, r. 1115–1138 Matthias I, r. 1138–1176 Simon II, r. 1176–1215 Frederick I, r. 1205/6 Frederick II, r. 1206–1213 Theobald I, r. 1213–1220 Matthias II, r. 1220–1251 Frederick III, c. 1251–1303 Theobald II, r. 1303–1312 Frederick IV, r. 1312–1328 Rudolph, r. 1328–1346 John I, r. 1346–1390 Charles II, r. 1390–1431Charles II died without male heir, the duchy passing to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine, consort of Naples by marriage to Duke René of Anjou. The duchy passed to their son John II; the title now went to Nicholas' aunt Yolande. The House of Lorraine was formed by Yolande's marriage to René, Count of Vaud
Süpplingenburg is a municipality in the district of Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany. It is part of the collective municipality of Nord-Elm; the village developed next to a 10th-century water castle at the Schunter river erected by the Counts of Haldensleben who held the office of margraves of the Northern March. Gertrud von Haldensleben's daughter, Hedwig of Formbach, married Count Gebhard of Supplinburg; until 1173 the castle was the seat of the Counts of Supplinburg, among them Gebhard's son Emperor Lothair III of Supplinburg. Lothair had a collegiate church and cloister built within the Supplinburg palace about 1130. In 1173 his grandson Henry the Lion granted Süpplingenburg to the Knights Templar order, from which it fell to the Knights Hospitaller in 1357, it remained a commandry of the Order of Saint John until in 1820 it was mediatised to the Duchy of Brunswick. The castle was demolished about 1875, while the St John Church survived, today a stop at the scenic Romanesque Road. Süpplingenburg can be reached via the Bundesstraße 1 federal highway at Süpplingen or the Bundesautobahn 2 at the Rennau junction.
Train service of the Brunswick-Magdeburg railway line is available at Helmstedt
Emma of Altdorf known as Hemma, a member of the Elder House of Welf, was Queen consort of East Francia by marriage to King Louis the German, from 843 until her death. Her father was Welf Count of Altorf in Alamannia. Emma's elder sister was Judith, who in February 819 married the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious, thereby became Queen consort of the Franks and Holy Roman Empress; the marriage marked a crucial step forward in the rise of the Welf dynasty. In 827 at the instigation of Judith, Emma married Louis the German, the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious from his first marriage with Ermengarde of Hesbaye, stepson of Emma's sister Judith; the wedding ceremony took place in Regensburg, where since 817 Louis the German was to rule as a King of Bavaria subordinate to his father. She was given by her husband Louis, Obermünster Abbey in Regensburg. Emperor Louis died in 840. After severe innerdynastic struggles, the Carolingian Empire was divided according to the Treaty of Verdun in 843.
The Kingdom of Bavaria was merged with Louis the German's Kingdom of East Francia, his wife Emma became the first East Frankish queen. Emma is mentioned in contemporary sources; the Annales Bertiniani written by Archbishop Hincmar of Reims however reproach Emma for a pride which displeased the people of Italy. She is said to have inordinately favoured her son Carloman, designated heir of his father in Bavaria, which led to a revolt by his brothers. Emma subsequently became paralyzed and speechless, she died on 31 January 876, a few months before her husband, was buried in St. Emmeram's Abbey, Regensburg, her tomb, erected around 1300, is considered a masterpiece of medieval sculpture. By Louis, she had eight children: Hildegard Carloman Ermengard Gisela of East Francia, married to Berctolf, Graf of Swabia. Grandmother of Cunigunde of Swabia, wife of Conrad I. Emma of East Francia Louis the Younger Bertha Charles the Fat Her sons became Kings.
Liutgard of Saxony (died 885)
Liutgard of Saxony was Queen of the Franks from 876 until 882 by her marriage with King Louis the Younger. She was born between 840 and 850, the daughter of the Saxon count Liudolf, a progenitor of the Ottonian dynasty, his wife Oda of Billung. Liutgard was noted for her strong will and political ambition, a reliable supporter of her husband, she is seen as a driving force behind King Louis' struggle with the West Frankish king Charles the Bald around the possession of Lotharingia, culminating in the 876 Battle of Andernach and ending in the final acquisition of the Lotharingian realm by the 880 Treaty of Ribemont. Before 29 November 874, Liutgard married the Carolingian ruler Louis the Younger, second son of King Louis the German, at Aschaffenburg, Franconia, they had two children: Louis died after a fall from a window of the Imperial palace in Frankfurt Hildegard, became a nun in Frauenchiemsee Abbey, Bavaria. After Louis' death, she married, they had three children: Burchard II, Duke of Swabia from 917 Udalrich Dietpirch of Swabia, married the Swabian count Hupald of Dillingen, mother of Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg.
Widukind of Corvey. Deeds of the Saxons. Translated by Bachrach, Bernard S..
House of Bonaparte
The House of Bonaparte was an imperial and royal European dynasty of Italian origin. It was founded in 1804 by the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. Napoleon was a French military leader who had risen to power during the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars, he installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty. The House of Bonaparte formed the Imperial House of France during the French Empire, together with some non-Bonaparte family members. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of the French, the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Holland, the Kingdom of Naples.
The dynasty held power for around a decade. Making powerful enemies, such as Austria, Britain and Prussia, as well as royalist restorational movements in France, the Two Sicilies, Sardinia, the dynasty collapsed due to the final defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of former dynasties by the Congress of Vienna. During the reign of Napoleon I, the Imperial Family consisted of the Emperor's immediate relations – his wife, son and some other close relatives, namely his brother-in-law Joachim Murat, his uncle Joseph Fesch, Eugène de Beauharnais, his stepson. Between 1852 and 1870, there was a Second French Empire, when a member of the Bonaparte dynasty again ruled France: Napoleon III, the youngest son of Louis Bonaparte. However, during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, the dynasty was again ousted from the Imperial Throne. Since that time, there has been a series of pretenders. Supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists.
Current head Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, has a Bourbon mother. The Bonaparte family were patricians in the Italian towns of San Miniato and Florence; the name derives from Italian: parte. Gianfaldo Buonaparte was the first known Buonaparte at Sarzana around 1200, his descendant Giovanni Buonaparte in 1397 married Isabella Calandrini, a cousin of cardinal Filippo Calandrini. Giovanni became mayor of Sarzana and was named commissioner of the Lunigiana by Giovanni Maria Visconti in 1408, their great-grandson Francesco Buonaparte was an equestrian mercenary at the service of the Genoese Bank of Saint George. In 1490, he went to the island of Corsica, controlled by the bank. In 1493, he married the daughter of Guido da Castelletto, representative of the Bank of Saint George in Ajaccio, Corsica. Most of their descendants during subsequent generations were members of the Ajaccio town council. Napoleon's father, Carlo Buonaparte, received a patent of nobility from the King of France in 1771. There existed a Buonaparte family in Florence, however its eventual relation with the Sarzana and San Miniato families is unknown.
Jacopo Buonaparte of San Miniato was a friend and advisor to Medici Pope Clement VII. Jacopo was a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome, one of the most important historical documents recounting that event. Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, took part in the 1527 Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and were restored by Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality; the San Miniato branch extinguished with Jacopo in 1550. The last member of the Florence family was a canon named Gregorio Bonaparte, who died in 1803, leaving Napoleon as heir. A Buonaparte tomb lies in the Church of San Francesco in San Miniato. Another in Ajaccio, the Chapelle Impériale, was built by Napoleon III in 1857. Napoleon I is the most prominent name associated with the Bonaparte family, because he conquered much of Europe during the early part of the 19th century. Due to his indisputable popularity in France both among the people and in the army, he took part in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, overthrew the Directory with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred, participated in the creation of a new Constitution, which allowed him to become the First Consul of France on 10 November 1799.
2 December 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of the French and ruled from 1804 to 1814, again in 1815 during the "Hundred Days" after his return from Elba. Following his conquest of most of Western Europe, Napoleon I made his elder brother Joseph king first of Naples and of Spain, his younger brother Louis King of Holland, his youngest brother Jérôme King of Westphalia, the short-lived realm created from some of the states of northwestern Germany. Napoleon's son Napoléon François Charles Joseph was created King of Rome and was styled as Napoléon II by loyalists of the dynasty, though he only ruled for two weeks after his father's abdication. Louis-Napoléon, son of Louis, was President of France and Emperor of the French, reigning as Napoleon III, his son, Napoléon, Prince Imperial, died fighting the Zulus in Natal, today t