1880 United States Census
The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census. It was the first time; the Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census. Five schedules were authorized by the 1880 Census Act, four of which were filled out by the enumerators: Schedule 1, similar to that used for the previous census, with a few exceptions. Schedule 2, which used the same inquiries as in 1870, added inquiries to record marital status, birthplace of parents, length of residence in the United States or territory, name of place where the disease was contracted, if other than place of death. Schedule 3, which expanded inquiries concerning various crops, included questions on farm tenure, weeks of hired labor, annual cost for fence building and repair, fertilizer purchases, the number of livestock. Schedule 5, which expanded to include information on the greatest number of hands employed at any time during the year, the number of hours in the ordinary work day from May to November and November to May, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, machinery used.
Schedule 4 was the responsibility of special agents, rather than the enumerators. The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population. Experts and special agents were employed to collect data on valuation and indebtedness. Special agents were charged with collecting data on specific industries throughout the country, included the manufactures of iron and steel. Full documentation for the 1880 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, which contains microdata; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices. Microdata from the 1880 population census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. The 1880 census determined the resident population of the United States to be 50,189,209, an increase of 30.2 percent over the 38,555,983 persons enumerated during the 1870 Census. The mean center of United States population for 1880 was in Kentucky; the results from the census were used to determine the apportionment for the 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd sessions of the United States Congress. The processing of the 1880 census data took so long that the Census Bureau contracted Herman Hollerith to design and build a tabulating machine to be used for the next census; the 1880 census led to the discovery of the Alabama paradox. Demographic history of the United States 1880 Census of Population and Housing Reports 1881 U. S Census Report Contains 1880 Census results
1970 United States Census
The Nineteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,392,031, an increase of 13.4 percent over the 179,323,175 persons enumerated during the 1960 Census. This was the first census since 1800 in which New York was not the most populous state – California overtook it in population in November of 1962; this was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 300,000, the first in which a city in the geographic South recorded a population of over 1 million. Microdata from the 1970 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System; these data were created and disseminated by DUALabs. Identifiable information will be available in 2042. California took over as the most populous state, New York had been ranked number one. While the entire country increased to more than 204 million persons, four states lost population with West Virginia leading the list, down 8 and a half percent from 1960.
Historic US Census data 1971 U. S Census Report, with estimated 1970 Census results 1970 Census of Population
Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time is used as a synonym for UTC and predates UTC by nearly 300 years; the first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960 and was first adopted as CCIR Recommendation 374, Standard-Frequency and Time-Signal Emissions, in 1963, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time were not adopted until 1967. The system has been adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time" before a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972; this change adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. This CCIR Recommendation 460 "stated that carrier frequencies and time intervals should be maintained constant and should correspond to the definition of the SI second.
A decision whether to remove them altogether has been deferred until 2023. The current version of UTC is defined by International Telecommunications Union Recommendation, Standard-frequency and time-signal emissions, is based on International Atomic Time with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the slowing of the Earth's rotation. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of the UT1 variant of universal time. See the "Current number of leap seconds" section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date; the official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC. This abbreviation arose from a desire by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC; the compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets from UTC, as in the list of time zones by UTC offset.
The westernmost time zone uses UTC−12, being twelve hours behind UTC. In 1995, the island nation of Kiribati moved those of its atolls in the Line Islands from UTC−10 to UTC+14 so that Kiribati would all be on the same day. UTC is used in many World Wide Web standards; the Network Time Protocol, designed to synchronise the clocks of computers over the Internet, transmits time information from the UTC system. If only milliseconds precision is needed, clients can obtain the current UTC from a number of official internet UTC servers. For sub-microsecond precision, clients can obtain the time from satellite signals. UTC is the time standard used in aviation, e.g. for flight plans and air traffic control clearances. Weather forecasts and maps all use UTC to avoid confusion about daylight saving time; the International Space Station uses UTC as a time standard. Amateur radio operators schedule their radio contacts in UTC, because transmissions on some frequencies can be picked up in many time zones. UTC is used in digital tachographs used on large goods vehicles under EU and AETR rules.
UTC divides time into days, hours and seconds. Days are conventionally identified using the Gregorian calendar, but Julian day numbers can be used; each day contains each hour contains 60 minutes. The number of seconds in a minute is 60, but with an occasional leap second, it may be 61 or 59 instead. Thus, in the UTC time scale, the second and all smaller time units are of constant duration, but the minute and all larger time units are of variable duration. Decisions to introduce a leap second are announced at least six months in advance in "Bulletin C" produced by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service; the leap seconds cannot be predicted far in advance due to the unpredictable rate of rotation of the Earth. Nearly all UTC days contain 86,400 SI seconds with 60 seconds in each minute. However, because the mean solar day is longer than 86,400 SI seconds the last minute of a UTC day is adjusted to have 61 seconds; the extra second is called a leap second. It accounts for the grand total of the extra length of all the mean solar days since the previous leap second.
The last minute of a UTC day is permitted to contain 59 seconds to cover the remote possibility of the Earth rotating faster, but that has not yet been necessary. The irregular day lengths mean that fractional Julian days do not work properly with UTC. Since 1972, UTC is calculated by subtracting the accumulated leap seconds from International Atomic Time, a coordinate time scale tracking notional proper time on the rotating surface of the Earth. In order to maintain a close approximation to UT1, UTC has discontinuities where it changes from one linear function of TAI to another; these discontinuities take the form of leap seconds implemented by a UTC day of irregular length. Discont
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
County (United States)
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, a region having specific boundaries and some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U. S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively. Most counties have subdivisions which may include unincorporated areas. Others may serve as a consolidated city-county; some municipalities are in multiple counties. The United States Census Bureau uses the term "county equivalent" to describe places that are comparable to counties, but called by different names. Louisiana parishes. Alaska's Unorganized Borough is divided into 10 census areas that are statistically equivalent to counties; as of 2018, there are 3,142 counties and county-equivalents in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. If the 100 county equivalents in the U. S. territories are counted the total is 3,242 counties and county-equivalents in the United States.
The number of counties per state ranges from the 3 counties of Delaware to the 254 counties of Texas. The specific governmental powers of counties vary between the states. Counties have significant functions in all states except Rhode Island and Connecticut, where county governments have been abolished but the entities remain for administrative or statistical purposes; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has removed most government functions from eight of its 14 counties. The county with the largest population, Los Angeles County, the county with the largest land area, San Bernardino County, border each other in Southern California. Territories of the United States do not have counties. While America Samoa does have its own counties, the U. S. Census Bureau counts American Samoa's atolls as county-equivalents. Counties were among the earliest units of local government established in the Thirteen Colonies that would become the United States. Virginia created the first counties; the House of Burgesses divided the colony first into four "incorporations" in 1617 and into eight shires in 1634: James City, Charles City, Charles River, Accomac, Elizabeth City, Warwick River.
America's oldest intact county court records can be found at Eastville, Virginia, in Northampton County, dating to 1632. Maryland established its first county, St. Mary's, in 1637, Massachusetts followed in 1643. Pennsylvania and New York delegated significant power and responsibility from state government to county governments and thereby established a pattern for most of the United States, although counties remained weak in New England; when independence came, "the framers of the Constitution did not provide for local governments. Rather, they left the matter to the states. Subsequently, early state constitutions conceptualized county government as an arm of the state." In the twentieth century, the role of local governments strengthened and counties began providing more services, acquiring home rule and county commissions to pass local ordinances pertaining to their unincorporated areas. In some states, these powers are or devolved to the counties' smaller divisions called townships, though in New York, New England and Wisconsin they are called "towns".
The county may or may not be able to override its townships on certain matters, depending on the state constitution. The newest county in the United States is the city and county of Broomfield, established in 2001 as a consolidated city-county; the newest county-equivalents are the Alaskan boroughs of Skagway established in 2007, Wrangell established in 2008, Petersburg established in 2013. A consolidated city-county is a city, a municipality, a county, an administrative division of a state, having the powers and responsibilities of both types of entities. There are 40 consolidated city-counties in the U. S. including Augusta, Georgia. Some of Alaska's boroughs have merged with their principal cities creating unified city-boroughs; some such consolidations and mergers have created cities that rank among the geographically largest cities in the world, though with population densities far below those of most urban areas. The term county equivalents is used to describe divisions whose organization differs from that of most counties: Alaska census areas: Most of the land area of Alaska is not contained within any of Alaska's 19 organized boroughs.
This vast area, larger than France and Germany combined, is referred to by the Alaska state government as the Unorganized Borough and outside of other incorporated borough limits, has no independent "county" government, although several incorporated city governments exist within its boundaries. The United States Census Burea
Lamar County, Texas
Lamar County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas, in the Northeast Texas region of the state. As of the 2010 census, its population was 49,891, its county seat is Paris. The county was formed by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 17, 1840 and organized the next year, it is named for the second president of the Republic of Texas. Lamar County comprises TX Micropolitan Statistical Area; the majority-white population supported the Democratic Party well into the late 20th century, when it was nearly a one-party state. But in the early 21st century, most have shifted to the Republican Party. Lamar County is now represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Gary VanDeaver of New Boston, Texas. Republican US Representative Marsha Farney, reared in Lamar County, represents District 20, which includes the northern portion of Williamson County in the Austin suburbs. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 933 square miles, of which 907 square miles is land and 926 square miles is water.
U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 271 State Highway 19 State Highway 24 Loop 286 Choctaw County, Oklahoma Red River County Delta County Fannin County Bryan County, Oklahoma As of the census of 2000, there were 48,499 people, 19,077 households, 13,468 families residing in the county; the population density was 53 people per square mile. There were 21,113 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.46% White, 13.47% Black or African American, 1.08% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.17% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 3.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,077 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.00% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,609, the median income for a family was $38,359. Males had a median income of $30,539 versus $21,095 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,000. About 12.80% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.50% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Lamar County: Chisum ISD Fannindel ISD Honey Grove ISD North Lamar ISD Paris ISD Prairiland ISD Roxton ISDIn addition, Paris Junior College serves the county. Powderly National Register of Historic Places listings in Lamar County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lamar County Lamar County Historical Museum Media related to Lamar County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons Lamar County government's website Lamar County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Historic Lamar County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Lamar County Texas information - Lamar County Station