Nassau is the capital, largest city, and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has an population of 274,400 as of 2016. The city is located on the island of New Providence, which much like a business district. Nassau is the site of the House of Assembly and various departments and was considered historically to be a stronghold of pirates. The city was named in honour of William III of England, nassaus modern growth began in the late eighteenth century, with the influx of thousands of American Loyalists and their slaves to the Bahamas following the American Revolutionary War. Many of them settled in Nassau and eventually came to outnumber the original inhabitants, as the population of Nassau grew, so did its populated areas. Today the city dominates the island and its satellite, Paradise Island. However, until the post-Second World War era, the outer suburbs scarcely existed, most of New Providence was uncultivated bush until Loyalists were resettled there following the American Revolutionary War, they established several plantations, such as Clifton and Tusculum.
In addition, slaves freed from American ships, such as the Creole case in 1841, were allowed to settle there, Nassau was formerly known as Charles Town, it was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684 during one of their frequent wars with the English. The name Nassau derives from the House of Nassau and ultimately from the town of Nassau, due to a lack of effective Governors, Nassau fell on hard times. In 1703 Spanish and French allied forces briefly occupied Nassau, from 1703 to 1718 there was no governor in the colony and by 1713, the sparsely settled Bahamas had become a pirate haven. The Governor of Bermuda stated that there were over 1,000 pirates in Nassau and they proclaimed Nassau a pirate republic, establishing themselves as governors. Examples of pirates that used Nassau as their base are Charles Vane, Thomas Barrow, Benjamin Hornigold, Calico Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny, Mary Read, in 1718, the British sought to regain control of the islands and appointed Captain Woodes Rogers as Royal governor.
He successfully clamped down on the pirates, reformed the civil administration, Rogers cleaned up Nassau and rebuilt the fort, using his own wealth to try to overcome problems. In 1720 the Spanish made an attempt to capture Nassau. During the wars in the Thirteen Colonies, Nassau experienced an economic boom, with funds from privateering, a new fort, street lights and over 2300 sumptuous houses were built and Nassau was extended. In addition to this, mosquito breeding swamps were filled, in 1778 after an overnight invasion, American raiders led by Captain Rathburn, left with ships and military stores after stopping in Nassau for only two days. In 1782 Spain captured Nassau for the last time when Don Juan de Cagigal, governor-general of Cuba, attacked New Providence with 5000 men
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the worlds oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, the Indian Ocean is known as Ratnākara, the mine of gems in ancient Sanskrit literature, and as Hind Mahāsāgar, in Hindi. The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is approximately 30° north in the Persian Gulf, the oceans continental shelves are narrow, averaging 200 kilometres in width. An exception is found off Australias western coast, where the width exceeds 1,000 kilometres. The average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m and its deepest point is Diamantina Deep in Diamantina Trench, at 8,047 m deep, Sunda Trench has a depth of 7, 258–7,725 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the basin is covered by pelagic sediments. The remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments, glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes. The major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca, the Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, which is accessible via the Red Sea.
All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere is in this ocean, marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include, The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April, from May until October south, in the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder. When the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, and about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, and changes in the frequency, among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi, Shatt al-Arab, Godavari, Narmada, Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy River.
The oceans currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, during the winter monsoon, currents in the north are reversed. Deep water circulation is controlled primarily by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, north of 20° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C, exceeding 28 °C to the east. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures drop quickly, surface water salinity ranges from 32 to 37 parts per 1000, the highest occurring in the Arabian Sea and in a belt between southern Africa and south-western Australia
Cape of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. In fact, the southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas, when following the western side of the African coastline from the equator, the Cape of Good Hope marks the point where a ship begins to travel more eastward than southward. Thus, the first modern rounding of the cape in 1488 by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a milestone in the attempts by the Portuguese to establish trade relations with the Far East. Dias called the cape Cabo das Tormentas, which was the name of the Cape of Good Hope. As one of the capes of the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a waypoint on the Cape Route and the route followed by clipper ships to the Far East and Australia. The term Cape of Good Hope is used in three ways, It is a section of the Table Mountain National Park, within which the cape of the same name, as well as Cape Point. Prior to its incorporation into the park, this section constituted the Cape Point Nature Reserve.
It was the name of the early Cape Colony established by the Dutch in 1652, just before the Union of South Africa was formed, the term referred to the entire region that in 1910 was to become the Cape of Good Hope Province. When Eudoxus was returning from his voyage to India the wind forced him south of the Gulf of Aden. Somewhere along the coast of East Africa, he found the remains of the ship, due to its appearance and the story told by the natives, Eudoxus concluded that the ship was from Gades and had sailed anti-clockwise around Africa, passing the Cape and entering the Indian Ocean. This inspired him to repeat the voyage and attempt a circumnavigation of the continent, organising the expedition on his own account he set sail from Gades and began to work down the African coast. The difficulties were too great, and he was obliged to return to Europe, after this failure he again set out to circumnavigate Africa. Although some, such as Pliny, claimed that Eudoxus did achieve his goal, in the 1450 Fra Mauro map, the Indian Ocean is depicted as connected to the Atlantic.
It sailed for 40 days in a south-westerly direction without ever finding anything other than wind and water. According to these people themselves, the ship went some 2,000 miles ahead until - once favourable conditions came to an end - it turned round and sailed back to Cape Diab in 70 days. The ships called junks that navigate these seas carry four masts or more, some of which can be raised or lowered, and have 40 to 60 cabins for the merchants and only one tiller. They can navigate without a compass, because they have an astrologer, thus one can believe and confirm what is said by both these and those, and that they had therefore sailed 4,000 miles
Thomas Tew, known as the Rhode Island Pirate, was a 17th-century English privateer-turned-pirate. He embarked on two major piratical voyages and met a bloody death on the journey, and he pioneered the route which became known as the Pirate Round. Many other famous pirates followed in his path, including Henry Avery, much of what is known about Tew is derived from Captain Charles Johnsons A General History of the Pyrates, which is a mixture of fact and fiction. When reading about Thomas Tew, it is important to be able to distinguish between truth and story, Captain Johnson said, Tew, in Point of Gallantry, was inferior to none. It is frequently written that Tew had family in Rhode Island dating back to 1640 and he may have been born in New England. One theory is that he was born in Maidford, England before emigrating to the colonies as a child with his family and he lived at one time in Newport, Rhode Island. Tew is reported as being married with two daughters, according to one source, his wife and children all greatly enjoyed the New York City social scene after Tew struck it rich, but there is no supporting evidence elsewhere for this.
In 1691, Tew moved to Bermuda, there is evidence that he was already reputed as a pirate at that time, but no modern historian has determined whether this reputation was earned or not. He may simply have engaged in privateering against French and Spanish ships and he was in close relations with fellow pirate Captain Want who was his closest ally. In 1692, Thomas Tew obtained a letter of marque from the Governor of Bermuda, various Bermudian backers provided him with a vessel, the seventy-ton sloop Amity, armed with eight guns and crewed by forty-six officers and men. He and another captain obtained a commission from the lieutenant governor of Bermuda to destroy a French factory off the coast of West Africa. Thus equipped, Tew set sail in December, ostensibly to serve as a privateer against French holdings in The Gambia. But not long out of Bermuda, Tew announced his intention of turning to piracy, Tews crew reportedly answered with the shout, A gold chain or a wooden leg, well stand with you.
The newly minted pirates proceeded to elect a quartermaster, a common practice to balance the captains power. Tew reached the Red Sea and ran down a large Ghanjah dhow en route from India to the Ottoman Empire, despite its enormous garrison of 300 soldiers, the Indian dhow surrendered without serious resistance, inflicting no casualties on the assailants. Tews pirates helped themselves to the ship’s rich treasure, worth £100,000 in gold and silver alone, not counting the value of the ivory, spices and silk taken. Tews 45 men afterward shared out between £1,200 and £3,000 per man, and Tew himself claimed about £8,000, Tew urged his filibusters to hunt down and rob the other ships in the Indian convoy, but yielded to the opposition of the quartermaster. He set course back to the Cape of Good Hope, stopping at the island of St. Marys on Madagascar to careen, Tew reached Newport in April 1694
New Providence is the most populous island in the Bahamas, containing more than 70% of the total population. It houses the national city of Nassau. The island was originally under Spanish control following Christopher Columbuss discovery of the New World, the islands largest city, was formerly known as Charles-town, but it was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684. It was laid out and renamed Nassau in 1695 by Nicholas Trott, the three branches of Bahamian Government, the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary, are all headquartered on New Providence. New Providence functions as the commercial hub of the Bahamas. It is home to more than 400 banks and trust companies, the name New Providence Island is derived from a 16th‐century governor who gave thanks to Divine Providence for his survival after a shipwreck. The New was added to distinguish it from Providencia off the Mosquito Coast used by pirates, after 1670, Bermudian salt rakers gathering sea salt in Grand Turk and Inagua became regular visitors to the island.
The first lasting European occupation was on Eleuthera in 1648, by 1670, there were over 900 people on the settlement of Charles-Town. Due to ineffective governors, Charles-Town was attacked by the French and Spanish navies, became a base for pirates. However, two in 1686, new English colonists from Jamaica came and settled. They were called back by the governor of Jamaica, but they ignored this order, in 1695, Governor Nicolas Trott rebuilt the town and added a fort, both were called Nassau. However, the fort was damaged in a Spanish attack in 1700. Due to the lack of cannon and soldiers in the fort, by 1713, there were over 1000 pirates in Nassau and they outnumbered the 400–500 law-abiding inhabitants. In 1718, Governor Woodes Rogers came in and offered a pardon for any willing to give up their ways. Using his intelligence and threatening to them if they did not take the pardon. In February 1776, American Esek Hopkins led a squadron of seven ships in an effort to raid the British-held island in order to secure supplies.
In an event known as the Battle of Nassau, on March 3 and 4, Hopkins landed the first-ever amphibious assault by American military forces consisting of 250 Marines, under the covering fire of the Providence and Wasp, the attackers overwhelmed Fort Montague. The British retreated to Fort Nassau, but surrendered to Continental forces, the Americans managed to secure 88 cannon and 15 mortars, but most of the much desired gunpowder was evacuated before capture
The Uskoks were irregular soldiers in Habsburg Croatia that inhabited areas on the eastern Adriatic coast and surrounding territories during the Ottoman wars in Europe. Etymologically, the word itself means the ones who jumped in in Croatian. Bands of Uskoks fought a war against the Ottomans, and they formed small units. Since the uskoks were checked on land and were paid their annual subsidy. The exploits of the Uskoks contributed to a renewal of war between Venice and the Ottoman Empire, an extremely curious picture of contemporary manners is presented by the Venetian agents, whose reports on this war resemble a knightly chronicle of the Middle Ages. These chronicles contain information pertaining to single combats and other chivalrous adventures, many of these troops served abroad. At the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, for example, a Dalmatian squadron assisted the allied fleets of Spain, Austria, after a series of incidents that escalated into the Uskok War, the Uskok activity in their stronghold of Senj mostly ceased.
Large numbers of Serb fugitives from Bosnia and Serbia fleeing the Ottomans, in 1522 the border territory of Senj was taken over by the Habsburgs under the authority of Archduke Ferdinand, forming a state-controlled Militärgrenze, or Military Frontier. The Austrian Emperor Ferdinand I instituted a system of planting colonies of defenders along the Military Frontier, the Uskoks were promised an annual subsidy in return for their services. Numerous refugees from Ottoman areas began settling along this territory, crossing the border to escape Ottoman attacks. Christian guerilla resistance in Ottoman-occupied areas of Dalmatia and Bosnia caused these people to flee and settle down, first at the fortress of Klis along the Military Frontier, at Senj. A body of these uskoks led by Croatian captain Petar Kružić used the base at Klis both to hold the Turks at bay, and to engage in marauding and piracy against coastal shipping. Although nominally accepting the sovereignty of the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand I, after Petar Kružićs death, and the lack of water supply, the defenders of Klis finally surrendered to the Ottomans in exchange for their freedom.
They may have started to gather around Senj as early as 1520, the Ottoman raids and destruction brought Senj natives together with those from the Habsburg lands, Dalmatians and Italians. At Senj, the Klis Uskoks were soon joined by refugees from Novi Vinodolski in northwestern Croatia, from Otočac on the Gacka River. The new Uskok stronghold, screened by mountains and forests, was unassailable by cavalry or artillery, the fortress was admirably suitable to the lightly armed uskoks who were excellent in guerrilla warfare. The Martelossi were employed by the Ottomans to discourage Uskok penetration of Turkish territory, since the uskoks were checked on land and were rarely paid their annual subsidy, they resorted to acts of piracy. Large galleys could not anchor in the bay of Senj, which is shallow, so, the uskoks fitted out a fleet of swift boats, which were light enough to navigate the smallest creeks and inlets of the shores of Illyria
The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Viking home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age. Facilitated by advanced seafaring skills, and characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. A romanticized picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century, current popular representations of the Vikings are typically based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy. One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning creek, various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning a person from Viken. According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called Viking in Old Norse manuscripts, in addition, that explanation could only explain the masculine and ignore the feminine, which is a serious problem because the masculine is easily derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa.
The form occurs as a name on some Swedish rune stones. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age and this is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan, ‘to turn’, similar to Old Icelandic víkja ‘to move, to turn’, with well-attested nautical usages. In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterized by the shifting of rowers, in that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, Widsith, in Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders. As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as a name for any people or culture in general, the word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts.
The Vikings were known as Ascomanni ashmen by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats, Lochlannach by the Gaels, the modern day name for Sweden in several neighbouring countries is possibly derived from rōþs-, Ruotsi in Finnish and Rootsi in Estonian. The Slavs and the Byzantines called them Varangians, Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were known as Danes or heathen. It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon, similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history, Vikings used the Norwegian Sea and Baltic Sea for sea routes to the south. The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy—in the 10th century, in that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe
Anglo-Turkish piracy or the Anglo-Barbary piracy refers to the collaboration between Barbary pirates and English pirates against Catholic shipping during the 17th century. The Protestants and the Muslim Turks and Berbers, more precisely the Barbary pirates, collaborated during that period against their common enemy and this collaboration has to be seen in the context of the wars of religions and the ongoing mortal battle between Protestantism and Catholicism. At that time, Spain and France, which were implementing anti-Protestant policies, were the target of this Anglo-Muslim collaboration. Piracy in the ranks of the Muslim pirates of Barbary was a way to find employment, abandoning England as well as their faith was often a way to financial success, as fortunes could be made by attacking Christian shipping. By 1610, the wealth of English renegade pirates had become so famous as to become the object of plays, not only the English corsairs participated to this collaboration, but the Dutch, who shared the same objectives.
Catholic ships were attacked and prisoners taken to Algiers or other places of the Barbary Coast to be sold as slaves, the number of these English pirates was significant. Jack Ward, Henry Mainwaring, Robert Walsingham and Peter Easton were among such English pirates in the service of the deys of the Barbary coast, some of the most famous Dutch pirates were Zymen Danseker, Salomo de Veenboer and Jan Janszoon. Some of them, such as Ward and Danseker, were renegades who had adopted Islam, Mainwaring attacked the Spanish preferentially, and claimed that he avoided English shipping, but generally ships of all nationalities seem to have been attacked. Walsingham is known to have freed Turkish captives from Christian galleys, Janszoon led long-ranging raids such as the Turkish Abductions in Iceland to sell his slaves on the Barbary Coast. For France, it was a conspiracy against Catholicism, described at the time as Turco-Calvinism. In order to curb these actions, Spain made a proclamation against piracy, England probably became ambivalent about this sort of piratical collaboration as it attacked Algiers in 1621 in order to free Christian captives there.
In 1629, Louis XIII attacked Salé to free 420 French captives, Louis XIV later bombarded Algiers in retaliation. Catholic religious orders, especially the Trinitarians and the Lazarists under Saint Vincent de Paul, himself a slave, accumulated donations to ransom. It is estimated that the missionaries liberated 1,200 slaves until the death of Saint Vincent de Paul in 1660, Islam and Protestantism Barbary Slave Trade Sea Beggars Sea Dogs McCabe, Ina Baghdiantz 2008 Orientalism in early Modern France Berg ISBN 978-1-84520-374-0
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people. Today, the term Greater Maghreb or simply Maghreb corresponds roughly to Barbary, the term Barbary Coast emphasizes the Berber coastal regions and cities throughout the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa – what is now Morocco, Algeria and Libya. The name is derived from the Berber people of north Africa, the slaves and goods were being traded and sold throughout the Ottoman Empire or to the Europeans themselves. Barbary was not always a political entity. From the 16th century onwards, it was divided into the political entities of the Regency of Algiers, major rulers during the times of the Barbary states plundering parties included the Pasha or Dey of Algiers, the Bey of Tunis and the Bey of Tripoli. Before then, the territory was divided between Ifriqiya, and a west-central Algerian state centered on Tlemcen or Tiaret.
Powerful Berber dynasties such as the Almohads and briefly thereafter the Hafsids, from a European perspective its capital or chief city was often considered to be Tripoli in modern-day Libya, although Marrakesh in Morocco was the largest and most important Berber city at the time. In addition, Algiers in Algeria and Tangiers in Morocco were seen as the capital. The first United States military land action overseas, executed by the U. S, Marines and Navy, was the Battle of Derne, Tripoli, in 1805. The opening line of the Marines Hymn refers to this action and this was the first time the U. S. Marine Corps took part in offensive actions outside of the United States. The word razzia was borrowed via Italian and French from Algerian Arabic ghaziya, originally referring to slave raids conducted by Barbary pirates
Careening is the practice of grounding a sailing vessel at high tide in order to expose one side of its hull for maintenance and repairs below the water line when the tide goes out. The process could be assisted by securing a top halyard to an object such as a tree or rock to pull the mast over as far as possible. Maintenance might include repairing damage caused by dry rot or cannon shot, tarring the exterior to reduce leakage, or removing biofouling organisms such as barnacles to increase the ships speed. One exotic method was the ancient practice of beaching a ship on a beach with the goal of using wave action. A beach favoured for careening was called a careenage, only small vessels are careened, while large vessels are placed in dry dock. A related practice was a Parliamentary heel, in which the vessel was heeled over in deep water by shifting weight, such as ballast or guns, in this way the upper sides could be cleaned or repaired with minimal delay. Famously, HMS Royal George was lost while undergoing a Parliamentary heel in 1782, pirates would often careen their ships because they had no access to drydocks.
A secluded bay would suffice for necessary repairs or hull cleaning, one group of islands, Tres Marias, became popular when Francis Drake had sailed there in 1579 and quickly became a place for piracy
Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands, Italian territories, several cities in north Africa and Spains overseas empire, known as the Bewitched, he is noted for his extensive physical and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule. He died in 1700, childless and heirless, with all potential Habsburg successors having predeceased him, in his will, Charles named as his successor the almost 17-year-old Philip, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Charles half-sister Maria Theresa of Spain, the first wife of Louis XIV. Charles was born in the Spanish capital, the son of Philip IV of Spain and his second wife, Mariana of Austria. As the only surviving heir of his fathers two marriages, Charles was named Prince of Asturias, the title given to the person first in line to the Spanish throne. The Spanish branch of the Habsburg royal family was noted for extreme consanguinity, well aware that they owed their power to fortunate marriages, they married between themselves to protect their gains.
Philip and Mariana were actually uncle and niece, Charles was not only their son, Charles was physically and mentally disabled and infertile, possibly due to this massive inbreeding. Due to the deaths of his brothers, he was the last member of the male Spanish Habsburg line. Charles did not learn to speak until the age of four nor to walk until eight and his jaw was so badly deformed that he could barely speak or chew. Fearing the frail child would be overtaxed, his caretakers did not force Charles to attend school, the indolence of the young Charles was indulged to such an extent that at times he was not expected to be clean. The only vigorous activity in which Charles is known to have participated was shooting and he occasionally indulged in the sport in the preserves of El Escorial. The years of Charless reign were difficult for Spain, the economy was stagnant, there was hunger in the land, and the power of the monarchy over the various Spanish provinces was extremely weak. Spain’s finances were perpetually in crisis, Charles unfitness for rule meant he was often ignored, and power during his reign became the subject of court intrigues and foreign influence, particularly French and Austrian.
Charles was three years old when his father, Philip IV, died on 17 September 1665, the Council of Castile appointed Philips second wife and Charles mother, Mariana of Austria, regent for the minor king. Charles inherited the Portuguese Restoration War and soon after his accession Spain was plunged into the War of Devolution with France in Spanish Netherlands, as regent, Mariana managed the countrys affairs through a series of favourites, whose merits usually amounted to no more than meeting her fancy. From on he was the de facto prime minister or valido of Spain, the sheer size of the kingdom at that time made this kind of government increasingly damaging to the realms affairs. The treaty ceded the North African enclave of Ceuta to Spain, but marked the loss of Portugal, to end the War of Devolution, Nithard signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. However, the members of the Councils and in particular Charles illegitimate half-brother, in February 1669, a military revolt in Aragon and Catalonia led by Juan José, who proceeded to march toward Madrid, brought about Nithards dismissal
A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig. A sloop has only one head-sail, if a vessel has two or more head-sails, the cutter is used, and its mast may be set further aft than on a sloop. The most common rig of modern sailboats is the Bermuda-rigged sloop, typically, a modern sloop carries a mainsail on a boom aft of the mast, with a single loose-footed head-sail forward of the mast. Sloops are either masthead-rigged or fractional-rigged, on a masthead-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches at the top of the mast. The mainsail may be smaller than the headsail, which is called a genoa jib. On a fractional-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches to the mast at a point below the top, typically 3/4 of the way to top, or perhaps 7/8 or some other fraction. The mast of a fractional-rigged sloop may be placed forward, compared to a masthead-rigged sloop. After the cat rig, which has only a mainsail, the rig is one of the simpler sailing rig configurations. A sloop typically has two sails, a mainsail and a headsail, while the cutter has a mainsail and two or more headsails, next in complexity are the ketch, the yawl and the schooner, each of which has two masts and a minimum of three sails. A sloop has a system of mast rigging — a forestay.
By having only two sails, the sails of a sloop are larger than those of an equivalent cutter. Until the advent of lightweight sailcloth and modern sail-handling systems, the sails of a sloop could be a handful. So, until the 1950s, sailboats over 10 metres Length Over All would typically use a rig or a two-mast rig. After the advent of modern winches and light sailcloth, the became the dominant sailing rig type for all. No rig type is perfect for all conditions, with their paucity of spars and control lines tend to impart less aerodynamic drag. Compared to other rigs, sloops tend to very well when sailing close hauled to windward. Cutters and yawls are often preferred to sloops when venturing far offshore, because it is easier to reef small sails as the wind increases, while still keeping the boat balanced. To maximize the amount of sail carried, the classic sloop may use a bowsprit, for downwind sailing, the typical foresail may be replaced by larger curved sails known as spinnakers or gennakers