Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a style of fiction that paints a realistic view of the modern world while adding magical elements. It is sometimes called fabulism, in reference to the conventions of fables and allegory. "Magical realism" the most common term refers to fiction and literature in particular, with magic or the supernatural presented in an otherwise real-world or mundane setting. The terms are broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as "what happens when a detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe". Many writers are categorized as "magical realists", which confuses its wide definition. Irene Guenther tackles the German roots of the term, how art is related to literature. Magical realism is associated with Latin American literature authors including genre founders Gabriel García Márquez, Miguel Angel Asturias, Jorge Luis Borges, Elena Garro, Juan Rulfo, Rómulo Gallegos, Isabel Allende.
In English literature, its chief exponents include Salman Rushdie, Alice Hoffman, Nick Joaquin. Whereas, in Bengali Literature, prominent writers of magic realism include Nabarun Bhattacharya, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Shahidul Zahir, Jibanananda Das, Syed Waliullah, Nasreen Jahan and Humayun Ahmed. In Japanese literature, one of the most important authors of this genre is Haruki Murakami. While the term magical realism first appeared in English in 1955, the term Magischer Realismus, translated as magic realism, was first used by German art critic Franz Roh in 1925 to refer to a painterly style known as Neue Sachlichkeit, an alternative to expressionism championed by fellow German museum director Gustav Hartlaub. Roh identified magic realism's accurate detail, smooth photographic clarity, portrayal of the'magical' nature of the rational world, it reflects the uncanniness of our modern technological environment. Roh believed that magic realism was related to, but distinct from, due to magic realism's focus on the material object and the actual existence of things in the world, as opposed to surrealism's more cerebral and subconscious reality.
Magic realism was used to describe the uncanny realism by American painters such as Ivan Albright, Peter Blume, Paul Cadmus, Gray Foy, George Tooker and Viennese-born Henry Koerner, along other artists during the 1940s and 1950s. However, in contrast with its use in literature, magic realist art does not include overtly fantastic or magical content, but rather looks at the mundane through a hyper-realistic and mysterious lens. German magic realist paintings influenced the Italian writer Massimo Bontempelli, called the first to apply magic realism to writing, aiming to capture the fantastic, mysterious nature of reality. In 1926 he founded the magic realist magazine 900. Novecento, his writings influenced Belgian magic realist writers Johan Daisne and Hubert Lampo. Roh's magic realism influenced writers in Hispanic America, where it was translated as realismo mágico in 1927. Venezuelan writer Arturo Uslar-Pietri, who had known Bontempelli, wrote influential magic realist short stories in the 1930s and 40s that focused on the mystery and reality of how we live.
Luis Leal attests that Pietri seemed to have been the first to adopt the term realismo mágico in Hispanic America in 1948. There is evidence that Mexican writer Elena Garro used the same term to describe the works of E. T. A. Hoffmann but dismissed her own work as a part of the genre. French-Russian Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier, who rejected Roh's magic realism as tiresome pretension, developed his related concept lo real maravilloso, or marvelous realism, in 1949. Maggie Ann Bowers writes that marvelous realist literature and art expresses "the opposed perspectives of a pragmatic and tangible approach to reality and an acceptance of magic and superstition" within an environment of differing cultures; the term magical realism, as opposed to magic realism, first emerged in the 1955 essay "Magical Realism in Spanish American Fiction" by critic Angel Flores in reference to writing that combines aspects of magic realism and marvelous realism. While Flores named Jorge Luis Borges as the first magical realist, he failed to acknowledge either Carpentier or Pietri for bringing Roh's magic realism to Latin America.
Borges is seen as a predecessor of magical realists, with only Flores considering him a true magical realist. After Flores's essay, there was a resurgence of interest in marvelous realism, after the Cuban revolution of 1959, led to the term magical realism being applied to a new type of literature known for matter-of-fact portrayal of magical events; the extent to which the characteristics below apply to a given magic realist text varies. Every text employs a smattering of the qualities listed here. However, they portray what one might expect from a magic realist text. Magical realism portrays fantastical events in an otherwise realistic tone, it brings fables, folk tales, myths into contemporary social relevance. Fantasy traits given to characters, such as levitation and telekinesis, help to encompass modern political realities that can be phantasmagorical; the existence of fantasy elements in the real world provides the basis for magical realism. Writers do not invent new worlds but reveal the magical in this world, as was done by Gabriel García Márquez who wrote the seminal work of the style, One Hundred Years of Solitude.
In the world of magical realism, the supernatural realm blends with the familiar world. Authorial reticence is the "deliberate withholding of information and explanations about the disconcerting fictiti
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Fantastic art is a broad and loosely defined art genre. It is not restricted to a specific school of geographical location or historical period, it can be characterised by subject matter – which portrays non-realistic, mythical or folkloric subjects or events – and style, representational and naturalistic, rather than abstract – or in the case of magazine illustrations and similar, in the style of graphic novel art such as manga. Fantasy has been an integral part of art since its beginnings, but has been important in mannerism, magic realist painting, romantic art, symbolism and lowbrow. In French, the genre is called le fantastique, in English it is sometimes referred to as visionary art, grotesque art or mannerist art, it has had a circular interaction with fantasy literature. The subject matter of Fantastic Art may resemble the product of hallucinations, Fantastic artist Richard Dadd spent much of his life in mental institutions. Salvador Dalí famously said: "the only difference between me and a madman is that I am not mad".
Some recent Fantastic Art draws on the artist's experience, or purported experience, of hallucinogenic drugs. The term Fantasy Art is related, is applied to recent art inspired by, or illustrating, fantasy literature; the term has acquired some pejorative overtones. Fantastic art has traditionally been confined to painting and illustration, but since the 1970s has been found in photography. Fantastic art explores fantasy, the dream state, the grotesque and the uncanny, as well as so-called "Goth" art. Genres which may be considered as Fantastic Art include the Symbolism of the Victorian era, Surrealism. Works based on classical mythology, which have been a staple of European art from the Renaissance period arguably meet the definition of Fantastic Art, as art based on modern mythology such as JRR Tolkien's Middle Earth mythos unquestionably does. Religious art depicts supernatural or miraculous subjects in a naturalistic way, but is not regarded as Fantastic Art. Many artists have produced works.
Some, such as Nicholas Roerich, worked exclusively in the genre, others such as Hieronymus Bosch, described as the first "fantastic" artist in the Western tradition, produced works both with and without fantastic elements, for artists such as Francisco de Goya, fantastic works were only a small part of their output. Others again such as René Magritte are classed as Surrealists but use fantastic elements in their work, it is therefore impossible to give an exhaustive list of fantastic artists, but a selection of major and influential figures is listed below. Giuseppe Arcimboldo John Bauer William Blake Arnold Böcklin Hieronymus Bosch Brueghel Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Richard Dadd Salvador Dalí Paul Delvaux Monsù Desiderio Gustave Doré Max Ernst Caspar David Friedrich Henry Fuseli Francisco de Goya Hans Baldung Grien Matthias Grünewald Thomas Häfner Max Klinger Gustave Moreau Giovanni Battista Piranesi Arthur Rackham Odilon Redon Nicholas Roerich Henri Rousseau Yves Tanguy Clovis Trouille George Frederic Watts The rise of fantasy and science fiction "pulp" magazines demanded artwork to illustrate stories and to promote sales.
This led to a movement of science fiction and fantasy artists prior to and during the Great Depression, as anthologised by Vincent Di Fate, himself a prolific SF and space artist. In the United States in the 1930s, a group of Wisconsin artists inspired by the Surrealist movement of Europe created their own brand of fantastic art, they included Wisconsin-based artists Marshall Glasier, Dudley Huppler and John Wilde. Their art combined macabre humor and irony, in direct and pointed contradiction to the American Regionalism in vogue. In postwar Chicago, the art movement Chicago Imagism produced many fantastic and grotesque paintings, which were little noted because they did not conform to New York abstract art fashions of the time. Major imagists include Roger Brown, Gladys Nilsson, Jim Nutt, Ed Paschke, Karl Wirsum. Non-European art may contain fantastic elements, although it is not easy to separate them from religious elements involving supernatural beings and miraculous events. Sculptor Bunleua Sulilat is a notable contemporary Asian Fantastic artist.
Dream art Outsider art Society for the Art of Imagination Surrealism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Gruyères Castle Coleman, A. D.. The Grotesque in Photography. New York: Summit, Ridge Press. Watney, Simon. Fantastic Painters. London: Thames & Hudson. Colombo, Attilio. Fantastic Photographs. London: Gordon Fraser. Johnson, Diana L.. Fantastic illustration and design in Britain, 1850-1930. Rhode Island School of Design. Krichbaum, Jorg & Zondergeld. R. A.. Dictionary of Fantastic Art. Barron's Educational Series. Menton, Seymour. Magic Realism Rediscovered 1918-1981. Philadelphia, The Art Alliance Press. Day, Holliday T. & Sturges, Hollister. Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art. Clair, Jean. Lost Paradise: Symbolist Europe. Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Palumbo, Donald. Eros in the Mind's Eye: Sexuality and the Fantastic in Art and Film. Greenwood Press. Stathatos, John. A Vindication of Tlon: Photography and the Fantastic. Greece: Thessaloniki Museum of Photography Schurian, Prof. Dr. Walter.
Fantastic Art. Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8228-2954-7 BeinArt
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story. Such stories feature entities such as dwarfs, elves, giants, goblins, mermaids, talking animals, unicorns, or witches, magic or enchantments. In most cultures, there is no clear line separating myth from fairy tale. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicit moral tales, including beast fables; the term is used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries relates to children's literature. In less technical contexts, the term is used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy-tale ending" or "fairy-tale romance". Colloquially, the term "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can mean any far-fetched story or tall tale. Legends are perceived as real. However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places and events. Fairy tales occur both in literary form.
Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world. The history of the fairy tale is difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, according to researchers at universities in Durham and Lisbon, such stories may date back thousands of years, some to the Bronze Age more than 6,500 years ago. Fairy tales, works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways; the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales; some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale" to refer to the genre over fairy tale, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvellous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses." The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls. Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute; the term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's Conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697. Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or mythical beings should be taken as a differentiator. Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals. To select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folklore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 – in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction – to gain a clear set of tales.
His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself to tales that do not involve a quest, furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works. Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine:, a fairytale... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful. As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale when the animal is a mask on a human face, as in fables. In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves and not only other magical species but many other marvels. However, the same essay excludes tales that are considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre. From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives. In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, b
Gods and demons fiction
Gods and demons fiction is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that revolves around the deities and monsters of Chinese mythology. The term shenmo xiaoshuo, coined in the early 20th century by the writer and literary historian Lu Xun means "fiction of gods and demons". Works of shenmo fiction include The Investiture of the Gods. Shenmo first appeared in the Ming Dynasty as a genre of vernacular fiction, a style of writing based on spoken Chinese rather than Classical Chinese; the roots of the genre are found in traditional legends. Plot elements like the use of magic and alchemy were derived from Chinese mythology and religion, including Taoism and Buddhism, popular among Ming intellectuals; the Sorcerer's Revolt is an early demons novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong. In the story, Wang Ze begins a rebellion against the government with the aid of magic; the Four Journeys is another early shenmo work composed of four novels and published during the dynasty as a compilation of folk stories. The Story of Han Xiangzi, a Taoist novel from the same period shares this supernatural theme but contains heavier religious overtones.
The most well known examples of shenmo fiction are Journey to the West and The Investiture of the Gods. Journey to the West in particular is considered by Chinese literary critics as the chef-d'oeuvre of shenmo novels; the novel's authorship is attributed to Wu Cheng'en and was first published in 1592 by Shitedang, a Ming publishing house. The popularity of Journey to the West inspired a series of shenmo copycats that borrowed plot elements from the book. Works of gods and demons fiction drifted away from the purely fantastical themes of novels like Journey to the West. Shenmo novels carried more humanistic themes. During the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, a subgenre of comedic shenmo had emerged; the grotesque exposés of the Qing dynasty reference the supernatural motifs of shenmo xiaoshuo, but in the Qing exposés, the division between the real and unreal is less clear cut. The supernatural is placed outside conventional fantasy settings and presented as a natural part of a realistic world, bringing about its grotesque nature.
This trait is embodied in the Journey to the West and other shenmo parodies of the late Qing dynasty. In A Ridiculous Journey to the West by Wu Jianwen, the protagonist Bare-Armed Gibbon, a more venal version of Sun Wukong, aids the Vulture King once he is unable to wring any money out of a penniless fish that the vulture had caught and dropped in a puddle; the monkey returns in another Wu Jianwen story, Long Live the Constitution, bickers with other characters from Journey to the West over a constitution for Heaven. The four main characters of Journey to the West, the monkey, Tang Sanzang, Zhu Bajie, Sha Wujing, travel to modern Shanghai in the New Journey to the West by Lengxue. In Shanghai, they mingle with prostitutes, suffer from drug addiction, play games of mahjong. Journey to the West was not the only demons novel lampooned. New Investiture of the Gods is a parody of Investiture of the Gods by Dalu, published as a guji xiaoshuo comedy. Novels in this subgenre include an expanded revision of The Sorcerer's Revolt, What Sort of Book Is This?, Romance of Devil Killing, Quelling the Demons.
Instead of focusing only on a supernatural realm, shenmo comedies used fantasy as a social commentary on the follies of the human world. Lu Xun theorized that the shenmo genre shaped the satirical works written in the Qing Dynasty; the genre influenced the science fantasy novels of the late Qing. Shenmo literature declined in the early 20th century; the generation of writers following the May Fourth Movement rejected fantasy in favor of literary realism influenced by the trends of 19th-century European literature. Chinese writers regarded fantasy genres like shenmo as superstitious and a product of a feudal society. Stories of gods and monsters were seen as an obstacle to the modernization of China and scientific progress; the writer Hu Shih wrote that the spells and magical creatures of Chinese fiction were more harmful to the Chinese people than the germs discovered by Louis Pasteur. Stories of the supernatural were denounced during the Cultural Revolution, an era when "Down with ox-ghosts and snake-spirits" was a popular Communist slogan.
Shenmo and other fantasy genres experienced a revival in Taiwan, Hong Kong, in Mainland China after the Cultural Revolution ended. Having returned to Chinese popular culture, fantasy has populated film, television and literature. Contemporary writers use supernatural themes to accentuate the otherworldly atmosphere of their works; the term shenmo xiaoshuo was coined by the writer and literary historian Lu Xun in his book A Brief History of Chinese Fiction, which has three chapters on the genre. The literary historian Mei Chun translates Lu Xun's term as "supernatural/ fantastic"; the term was adopted as a convention by the generations of Chinese literary critics that followed him. In their 1959 translation of Lu Xun's book, Gladys Yang and Yang Xianyi translate shenmo as "Gods and Devils". Lin Chin, a historian of Chinese literature, categorized the fantasy novels of the Ming dynasty as shenguai xiaoshuo, "novels of gods and strange phenomenon". Zhong Kui Wang, David Der-wei. Fin-de-siècle Splendor: Repressed Modernities of Late Qing Fiction, 1849-1911.
Stanford University Press. ISBN 978
Dieselpunk is a genre similar to steampunk that combines the Tier 2 Industrial technology and aesthetics of the diesel-based technology of the interwar period through to the 1950s with retro-futuristic technology and postmodern sensibilities. Coined in 2001 by game designer Lewis Pollak to describe his role-playing game Children of the Sun, the term has since been applied to a variety of visual art, motion pictures and engineering; the name "dieselpunk" is a derivative of the 1980s science fiction genre cyberpunk, is used to represent the time period – or "era" – from the interwar period until the 1950s, when diesel-based locomotion was the main technological focus of Western culture. The "-punk" suffix attached to the name is representative of the counterculture nature of the genre with regards to its opposition to contemporary aesthetics; the term refers to the tongue-in-cheek name given to a similar cyberpunk derivative, "steampunk," which focuses on science fiction based on industrial steam power and, set within the Victorian era.
Author Scott Westerfeld addresses the question of where to draw the line between steampunk and dieselpunk, arguing that his novel Leviathan qualifies as steampunk despite the fact that the technology it depicts includes diesel engines. I like the word "dieselpunk" if you are doing something like'Weird World War II'. I think, but to me, World War I is the dividing point where modernity goes from being optimistic to being pessimistic. Because when you put the words "machine" and "gun" together, they both change. At that point, war is no longer about a sense of adventure and chivalry and a way of testing your nation's level of manhood. So playing around with that border between optimistic steampunk and a much more pessimistic dieselpunk, more about Nazis, was kind of interesting to me because early in the war we were kind of on the steampunk side of that. Jennifer McStotts, another author, considers the two genres to be close cousins, she defines steampunk as concerned with the Victorian era, the shift in technology and energy generation that came with industrialisation.
The genre is concerned with steam power and sustainable energy, while she defines dieselpunk as the genre combining the aesthetic and genre influences of the period of both world wars. Academic Gary K. Wolfe defines the genres by their era of setting, he defines steampunk as the genre set in the Victorian era and dieselpunk as the genre set in the interwar period. Dieselpunk draws its inspiration from two related sources: the diesel era and a characteristic referred to by dieselpunks as "decodence." According to the web site The Gatehouse, decodence, "embraces the styles and technologies of the era. The interbellum era is central to one school of dieselpunk labeled "Ottensian." In addition to the interbellum period, World War II plays a major role in dieselpunk in the school of the genre referred to as "Piecraftian." The exact ending of the diesel era is in some dispute in the dieselpunk community. Depending on the source it ends either at the conclusion of World War II or continues until the early part of the 1950s with the advent of such cultural icons as the Golden Age of Television and the replacement of Big Band and Swing music with Rock and Roll in popularity.
Although the term "dieselpunk" was not coined until 2001, a large body of art significant to the development of the genre was produced before that. Artwork created in the dieselpunk style are influenced by elements of the art movements most prevalent in Western culture during the diesel era such as: Arts – Abstract Expressionism, Art Deco, Raygun Gothic, Cubism, Dada, De Stijl, International Style, Surrealism Music – Blues, ragtime, Big Band, retro swing, bluegrass Literature – Symbolism, Stream of consciousness, Pulp, Hardboiled Detective, NoirAccording to Tome Wilson, owner of Dieselpunks website, the term was retroactively applied to an existing trend in literature. An alternative term was "low-brow pop surrealism". Writers of this trend blended traditional tropes and genres, such as Pulp Adventure, Film noir, Weird Horror, with a contemporary aesthetic. In his words: "They were creating a future fueled by the spirit of the Jazz Age." In their works, the reader could see Sam Spade in the era of smartphones and John Dillinger use a hovercar as his getaway vehicle.
They were writing cyberpunk stories about the era of The Great Gatsby. In discussing punk genres, Ted Stoltz defines dieselpunk as the quasifuture from the Art Deco era, he argues that cyberpunk, clockpunk and ribopunk are all defined by their connection to their respective technological element. He found this does not apply to other related genres such as elfpunk and splatterpunk where technology plays a minor role. Alternative history and World War II feature prominently in dieselpunk literature. Examples of other dieselpunk novels are Tales of the First Occult War by Kevin Cooney, Fiends of the Eastern Front by David Bishop, Hard Magic: Book 1 of the Grimnoir Chronicles by New York Times bestselling novelist Larry Correia. A feature, first identified by t
Early history of fantasy
Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were an element of literature from its beginning, though the idea of a distinct genre, in the modern sense, is less than two centuries old. The parallel article History of fantasy deals with fantasy literature in the English language; the history of French fantasy is covered in greater detail under Fantastique. The Epic of Gilgamesh was written over generations following the supposed reign of King Gilgamesh, is seen as a mythologized version of his life; this figure is sometimes an influence and, more a figure in modern fantasy. Some scholars believe The Epic of Gilgamesh is a source used by the authors of the Bible the story of Noah and the flood; the magic part of fantasy is due to the Mesopotamian world: the use of "magical words" that have the power to command the spirits. India has a long tradition of fantastical characters, dating back to Vedic mythology. Several modern fantasy works such as RG Veda draw on the Rig-Veda as a source. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata by Vyasa, the Ramayana by Valmiki, both of which were influential in Asia.
The Panchatantra was influential in the Middle East. It used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Talking animals endowed with human qualities have now become a staple of modern fantasy; the Baital Pachisi is a collection of various fantasy tales set within a frame story about an encounter between King Vikramāditya and a Vetala, an early mythical creature resembling a vampire. According to Richard Francis Burton and Isabel Burton, the Baital Pachisi "is the germ which culminated in the Arabian Nights, which inspired the Golden Ass of Apuleius, Boccacio's Decamerone, the Pentamerone, all that class of facetious fictitious literature." Classical mythology is replete with fantastical stories and characters, the best known being the works of Homer and Virgil. The contribution of the Greco-Roman world to fantasy is vast and includes: The hero's journey; the philosophy of Plato has had great influence on the fantasy genre. In the Christian Platonic tradition, the reality of other worlds, an overarching structure of great metaphysical and moral importance, has lent substance to the fantasy worlds of modern works.
The world of magic is connected with the Roman Greek world. With Empedocles, the elements, they are used in fantasy works as personifications of the forces of nature. Other than magic concerns include: the use of a mysterious tool endowed with special powers. Myths important for fantasy include: The myth of Titans; the figures of Chinese dragons were influential on the modern fantasy use of the dragon, tempering the greedy evil diabolical Western dragon. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Taoist beliefs about neijin and its influence on martial arts have been a major influence on wuxia, a subgenre of the martial arts film, sometimes fantasy, when the practice of wuxia is used fictitiously to achieve super-human feats, as in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; the most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
The epic reached its final form by the fourteenth century. All Arabian fairy tales were called "Arabian Nights" when translated into English, regardless of whether they appeared in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, in any version, a number of tales are known in Europe as "Arabian Nights" despite existing in no Arabic manuscript; this epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. Many imitations were written in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Part of its popularity may have sprung from the increasing historical and geographical knowledge, so that places of which little was known and so marvels were plausible had to be set further "long ago" or farther "far away". A number of elements from Persian and Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy, such as genies, bahamuts, ma