Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Not to be confused with Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi, about 250 km to the northwestShiyan is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, bordering Henan to the northeast, Chongqing to the southwest, Shaanxi to the north and west. At the 2010 census, its population was 3,340,841 of whom 767,920 lived in the built-up urban districts of Maojian and Zhangwan on 1,193 square kilometres. In 2007, the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum; the Wudang Mountains run east–west through the territory of the "Prefecture-level city" of Shiyan, crossing several of its county-level divisions. The peak referred to as "Wudang Mountain", or in Mandarin Wudangshan, is one of the most important cultural centres of the Taoist faith; the surrounding areas are dotted with religious sites. The main attraction in this area, one of the most sacred Taoist sites, which forms an important stop for Chinese tourists bound there, with up to twenty bus loads of visitors per day at peak times is Wudangshan Jiedao of the Danjiangkou county-level city.
The prefecture-level city of Shiyan administers 8 county-level divisions, including 3 districts, 1 county-level city and 4 counties. Maojian District Zhangwan District Yunyang District Danjiangkou City Yunxi County Zhushan County Zhuxi County Fang County The main urban area of the prefecture-level city of Shiyan is in Maojian District; this area is subject to major change as part of the South to North water diversion project of the Han River. Certain areas will see an increase of up to 5 meters in water level to create a new reservoir to serve Beijing and Tianjin as a part of this major water diversion project. Shiyan is one of the most important centers of automobile industry in China, with Dongfeng, the premier Chinese truck and heavy goods vehicle as a major employer, it is labeled as the'Detroit' of China, given this focus on automobile manufacture. Before 1949, it was a small village, which grew after the founding of the People's Republic of China. In 1967, teams of workers and engineers were first sent to Shiyan in order to survey sites for automotive plants and factories.
At this time, the population of Shiyan was only a few hundred. Chairman Mao chose Shiyan as the site for China's automobile industry because the surrounding mountains and relative inaccessibility could act as a barrier against foreign attacks. Shiyan is located on the Xiangyu Railway between Chongqing. Construction on a railway between Shiyan and Yichang is scheduled to begin construction in 2009. G59 Hohhot–Beihai Expressway G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway G7011 Shiyan–Tianshui Expressway China National Highway 209 Shiyan Wudangshan Airport is the airport serving the city of Shiyan, located 15 km from the city center and 20 km from Wudangshan, the World Heritage Site after which it is named. Shiyan has been a sister city of Craiova, since December 1999. Government website of Shiyan
Tieshan District is a district of the prefecture-level city of Huangshi, Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Small in area, it is squeezed between the "county-level city" Daye to the south and west, Huangshi's Xialu District to the east, the prefecture-level city of Ezhou to the north. Physically, it is a small mining town; as its name indicates, the district owes its existence to iron-ore mines. The town is served by China National Highway 106, which doubles as China National Highway 316 in this part of Hubei; the only administrative direct subdivision is a town-simulating village
Daye is a county-level city in eastern Hubei province, China. It is under the administration of the Huangshi prefecture-level city. Before the adoption of the Hanyu Pinyin, the name of the city was transcribed in English as Tayeh; as it is the case with county-level cities, Daye includes both an urban core and a fair amount of rural land in all directions, with smaller townships such as Dajipu. According to the Fifth Population Census of China, the entire county-level city of Daye had 813,600 residents, with a population density of 558 people per square kilometer; the city is made up of 18 township-level divisions. The Daye Lake south of Daye's urban core is surrounded by parks and fishing ponds, is a popular place for recreation. For a traveler who goes on G316 from Wuhan toward the south-east, Daye appears as a border between the more urban and more rural parts of the province. Daye sits on the south-eastern border of the industrialized Wuhan/Ezhou/Huangshi metropolitan area. Daye is a center of mining and metallurgy, both ferrous and non-ferrous.
Copper mining and smelting was conducted at Daye's Tonglüshan Mine as early as the Spring and Autumn period, if not earlier. Tonglüshan Mine is located just southwest of the modern city, now has a museum. Although such copper-containing minerals as malachite and azurite are found here, the local ores are richer in iron than in copper, the modern Daye is better known for its iron ore mining and processing. Among the major employers is Huangshi Daye Non-ferrous Metals Co. Ltd. Daye was the junction of the Wuhan-Daye Railway and Daye-Shahejie Railway, which merged in 1989 to form the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway. Huangshi Railway Station, the main passenger station for the entire Huangshi metropolitan area, is located within Daye's administrative borders, about 6 km north of downtown Daye, it has frequent service, with travel time to Wuhan being around 1 hour on a high-speed D-series train, or 1.5 hours on a "conventional" passenger train. Daye is served by the Wuhan–Huangshi Intercity Railway, part of the future Wuhan Metropolitan Area Intercity Railway, which opened in 2014.
The new Daye North Railway Station, located north-east of Daye's main urban area, serves as that line's terminal. It has frequent service to the Wuhan Railway Station. Construction work is carried out to extent this rail line beyond Daye. Daye is served by the China National Highway 106. Daye County existed off for centuries; this means that pre-1949 references to a location in "Daye" or "Tayeh" may refer to anywhere within today's Huangshi. Daye County was re-established on June 1, 1962, as part of Huangshi City. On February 18, 1994 Daye was converted into a county-level city, still within the prefecture-level city of Huangshi; the speech of Daye and the adjacent counties farther south has been traditionally characterized as the Daye dialect, part of the Datong dialect group of Gan Chinese. Daye City Government website
Xiangyang is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province and the second largest city in Hubei by population. It was known as Xiangfan from 1950 to 2010; the Han River divides the city north-south. The city itself is an agglomeration of two once separate cities: Fancheng and Xiangcheng. What remains of old Xiangyang is located south of the Han River and contains one of the oldest still-intact city walls in China, while Fancheng is located to the north of the Han River. Both cities served prominent historical roles in pre-modern Chinese history. Today, the city has been a target of government and private investment as the country seeks to urbanize and develop the interior provinces. In 2017, population of the prefecture-level city was 5.65 million, in which 3.37 million were urban residents. Xiangyang is located at a strategic site on the middle reaches of the Han River, has witnessed several major battles in Chinese history. Xiangyang County was first established at the location of modern Xiangcheng in early Western Han dynasty and the name had been used continuously for more than 2,000 years until 20th century.
In the final years of Eastern Han dynasty, Xiangyang became the capital of Jing Province. The warlord Liu Biao governed his territory from here. Under Liu's rule, Xiangyang became a major destination of the northern elite fleeing warfare in the Central Plain. In the Battle of Xiangyang in 191 AD, Sun Jian, a rival warlord and the father of Sun Quan, founder of Eastern Wu, was defeated and killed; the area passed to Liu Bei after Liu Biao's death. Two decades Battle of Fancheng, one of the most important battles in late Han-Three Kingdoms period was fought here, resulting in Liu Bei's loss of Jingzhou. During the early years of Jin dynasty, Xiangyang was on the frontier between Jin and Eastern Wu. Yang Hu, the commander in Xiangyang, was remembered for his policy of "border peace". Cross-border commerce was allowed, the pressure on the Jin army was relieved. Xiangyang accumulated sufficient supplies for 10 years, which played a key role in Jin's conquest of Wu. In Southern Song dynasty, after the Treaty of Shaoxing, Xiangyang became a garrison city on the northern frontier of Song.
During Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty, Xiangyang together with Fancheng formed one of the greatest obstacles against the expansion of Mongol Empire. They were able to resist for six years before surrendering in the Siege of Xiangyang. In 1796, Xiangyang was one of the centers of the White Lotus Rebellion against the Qing dynasty. Here, rebel leader Wang Cong'er organized an rebel army of 50,000 and joined the main rebel forces in Sichuan; the revolt marked a turning point in the history of Qing dynasty. In 1950, Xiangyang and Fancheng were merged to form Xiangfan City. In 20th century, it became a major transport hub as Handan and Xiangyu railways intersect in Fancheng; the city's current boundaries were established in 1983 when Xiangyang Prefecture was incorporated into Xiangfan City. The city was renamed to Xiangyang in 2010. Xiangyang has a latitude range of 31° 14'−32° 37' N, or 154 km, longitude range of 110° 45'−113° 43' E, or 220 km, is located on the middle reaches of the Hanshui, a major tributary of the Yangtze River.
The urban area, has a latitude range of 31° 54'−32° 10' N, or 29 km, longitude range of 112° 00'−112° 14' E, or 21 km. It borders Suizhou to the east and Yichang to the south and Shiyan to the west, Nanyang to the north, its administrative border has a total length of 1,332.8 km. Xiangyang has a monsoon-influenced, four season humid subtropical climate, with cold, damp and hot, humid summers; the prefecture-level city of Xiangyang administers 9 county-level divisions, including 3 districts, 3 county-level cities and 3 counties. Xiangzhou District Xiangcheng District Fancheng District Zaoyang City Yicheng City Laohekou City Nanzhang County Gucheng County Baokang County These are further divided into 159 township-level divisions, including 106 towns, 29 townships and 24 subdistricts. Xiangyang possesses large water energy resources whilst its mineral deposits include rutile, phosphorus, coal, aluminum, manganese and rock salt; the reserves of rutile and ilmenite rank in China. Textile production is the mainstay industry of Xiangyang followed by machinery manufacture, chemical processing and manufacture of construction materials.
Agricultural resources are significant with Xiangyang's chief farm products including grain, vegetable oil crops, tobacco and fruit. As the home of Dongfeng Motors, Xiangyang is a well known automobile hub and partners with foreign manufacturers to produce Nissan and Infiniti models for domestic sales. In addition, there are a number of chemical fibre enterprises in the city including Birla Jingwei Fibres, a member of the Aditya Birla Group; the city has invested in many industrial and clean energy parks. Xiangyang is a railway junction for the Xiangyang-Chongqing, Hankou-Danjiangkou, Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railways. Three National Highways including Route 207 pass through the city; the Han River and four other rivers are open to commercial transport year-round. The Xiangyang Liuji Airport has commercial airline services to major cities throughout China including Beijing and Guangzhou. Government website of Xiangyang Xiangzhou District Government Website Exploring Chinese Histo
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Xinzhou District, Wuhan
Xinzhou is one of the 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the city's northeastern suburbs and situated on the northern bank of the Yangtze River. It is the easternmost of Wuhan's districts, it borders the districts of Hongshan to the southwest and Huangpi to the west, as well as the prefecture-level cities of Huanggang to the north and east and Ezhou to the south. The Wuhan Yangluo Airfield is located in Xinzhou District. Xinzhou District administers