Jericho, New York
Jericho is a hamlet and census-designated place in Nassau County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island, about 29 miles east of Midtown Manhattan. Its population was 13,567 as of the United States 2010 Census; the area is served by the Jericho Union Free School District and the Syosset Central School District, the boundaries of which differ somewhat from those of the hamlet. The boundaries of the Jericho Post Office vary from both the hamlet and the school district boundaries, notably by including a portion of Jericho in the Westbury zip code, the inclusion of a portion of Syosset in the Jericho zip code. Located in the Town of Oyster Bay with a small part in the Town of Hempstead, Jericho was part of the Robert Williams Plantation in 1648; the English families who settled in Jericho were, or soon became, members of the Society of Friends. Many fled from persecution in the New England Colonies, they sought a peaceful existence as farmers. The name of the area was changed in 1692 from Lusum to Jericho after the town in the Middle East near the Jordan River mentioned in the Bible as part of the Promised Land.
Elias Hicks married Jemima Seaman in 1771 and moved to her family’s farm in Jericho, where he soon became a noted preacher of Quaker doctrine. All the Quakers suffered during the British occupation of Long Island in the Revolutionary War; the practice was to quarter troops in homes of residents, who had to provide room and board for them. The Quakers continued to protest the entire concept of war itself. After the war, peace returned to Jericho, the neat farms and businesses began to prosper. A Friends Meeting house was built in 1788 in Jericho, still used in the 21st century. A Quaker school was built in 1793, the Charity Society of Jericho and Westbury in 1794, slavery was abolished in 1817, with Hicks' help. A Post Office was established in 1802, a cider mill in the mid-19th century, the first public elementary school in 1905, known as the Cedar Swamp School. Improvements to infrastructure were made with the founding of the Jericho Water District in 1923; as the population increased, a new elementary school was built in 1953, a Volunteer Fire Department established in 1938.
The population kept increasing until the last elementary schools in Jericho were built, the George A. Jackson Elementary School in 1957, the now closed Robert Williams School in 1961 and the Cantiague School in 1963; when the Village of Muttontown was incorporated, the cider mill was within the village limits. Because most Gold Coast villages wanted to remain business free areas, many do not have their own post offices or ZIP Codes. Therefore, Jericho Post Office which serves this area of Muttontown is displayed as the official USPS mailing address and leads to the misconception that the cider mill is in Jericho. After World War II, in the 1950s Phebe Underhill Seaman sold a large piece of her land to real estate developers; this property was developed for new suburban housing. The water tower was erected in 1952. In 1958 the NY Department of Transportation demolished "Old Jericho" to widen Broadway, Routes 106/107, to put in a cloverleaf access to Jericho Turnpike. New grade schools and a high school were added to the community along with a shopping center, a new Post Office, new Fire Department and a Public Library.
In Jericho is the New York Community Bank Theatre established in 1956 as the Westbury Music Fair. The main entrance to SUNY Old Westbury is located in Jericho. Jericho is located at 40°47′12″N 73°32′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.1 square miles, all land. It is served by the Long Island Expressway and the Long Island Rail Road, via the nearby Westbury and Syosset train stations. There is another Jericho in New York, this one is located in the extreme Northeast corner of the state, in the Town of Altona, county of Clinton, it lies along the Rand Hill Road. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,045 people, 4,545 households, 3,813 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 3,214.1 per square mile. There were 4,600 housing units at an average density of 1,133.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.36% White, 1.42% African American, 0.03% Native American, 10.69% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.44% of the population. There were 4,545 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.8% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.1% were non-families. 13.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.08. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 28.4% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $101,477, the median income for a family was $109,635. Males had a median income of $79,204 versus $48,431 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $45,312. About 2.7% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.
The building now known as the Maine Maid Inn was built in 1789 as the home for the prominent Quaker and abolitionist Valentine Hicks, his wife Abigail, their children. Hicks' father Elias Hicks "had been the spark that helped convince Quakers and oth
Daredevils (role-playing game)
Daredevils is a pulp magazine tabletop role-playing game set in the 1930s. It was written by Robert Charrette and Paul Hume and published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1982; the game comes with a rule book, a scenario book, a character sheet, a three panel game master screen. Daredevils is Hume's third game of a series; the first two games were Bushido and Aftermath! All three games feature similar game mechanics, but those of Daredevils are simpler than those of Aftermath! Daredevils was not popular. In his book Designers & Dragons, Appelcline said, "It was still too awkward and it was only supported with four supplements." The game consists of a sixty-four page rulebook which describes the characters' abilities, their careers, movements, forms of combat and vehicles. There are chapters. There is a thirty-two page book entitled Adventures which describes four mini-scenarios. In addition to these items, the packaging contains a game master's screen. Daredevils is set in the 1930s; the player takes the persona of a detective cum pulp fiction hero.
The game is based on the adventures of Pulp magazine characters such as The Shadow. The main game, however fantastic, is set in a realistic historic world; the supplementary adventures involve other scenarios which were popular in the pulp magazines of the 1930s, such as lost worlds, exotic locales, supernatural horror. In 1984, in The Name of the Game feature of the White Dwarf magazine, the author Marcus Rowland said, "The complications of this game's character generation and combat systems make it unsuitable for beginners, but experienced players may enjoy it."Dragon magazine published a lengthy review of Daredevils. The magazine compared the game to the adventures of Indiana Jones; the reviewer, Ken Ralston, concluded that the rules were complex for a casual gamer but appropriate for a gamer with an interest in the pulp fiction era. Daredevils received positive comments from Paul Cockburn of Imagine magazine, he compared the game favorably to the earlier Gangbusters game. He praised the realism of Daredevils in comparison to Call of Cthulhu.
Cockburn compared the game to the adventures of Indiana Jones. The editors of Different Worlds magazine, made similar comments but criticised the rules for being too complex. John Rankin reviewed Daredevils in The Space Gamer No. 61. Rankin commented that "Daredevils is a most satisfying game. Unless you didn't like the Aftermath/Bushido game system, at all, you should find Daredevils a more than adequate RPG to propel you into'30s action and adventure."In the pages of his book, Role-Playing Mastery, the Dungeons & Dragons co-creator E. Gary Gygax mentions Daredevils and Bushido in his short list of notable role playing games. James Maliszewski, a role playing game designer, summarised the critics' findings in a review of Daredevils. Daredevils listing at the RPG.net game index. Daredevils page at the Fantasy Games Unlimited website
Bunnies & Burrows
Bunnies & Burrows is a role-playing game inspired by the novel Watership Down. Published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1976, the game centered on intelligent rabbits, it introduced several innovations to role-playing game design, being the first game to allow players to have non-humanoid roles, the first to have detailed martial arts and skill systems. Fantasy Games Unlimited published a second edition of the game in 1982, the game was modified and republished by Steve Jackson Games as an official GURPS supplement in 1992; as rabbits, player characters are faced with dangers mirroring those in the real world. The only true "monsters" in the game are humans; the characters' position in the food chain promotes an emphasis on role-playing and problem solving over combat. Published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1976, only two years after the first role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons was published, this edition is now long out of print; the game was inspired by Richard Adams' fantasy novel Watership Down, the players were given the opportunity to take on the role of rabbits.
As such, the game emphasized role-playing over combat for, according to Steffan O'Sullivan, "You're playing a rabbit, after all – how much combat do you want to do?" David M. Ewalt, in his book Of Dice and Men, commented that Bunnies & Burrows "pushed setting farther" than other early RPGs like Dungeons & Dragons and En Garde!, as the "player characters were intelligent rabbits and had to compete for food, avoid predators, deal with internal warren politics". The poor production values provided a barrier to the acceptance of the game; the art, by Charles Loving, was "sketchy and of poor quality", while the document as a whole gave the appearance of having been typewritten. Building on this first edition, in 1979, B. Dennis Sustare wrote "Different Worlds Present the World of Druid's Valley: A Bunnies & Burrows Campaign" in Different Worlds, a magazine published by Chaosium, it detailed how to combine the world of Burrows with other fantasy worlds. This was followed by the mini-adventure "The Jackrabbits' Lair", written by Daniel J. Maxfield, in Pegasus, a magazine published by Judges Guild.
A second edition of Bunnies & Burrows was printed in 1982 by Fantasy Games Unlimited, although the continuing popularity of the first edition is evidenced by how it was still being played in 2008. During a rise of "retro" games in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Steve Jackson Games entered negotiations with Dennis Sustare and Scott Robinson, the current owners of the Bunnies & Burrows copyright, to publish an official GURPS supplement. In 1988, O'Sullivan wrote an unofficial conversion of Bunnies & Burrows to GURPS while the negotiations continued, he indicated. GURPS Bunnies & Burrows was published in 1992; the setting had an unofficial conversion in 2004 to be used in Risus: The Anything RPG by Boyd Mayberry under their "Rules for Free Fan-Supplements and Articles". The original game was innovative for its time. Not only could you play non-humanoids for the first time, but it was the first role-playing game to have detailed martial arts rules, the first attempt at a skill system, the first RPG to appeal as to women as to men.
Bunnies & Burrows was the first role-playing game to allow for non-humanoid play. In addition, it was the first role-playing game to have detailed martial arts rules and the first attempt at a skill system. For its time, the game was considered "light years" ahead of the Original Dungeons & Dragons. Players of Bunnies & Burrows take the role of rabbits as their player characters. Interaction with many different animal species is part of normal gameplay. Humans, whose thought processes and motivations are alien, are the only monster to be encountered. Bunnies & Burrows has the advantage of offering players an intuitive grasp of relative dangers and appropriate actions not possible in game worlds that are fictional. For example, a player is told. There is an immediate intuition on the amount of peril. Since player characters are weaker than many of the dangers they face, the game is one of the first to encourage problem solving and outwitting obstacles, rather than out-fighting them; the mechanics of the role-playing game system were created for Bunnies & Burrows, common at the time of its original publishing.
It features eight classes. The task resolution system is based on rolls of percentile dice. Although newer systems have updated game mechanics the ideas presented in Bunnies & Burrows created the framework for modern role-playing games. Steve Jackson reviewed Bunnies & Burrows in The Space Gamer No. 10. Jackson concluded that "B & B is with the retail price at least to a FRP fan; the writing style is intelligent and witty. This view is mirrored by Lev Lafayette, when describing his first exposure to the game, says "Oh, how we laughed.'Who on earth would want to roleplay a rabbit?', we mocked.'What's the point? You can't do anything!'". Bunnies & Burrows, Fantasy Games Unlimited Bunnies & Burrows, Fantasy Games Unlimited Different Worlds Present the World of Druid's Valley: A Bunnies & B
Flash Gordon & the Warriors of Mongo
Flash Gordon & the Warriors of Mongo is a role-playing game published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1977. Flash Gordon & the Warriors of Mongo is a science-fantasy system based on the Flash Gordon comic series; the game uses a "schematic" rules system in which characters and play are defined in only the most general of terms. The game includes campaign setting material describing the realms of the planet Mongo. Flash Gordon & the Warriors of Mongo was designed by Lin Carter and Scott Bizar, with a cover by Gray Morrow and featuring illustrations by Alex Raymond, was published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1977 as a 52-page book with a cardstock reference card. An RPG Ahead of Its Time -- Flash Gordon & the Warriors of Mongo Flash Gordon and the Warriors of Mongo Capsule Review
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
Gangster! is a role-playing game published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1979. Gangster! is a cops-and-mobsters system for the period 1900 to the present. The rules cover criminal characters as well as combat with all sorts of firearms; the game includes sections on crimes and corruption, gang wars, police methods, forensic medicine, FBI labs, SWAT teams, with guidelines on the laws of the land, criminal law and penalties. Gangster! was designed by Nick Marinacci and Pete Petrone and published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1979 as a boxed set with two 32-page books and two reference sheets. The game was codesigned by a former New York police officer. Robert N. Charrette created 25 mm miniatures to accompany Gangster! Dragon #35
Merc (role-playing game)
Merc is a role-playing game published by Fantasy Games Unlimited in 1981. Merc is a military system of modern mercenaries and counter-insurgency; the rules cover character creation, action success tests, movement and vehicles. Merc was designed by Paul D. Baader, Lawrence Sangee, Walter Mark, was published by Fantasy Games Unlimited as a boxed set with a 36-page book, four cardstock reference sheets, a plastic transparency, dice. Brian R. Train reviewed Merc in The Space Gamer No. 59. Train commented that "this is quite a good game for an first effort – I feel its flaws are due to not enough development time and design limits. If a revised edition of Merc were put out, I would heartily recommend it; as it is, though, I would warn the buyer to'approach with caution' unless he is quite familiar with the subject matter, in order to fill in the numerous holes." Different Worlds #32