Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
James Walker Fannin Jr. was a 19th-century American military figure in the Texas Army and leader during the Texas Revolution of 1835–36. After being outnumbered and surrendering to Mexican forces at the Battle of Coleto Creek, Colonel Fannin and nearly all his 344 men were executed soon afterward at Goliad, under Santa Anna's orders for all rebels to be executed, he was memorialized in several place names, including a military training camp and a major city street of Houston. Different sources say his year of birth as either 1804 or 1805, he was born in Georgia to Isham Fannin, a veteran of the War of 1812. His mother's last name was Walker. Although she was not married to his father, the Walker family raised him, his ancestors, who spelled the family name Fanning, lived in America during the Revolutionary War, a family with divided loyalties during the conflict. Isham's father James W. Fannin settled in Georgia. Fannin enrolled in the United States Military Academy at West Point on July 1, 1819.
He resigned November 1821, from the school. Although he seems to have been academically deficient, was tardy or absent from classes, he had received a letter from a cousin urging his immediate return to Georgia to attend to ailing grandparents, he married Minerva Fort. Their daughter, Missouri Pinckney, was born on July 17, 1829. A second daughter, nicknamed Eliza, was born mentally ill in 1832. While living in Columbus, Georgia, he worked as a merchant. In Muscogee County, he was a member of the Temperance Society and served for a short time as a judge. By 1832, Fannin was involved in the business of transporting slaves. In 1834, Fannin settled his family at Velasco, in colonial Tejas, where he owned a plantation and was a managing partner in a slave-trading syndicate. By 1835, Fannin was involved in the growing Anglo-American resistance to the Mexican government in Texas, he wrote letters seeking financial assistance and volunteers to help Texas. By September, Fannin was an active volunteer in the Texas Army.
He took part in the Battle of Gonzales on October 2 and urged Stephen F. Austin to send aid to Gonzales. Fannin worked with James Bowie, First Battalion, First Division, under Austin's orders to secure supplies and determine the conditions in and around Gonzales and San Antonio de Bexar. Fellow citizens... We urge as many as can leave their homes to repair to Gonzales "armed and equipped for war to the knife."... If Texas will now act promptly, she will soon be redeemed from that worse than Egyptian bondage which now cramps her resources and retards her prosperity. Under the command of Bowie, Fannin fought in the Battle of Concepción on October 28, 1835. In November 1835, Austin ordered Fannin and William B. Travis and about 150 men to cut off any Mexican supply party. On November 13, Houston offered Fannin the post of inspector general to the regular army. Fannin wrote back requesting a field appointment of brigadier general and a "post of danger". On November 22, 1835, Fannin was honorably discharged from the volunteer army by Austin and began campaigning for a larger regular army for Texas.
He went home to spend time with his family. Sam Houston, supported by Governor Henry Smith, commissioned Fannin as a colonel in the regular army on December 7, 1835. By January 7, 1836, the provisional government had appointed Fannin "military agent", to answer only to the council and not Houston, he began recruiting forces and supplies for the forthcoming and confusing Matamoros campaign against the Mexican city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas. Fannin had difficulty leading the volunteers in his charge, he tried to institute regular Army discipline. Many of his men thought he was aloof, several historians believe that he was an ineffective commander because of it; the majority of the men serving under Fannin had been in Texas only a short time. Governor James W. Robinson "... among the rise of 400 men at, near this post, I doubt if 25 citizens of Texas can be mustered in the ranks...". In early February, Fannin sailed from Velasco and landed at Copano with four companies of the Georgia Battalion, moving to join a small band of Texians at Refugio.
Mexican reinforcements under General Jose Urrea arrived at Matamoros, complicating the Texian plans to attack that city. Fannin withdrew 25 miles north to Goliad. Appeals from Travis at the Alamo prompted Fannin to launch a relief march of more than 300 men and four pieces of artillery on February 25, 1836. After some delay and his men moved out on the 28th for the journey to San Antonio, a distance of more than 90 miles; the relief mission was a failure. The troops had crossed the San Antonio River when wagons broke down, prompting the men to camp within sight of Goliad, they had little or no food, some men were barefooted, the oxen teams wandered off during the night. On March 6, 1836, the Battle of the Alamo was fought, with all the Alamo's defenders being killed by Mexican forces; the Mexican forces under General José de Urrea were now approaching the Texan stronghold in Goliad. They defeated Texian forces at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27, where 20 were killed and prisoners were taken.
Frank W. Johnson and four other Texians were captured, but managed to escape and rejoin James Fannin's command at Goliad; the Battle of Agua Dulce was fought on March 2. Dr. James Grant, Robert C. Morris and 12 others were killed, with prisoners taken. Plácido Benavides and six others escaped to notify Fannin of the situation. On March 12, Fannin sent Captain Amon B. King and about 28 men to take wagons to Refugio to help e
Dawson County, Georgia
Dawson County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,330; the county seat is Dawsonville. Dawson County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, its natural resources include Amicalola Falls, the highest in Georgia and one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the state. Dawson County was created on December 1857 from Gilmer and Lumpkin counties, it is named for William Crosby Dawson, a U. S. Senator from Georgia; the 1860s brought war and hardships to the people of Dawson County. Many men of Dawson County went to fight in the Civil War; the following Confederate units were raised in Dawson County: 21st Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E Concord Rangers 22nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company I, Dawson County Independents 38th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company I, Dawson Farmers 38th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company L 52nd Regiment, Georgia Volunteer Infantry, Company I The following Union units were raised in Dawson County: 1st Georgia Infantry Battalion, Companies B and C The county is known in auto racing circles for its long tradition of involvement in the sport, established in the 20th century.
Local racing skills are said to have been developed by men who ran moonshine down Highway 9 known as Thunder Road, to Atlanta. Celebrations of Dawson County's history and of its "likker" involvement occur every October with the Moonshine Festival. Locals have referred to Dawson County as the Moonshine Capital of the World; this title is fiercely defended by residents of this area. They took advantage of its relative isolation and the ability to move so much moonshine to the larger cities Atlanta, during the Prohibition era. Dawson County serves grades K-12, it has a total of 7 schools: one for Pre-K, four for grades K-5, one for grades 6-7, one for grades 8-9, a high school for grades 10-12. Dawson Head Start Pre-K Blacks Mill Elementary School Robinson Elementary School Kilough Elementary School Riverview Elementary School Dawson County Middle School Dawson County Junior High School Dawson County High School According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 214 square miles, of which 211 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water.
Part of Lake Lanier is in the southeastern part of the county and the boundary line with neighboring counties pass through the lake. The 729-foot Amicalola Falls, are located in the county; the Amicalola Falls are the highest in Georgia, the tallest cascading waterfall east of the Mississippi River, one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Georgia. The highest point in the county is Black Mountain, with an elevation of 3,600 feet. 6,760 acres, located in the Chattahoochee National Forest. The Chestatee and Etowah rivers flow through Dawson County; the vast majority of Dawson County is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin. The southeastern tip of the county is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin, a small northern section of Dawson County is located in the Coosawattee River sub-basin of the larger ACT River Basin. Fannin County - north Lumpkin County - northeast Hall County - east Forsyth County - south Cherokee County - southwest Pickens County - west Gilmer County - northwest Chattahoochee National Forest U.
S. Route 19 State Route 9 State Route 52 State Route 53 State Route 136 State Route 183 State Route 400 Cowart Road Steve Tate Highway Burnt Mountain Road Dawson Forest Road Lumpkin Campground Road Harmony Church Road Auraria Road Keith Evans Road Bailey Waters Road Shoal Creek Road Nix Bridge Road As of the census of 2010, there were 22,330 people, 10,425 households, 6,390 families residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 95.62% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, <0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. 4.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,433 households out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.2% were non-families. 19.7% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 5.7% under the age of 5, 6.5% between 5–9 years, 6.8% between 10–14 years, 6.0% between 15–19 years, 6.1% between 20–24 years, 5.7% between 25–29 years, 5.8% between 30–34 years, 6.6% between 35–39 years, 6.9% between 40–44 years, 8.1% between 45–49 years, 7.2% between 50–54 years, 7.0% between 55–59 years, 7.6% between 60–64 years, 6.0% between 65–69 years, 3.6% between 70–74 years, 2.4% between 75–79 years, 1.3% between 80–84 years, 0.8 over age 85. The median age was 40.6 years. 50% were male, 50% were female. The median income for a household in the county was estimated $51,989, the median income for a family was estimated $60,455. About 8.9% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.0% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 Un
The Coosawattee River is a 49.3-mile-long river located in the northwest part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The river begins at the confluence of the Ellijay River and Cartecay River in the city of Ellijay in Gilmer County; the river flows west through the foothills of the north Georgia mountains. In Murray County, the river is impounded by Carters Dam. Completed in 1977, Carters Dam is the tallest earthen dam east of the Mississippi River; the Coosawattee river leaves the dam flowing west serving as the Murray-Gordon County line before entering Gordon County. Near New Echota, the Coosawattee meets the Conasauga River to form the Oostanaula River; this is a tributary of the Coosa River. This area was the center of Cherokee territory in southern Tennessee. In the early 1820s, they made New Echota their capital. James Dickey used the Coosawattee River as the basis for his fictional "Cahulawassee River" in the novel, Deliverance
U.S. Route 76
U. S. Route 76 is an east–west U. S. highway that travels for 548 miles from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. In the state of Tennessee, US-76 is an arterial road that travels east-southeast from Downtown Chattanooga to East Ridge and south to the Georgia state line. US-76 travels concurrent with US-41 for its entire length in Tennessee, about 8.9 miles. In Georgia, US 76 traverses the northern part of the state and passes through the Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest and Georgia's most mountainous region. US 76 passes through Catoosa, Murray, Fannin, Union and Rabun counties. US 76 enters South Carolina across the Chattooga River continues southeast toward Westminster; this segment is a moderately windy two-lane road. In Westminster, it heads east toward Clemson. From Clemson, the road heads southeast toward Anderson, intersecting Interstate 85 east toward the small towns of Belton and Honea Path. US 76 is a four-lane highway from Westminster to Anderson. In Anderson, the road widens to six lanes with a reversible turn lane.
After a concurrency with US 178, the road narrows to five lanes, and, as it goes south towards downtown Anderson, it narrows again to four. However, the sections around Seneca and Anderson are well developed with many traffic lights, it travels concurrent with US 123 from Westminster to Clemson, SC 28 from Seneca to Anderson, US 178 from Anderson to Honea Path. From Honea Path, the highway heads east to Laurens; this section is a rural two-lane road, not traveled. From Laurens, US 76 parallels I-385 and I-26 as it heads to Columbia. US 76 provides local access to the communities of Laurens, Newberry, Prosperity and the other smaller towns in the area. In Irmo, US 76 travels concurrent with US 176 continues on to I-26, with which it travels concurrent. After the interchange with I-20, US 76 splits off from I-26 and continues into downtown Columbia concurrent with I-126. In Columbia, US 76 follows Elmwood Avenue, Bull Street, Gervais Street, Millwood Avenue, Devine Street, before heading east toward Sumter.
The segment from Columbia to Sumter is a four-lane highway and US 76 is concurrent with US 378 from the intersection of Bull and Gervais near the University of South Carolina in Columbia all the way to Sumter. From Sumter, US 76 heads northeast to Florence. US 76 is the major road through Florence, it continues east out of Florence to the small towns of Marion and Mullins into North Carolina. The highway is concurrent with US 301 from Florence to across the Pee Dee River; the highway passes through Fair Bluff and becomes concurrent with US 74 from Chadbourn to Wilmington. The highway is four lanes, divided with at-grade and controlled intersections; the speed limit is from 45 mph to 70 mph. It crosses the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge into Wilmington and continues to Wrightsville Beach via Oleander Drive to the route's eastern terminus. US 76 traverses 80.3 miles in North Carolina. A significant section of US 76 was relocated in Georgia during the 1980s with the old alignment decommissioned first in 1982 from the Hemptown community in Fannin County westward and eastward into Union County in 1988.
Extending from west of Blue Ridge to Blairsville, the 35-mile stretch of road today is known as Blue Ridge Highway and Old Highway 76 including the city of Morganton. In Morganton, the stretch is joined by SR 60, and, in Blairsville, a small portion of the route is unofficially part of US 19/US 129; this old alignment from Blairsville to Blue Ridge is 37 miles long and has some of Georgia's most scenic views along its eastern end. This stretch was part of SR 2, as well. US 76 has other old alignments in Ellijay, Cherry Log and south of Blue Ridge. US 76 was relocated from present-day SR 52 from Ellijay to Chatsworth in 1981 to a less treacherous course along SR 282. Significant curve realignments occurred along the serpentine section from Hiawassee to Clayton from 1988 to 2005. Today, US 76 shares mileage with SR 5, SR 515, SR 282, SR 61, SR 52, SR 17, SR 75, SR 15, SR 3, in addition to SR 2. U. S. highways with common mileage include US 411, US 41, US 441, US 23. US 76 followed a longer route from Westminster to Pendleton.
From Westminster, the old route followed S-37-13 through the Richland community its current alignment to SC 59 into downtown Seneca SC 130 out of Seneca to S-37-1 its current alignment to SC 93 toward Clemson University SC 28 Business through Pendleton. US 76 appear in North Carolina until late 1934 into 1935, it replaced NC 202 and US 17 from the South Carolina border to Chadbourn, US 17 and NC 20 to Wilmington and NC 20 to Wrightsville Beach. The original US 76 followed the current alignment of the road from the South Carolina state line to Chadbourne. US 76 followed NC 214 north of Lake Waccamaw and through Bolton, it followed the current alignment to Leland. US 76 used Office Road, Lincoln Road, Old Mill Road, to get to Village Road NE. US 76 used the closed causeway to cross the Brunswick River. From Belville US 76 used NC 133 routing to cross the Cape Fear and NE Cape Fear River's. US 76 went down 3rd Street to Market Street and followed 17th Street to Oleander Drive. US 76 used Arlie Road to where US 76 crosses into Wrightsville Beach.
US 76 turned north on Lumina Avenue to the current end point of US 74. In 1936 US 74/US 76 was given a short bypass around Leland using Village Road; the old p
Blue Ridge Dam
Blue Ridge Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Toccoa River in Fannin County, in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is the uppermost of four dams on the Toccoa/Ocoee River owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority; the dam impounds the 3,300-acre Blue Ridge Lake on the southwestern fringe of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Blue Ridge Dam is located 51 miles upstream from the mouth of the Toccoa/Ocoee River, near the point where the states of Georgia and North Carolina meet; the Toccoa River winds its way northwestward from the dam, crossing into Tennessee 10 miles downstream en route to the Ocoee dams on the lower part of the river. Blue Ridge Dam is 23 miles upstream from Ocoee Dam No. 3. The Chattahoochee National Forest surrounds Blue Ridge Dam and its reservoir, the city of Blue Ridge, Georgia is located a few miles west of the dam. U. S. Route 76 crosses a bridge just downstream from Blue Ridge Dam. Blue Ridge Dam is a hydraulic earth-fill type dam 167 feet high and 1,000 feet long, has a generating capacity of 22 megawatts.
The dam's gate-controlled saddle spillway—, separated from the main dam by a small hill— can discharge up to 55,000 cubic feet of water per second. The dam's powerhouse utilizes a 192-foot concrete intake tower, a 14-foot -diameter steel penstock 1,050 feet long that conveys water from the tower to the primary turbine. A 180-foot surge tank relieves pressure brought about by rapid gate closures. Blue Ridge Lake has 60 miles of shoreline and a flood storage capacity of 68,550 acre feet; the reservoir's levels fluctuate by about 20 feet in a typical year. Seasonal releases from the dam create Class I and Class II rapids on the Toccoa River for several miles downstream. Blue Ridge Dam was built by the Toccoa Electric Power Company, a subsidiary of the Tennessee Electric Power Company, which operated several hydroelectric plants in nearby Tennessee, including Ocoee Dam No. 1 and Ocoee Dam No. 2. Construction began in 1925, the dam went into operation July 1, 1931. At the time of its completion, the dam had a generating capacity of 20 megawatts and was the most modern power dam in the TEPCO system, requiring a staff of just six employees.
Subsequent upgrades have increased the dams generating capacity to 22 megawatts. With the passage of the TVA Act in 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority was given oversight of the Tennessee River watershed. TEPCO challenged the constitutionality of the TVA Act in federal court, but the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the law in 1939, TEPCO was forced to sell its assets to TVA for $78 million in August of that year; this sum included $5 million for Blue Ridge Dam. Soon after the dam began operations in 1931, its penstock collapsed. To prevent this from happening again, TVA has lowered the water level in the reservoir when it conducts periodic dam inspections, which require dewatering of the penstock. A project was initiated in 2010 to repair the penstock, stabilize the intake tower base, repair and stabilize the upstream and downstream faces of the dam, thus eliminating the future need for severe reservoir drawdowns. Blue Ridge Reservoir — official TVA site
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol