A strategy game or strategic game is a game in which the players' uncoerced, autonomous decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome. All strategy games require internal decision tree style thinking, very high situational awareness; the term "strategy" comes from Greek, meaning generalship. It differs from "tactics" in that it refers to the general scheme of things, whereas "tactics" refers to organization and execution; the history of turn-based strategy games goes back to the times of ancient civilizations found in places such as Rome, Egypt, the Levant, India. Many were played through their regions of origin, but only some are still played today. One such game is mancala, which may have originated in Samaria 5000 years ago and has since diversified into scores of varieties worldwide. One form challenges two opposing players to clear their side of a board of mancala pieces while adding them into their opponent's side and thereby preventing the opponent from clearing their side.
At each end of the game board in this version there is a larger pit in which each player must try to deposit the pieces to try and gain points. When one side is cleared the other side of the board's pieces are added to the cleared side's pile; this version of mancala can be played quite casually, but still presents strategy demands, e.g. to interfere in your opponent's playing area while clearing your own. Another game that has stood the test of time is chess. Chess is believed to have originated in India around the sixth century CE; the game spread to the west by trade, but chess gained social status and permanence more than many other games. Chess became a game of skill and tactics forcing the players to think two or three moves ahead of their opponent just to keep up; this game became accepted by many as a proxy for intelligence. The game portrays foot soldiers, kings, queens and rooks. Several portray actual positions in the historical European military; each piece has a unique movement pattern.
For example, the knight is constricted to moving in a L-shape two squares long and one square to the side, the rook can only move in a straight line vertically or horizontally, bishops can move diagonally on the board. In abstract strategy games, the game is only loosely tied to a thematic concept; the rules do not attempt to simulate reality, but rather serve the internal logic of the game. A purist's definition of an abstract strategy game requires that it cannot have random elements or hidden information; this definition includes such games as Go and Arimaa. However, many games are classed as abstract strategy games which do not meet these criteria: games such as backgammon, Can't Stop and Mentalis have all been described as "abstract strategy" games despite having a chance element. A smaller category of non-perfect abstract strategy games incorporate hidden information without using any random elements. One of the most focused; this card game consists of two teams of two players, whose offensive and defensive skills are continually in flux as the game's dynamic progresses.
Some argue that the benefits of playing this team strategy card game extend to those skills and strategies used in business and that the playing of these games helps to automate strategic awareness. Eurogames, or German-style boardgames, are a new genre that sit between abstract strategy games and simulation games, they have simple rules, short to medium playing times, indirect player interaction and abstract physical components. The games emphasize strategy, play down chance and conflict, lean towards economic rather than military themes, keep all the players in the game until it ends; this type of game is an attempt to simulate the decisions and processes inherent to some real-world situation. Most of the rules are chosen to reflect what the real-world consequences would be of each player's actions and decisions. Abstract games cannot be divided from simulations and so games can be thought of as existing on a continuum of pure abstraction to pure simulation. Wargames are simulations of campaigns or entire wars.
Players will have to consider situations that are analogous to the situations faced by leaders of historical battles. As such, wargames are heavy on simulation elements, while they are all "strategy games", they can be "strategic" or "tactical" in the military jargon sense, its creator, H. G. Wells, stated how "much better is this amiable miniature than the real thing". Traditionally, wargames have been played either with miniatures, using physical models of detailed terrain and miniature representations of people and equipment to depict the game state. Popular miniature wargames include its fantasy counterpart Warhammer Fantasy. Popular strategic board wargames include Risk and Allies, Paths of Glory. Advanced Squad Leader is a successful tactical scale wargame. Strategy video games are categorized based on whether they offer the continuous gameplay of real-time strategy, or the discrete phases of turn-based strategy; the computer is expected to emulate a strategically thinking "side" similar to that of a human player, or emulate the "instinctive" actions of individual units that would be too tedious for
Draughts or checkers is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque; the name derives from the verb to move. The most popular forms are English draughts called American checkers, played on an 8×8 checkerboard. There are many other variants played on 8×8 boards. Canadian checkers and Singaporean/Malaysian checkers are played on a 12×12 board; the 8×8 variant of draughts was weakly solved in 2007 by the team of Canadian computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play. Draughts is played on opposite sides of the gameboard. One player has the dark pieces. Players alternate turns. A player may not move an opponent's piece. A move consists of moving a piece diagonally to an adjacent unoccupied square. If the adjacent square contains an opponent's piece, the square beyond it is vacant, the piece may be captured by jumping over it.
Only the dark squares of the checkered board are used. A piece may move only diagonally into an unoccupied square; when presented, capturing is mandatory in most official rules, although some rule variations make capturing optional. In all variants, the player without pieces remaining, or who cannot move due to being blocked, loses the game. Uncrowned pieces move one step diagonally forwards, capture an opponent's piece by moving two consecutive steps in the same line, jumping over the piece on the first step. Multiple enemy pieces can be captured in a single turn provided this is done by successive jumps made by a single piece. In English draughts men can jump only forwards; when a man reaches the kings row, it becomes a king, is marked by placing an additional piece on top of the first man, acquires additional powers including the ability to move backwards and capture backwards. Like men, a king can make successive jumps in a single turn provided that each jump captures an enemy man or king.
In international draughts, kings move any distance along unblocked diagonals, may capture an opposing man any distance away by jumping to any of the unoccupied squares beyond it. Because jumped pieces remain on the board until the turn is complete, it is possible to reach a position in a multi-jump move where the flying king is blocked from capturing further by a piece jumped. Flying kings are not used in English draughts. In most non-English languages, draughts is called dame, damas, or a similar term that refers to ladies; the pieces are called men, stones, "peón" or a similar term. In these languages, the queen in chess or in card games is called by the same term as the kings in draughts. A case in point includes the Greek terminology, in which draughts is called "ντάμα", one term for the queen in chess; the World Championship in English draughts began in 1840. The winners in men's have been from the United Kingdom, United States and most Italy; the women's championship in English draughts started in 1993.
The women's winners have been from Ireland and Ukraine. The World Championship in international draughts began in 1885 in France, since 1948 has been organized by the World Draughts Federation, it occurs every two years. In years following the tournament, the World Title match takes place; the men's championship has had winners from the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, Senegal and Russia. The first Women's World Championship was held in 1973; the World Junior Championship has been played since 1971. European Championships have been held since 1965 and 2000. Other official World Championships began as follows: Brazilian draughts, in 1985. Blue and Gray: On a 9×9 board, each side has 17 guard pieces that move and jump in any direction, to escort a captain piece which races to the center of the board to win. Cheskers: A variant invented by Solomon Golomb; each player begins with a bishop and a camel, men reaching the back rank promote to a bishop, camel, or king. Damath: A variant utilizing math principles and numbered chips popular in the Philippines.
Dameo: A variant played on an 8×8 board and capture rules are similar to those of Armenian draughts. A special "sliding" move is used for moving a line of checkers similar to the movement rule in Epaminondas. By Christian Freeling. Hexdame: A literal adaptation of international draughts to a hexagonal gameboard. By Christian Freeling. Lasca: A checkers variant on a 7×7 board, with 25 fields used. Jumped pieces are placed under the jumper. Only the top piece of a jumped; this variant was invented by World Chess Champion Emanuel Lasker. Philosophy shogi checkers: A variant on a 9×9 board, game endi
Madagascar the Republic of Madagascar, known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; the island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar may have occurred as much as 10,000 years ago. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo; these were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life.
The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles; the monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Madagascar belongs according to the United Nations. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state; the majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class; as of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population. In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy.
The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island. On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country and the fourth-largest island; the country lies between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros and the French territory of Mayotte to the north west.
The nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west. The prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana separated the Madagascar–Antarctica–India landmass from the Africa–South America landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar split from India about 88 million years ago during the late Cretaceous period allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Along the length of the eastern coast runs a narrow and steep escarpment containing much of the island's remaining tropical lowland forest. To the west of this ridge lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 750 to 1,500 m above sea level; these central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the Merina people and the location of their historic capital at Antananarivo, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the arid terrain slope
Abstract strategy game
An abstract strategy game is a strategy game in which the theme is not important to the experience of playing. Many of the world's classic board games, including chess, Go, checkers and draughts, shogi, Nine Men's Morris, most mancala variants, fit into this category. Play is sometimes said to resemble a series of puzzles; as J. Mark Thompson wrote in his article "Defining the Abstract": There is an intimate relationship between such games and puzzles: every board position presents the player with the puzzle, What is the best move?, which in theory could be solved by logic alone. A good abstract game can therefore be thought of as a "family" of interesting logic puzzles, the play consists of each player posing such a puzzle to the other. Good players are the ones. Many abstract strategy games happen to be "combinatorial". Combinatorial games have no randomizers such as dice, no simultaneous movement, nor hidden information; some games that do have these elements are sometimes classified as abstract strategy games.
A smaller category of abstract strategy games manages to incorporate hidden information without using any random elements. Traditional abstract strategy games are treated as a separate game category, hence the term'abstract games' is used for competitions that exclude them and can be thought of as referring to modern abstract strategy games. Two examples are the IAGO World Tour and the Abstract Games World Championship held annually since 2008 as part of the Mind Sports Olympiad; some abstract strategy games have multiple starting positions of which it is required that one be randomly determined. For a game to be one of skill, a starting position needs to be chosen by impartial means; some games, such as Arimaa and DVONN, have the players build the starting position in a separate initial phase which itself conforms to combinatorial game principles. Most players, would consider that although one is starting each game from a different position, the game itself contains no luck element. Indeed, Bobby Fischer promoted randomization of the starting position in chess in order to increase player dependence on thinking at the board.
Analysis of "pure" abstract strategy games is the subject of combinatorial game theory. Abstract strategy games with hidden information, bluffing, or simultaneous move elements are better served by Von Neumann–Morgenstern game theory, while those with a component of luck may require probability theory incorporated into either of the above; as for the qualitative aspects, ranking abstract strategy games according to their interest, complexity, or strategy levels is a daunting task and subject to extreme subjectivity. In terms of measuring how finite a mathematical field each of the three top contenders represents, it is estimated that checkers has a game-tree complexity of 1031 possible positions, whereas chess has 10123; this suggests that computer programs, through brute force calculation alone, should be able to surpass human players' abilities. As for Go, the possible legal game positions range in the magnitude of 10170; the Mind Sports Olympiad first held the Abstract Games World Championship in 2008 to try to find the best abstract strategy games all-rounder.
The MSO event saw a change in format in 2011 restricting the competition to players' five best events, was renamed to the Modern Abstract Games World Championship. It was again won by David Pearce. 2008: David M. Pearce 2009: David M. Pearce 2010: David M. Pearce 2011: David M. Pearce 2012: Andres Kuusk 2013: Andres Kuusk Connection games Game complexity List of abstract strategy games List of world championships in mind sports Mind Sports Olympiad World Mind Sports Games The University of Alberta Games Group David Eppstein's CGT page
New Mathematics and Natural Computation
New Mathematics and Natural Computation is an interdisciplinary journal founded in 2005 and is now published by World Scientific. It covers mathematical uncertainty and its applications to computational and social sciences, with a specific focus on unexplored areas in mathematical uncertainty, such as fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic; the journal is abstracted and indexed in: Mathematical Reviews Zentralblatt MATHAs of 2013, it had a SCImago Journal Rank in the bottom quartile of journals in applied and computational mathematics, computer science applications, human-computer interaction. Journal Website
Andrianjaka reigned over the Kingdom of Imerina in the central highlands region of Madagascar from around 1612 to 1630. Despite being the younger of King Ralambo's two sons, Andrianjaka succeeded to the throne on the basis of his strength of character and skill as a military tactician; the most celebrated accomplishment of his reign was the capture of the hill of Analamanga from a Vazimba king. There he established the fortified compound that would form the heart of his new capital city of Antananarivo. Upon his orders, the first structures within this fortified compound were constructed: several traditional royal houses were built, plans for a series of royal tombs were designed; these buildings took on an enduring political and spiritual significance, ensuring their preservation until being destroyed by fire in 1995. Andrianjaka obtained a sizable cache of firearms and gunpowder, materials that helped to establish and preserve his dominance and expand his rule over greater Imerina. Many of the cultural practices that were to define Merina social and political life for centuries are credited to Andrianjaka.
He designated the twelve sacred hills of Imerina that were to become the spiritual and political heartland of the Merina empire, contributing to the establishment of the kingdom's traditional boundaries. He consolidated power through such measures as appropriating the folk tradition of sampy, thereby ensuring all the powers traditionally attributed to these idols were under the control of the sovereign alone. Merina traditions related to the burial and mourning of sovereigns are traced back to Andrianjaka's reign. Andrianjaka was the second son of Ralambo, ruler of the Kingdom of Imerina in the central highlands of Madagascar; as a young man, Andrianjaka married a daughter of Prince Andriampanarivomanjaka. The marriage produced one daughter and one son, Andriantsitakatrandriana, who would rule after his father from 1630 to 1650. Andrianjaka was actively involved in providing support to his father's military campaigns to expand and defend Ralambo's realm. Oral history describes an incident wherein Andrianjaka and Ralambo were engaged in the defense of Ralambo's capital at Ambohidrabiby, threatened by the advance of Antsihanaka warriors.
Andrianjaka suggested an innovative defensive tactic to annihilate the enemy by filling the town's hadivory with cow dung and rice husks, lighting it on fire, covering the smoldering embers with burnt rice stalks so that the area resembled a patch of land re-cleared for planting through tavy. The enemy troops marched into the trap, sinking into the embers and burning or suffocating to death. Oral history provides two different accounts of Andrianjaka's succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Imerina. According to popular legend, Ralambo devised a test to determine which of his two sons was most fit to rule: he would summon them both to join him at his capital in Ambohidrabiby, whichever of his two sons reached him soonest would inherit his kingdom. In one account of this legend, Andrianjaka was engrossed in strategizing a win in a difficult game of fanorona and so refused to admit audience to the royal messenger until after the game was over. During this delay, his older brother Andriantompokoindrindra received his father's message and rushed home.
However, this tale continues, Andriantompokoindrindra's claim to power was rejected by the public, he was soon forced to cede the throne to Andrianjaka. In an alternate account of the succession tale, it is Andriantompokoindrindra, said to be preoccupied with the fanorona game—a version in keeping with the oral tradition that credits him with the game's invention and popularization at court—and his refusal to return to his father until after the game had finished led Ralambo to choose Andrianjaka as his successor. One source states that the summons was not a test, but rather occurred during the aforementioned incident when Ralambo was besieged in his capital by the Antsihanaka warriors and was genuinely in need of his sons' assistance, it is accepted by historians that Andrianjaka did indeed succeed to the throne around 1610 or 1612 after his older brother's claim was rejected by the public. All speculation about fanorona and royal summons aside, Ralambo may have chosen Andrianjaka based on the simple fact that he was the son of Ralambo's first wife.
Ralambo's father, had established rules of succession by which Ralambo's first son by his first wife must rule after his father in order to fulfill a mandate established by his Vazimba antecedents Rafohy and Rangita. The passing over of Andriantompokoindrindra in favor of his younger brother was mitigated by the establishment of a royal tradition maintaining that all reigning descendants of Andrianjaka would henceforth be required to marry a princess directly descended from Andriantompokoindrindra, thereby preserving the royal status of descendants in both brothers' bloodlines. Andrianjaka moved his capital from Ambohidrabiby to Ambohimanga upon ascending to the throne around 1610 or 1612, he was the first Merina leader to receive Europeans around 1620 and traded slaves in exchange for guns and other firearms to aid in the pacification of rival principalities, obtaining 50 guns and three barrels of gunpowder to equip his army. He unified the principalities on what he designated as the twelve sacred hills of Imerina at Ambohitratrimo, Ilafy, Antsahadita, Analamanga, Namehana, Ambohidra
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c