A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables run directly from the tower to the deck. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and this is the range where cantilever bridges would rapidly grow heavier if the span were lengthened, while suspension bridge cabling would not be more economical if the span were shortened. Cable-stayed bridges have been known since the 16th century and used widely since the 19th, early examples often combined features from both the cable-stayed and suspension designs, including the famous Brooklyn Bridge. The design fell from favor through the 20th century as larger gaps were bridged using pure suspension designs, Cable-stayed bridges date back to 1595, where designs were found in Machinae Novae, a book by Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio. Their designers found that the combination of technologies created a stiffer bridge, john A. Roebling took particular advantage of this to limit deformations due to railway loads in the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge.
Eduardo Torroja designed an aqueduct at Tempul in 1926. Albert Caquots 1952 concrete-decked cable-stayed bridge over the Donzère-Mondragon canal at Pierrelatte is one of the first of the modern type, the steel-decked Strömsund Bridge designed by Franz Dischinger is, more often cited as the first modern cable-stayed bridge. Other key pioneers included Fabrizio de Miranda, Riccardo Morandi, early bridges from this period used very few stay cables, as in the Theodor Heuss Bridge. However, this involves substantial erection costs, and more modern structures tend to use many more cables to ensure greater economy, Cable-stayed bridges may appear to be similar to suspension bridges, but in fact, they are quite different in principle and in their construction. In suspension bridges, large main cables hang between the towers and are anchored at each end to the ground and this can be difficult to implement when ground conditions are poor. The main cables, which are free to move on bearings in the towers, before the deck is installed, the cables are under tension from their own weight.
Along the main cables smaller cables or rods connect to the bridge deck, as this is done, the tension in the cables increases, as it does with the live load of traffic crossing the bridge. The tension on the cables is transferred to the ground at the anchorages. Difference between types of bridges In the cable-stayed bridge, the towers are the primary load-bearing structures which transmit the loads to the ground. A cantilever approach is used to support the bridge deck near the towers. The mono design uses a cable from its towers and is one of the lesser-used examples of the class. In the harp or parallel design, the cables are nearly parallel so that the height of their attachment to the tower is proportional to the distance from the tower to their mounting on the deck
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Aastrup is a little village in eastern Falster, located 6 km southwest of Stubbekøbing. Aastrup Church, built in the Romanesque style, has frescos from the 13th and 15th century, the first documented reference to the village dates from 1419 when it was called Østrup. From 1908 to 1965, the Stubbekøbing–Nykøbing railway went through Aastrup,4.2 km from Stubbekøbing, where there was a station with a ticket office, stations on the Stubbekøbing–Nykøbing Railway with photographs of Aastrup, c.1950
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Marielyst is a small town and seaside resort some 12 kilometres south of Nykøbing on the Danish island of Falster. Its long sandy beach has led to a summer house development with some 6,000 holiday homes. As of 2015, it has a population of 693, Marielyst is situated on the Baltic coast of Falster. At the end of the last ice age some 12,000 years ago, initially there were three islands, Langø, Bøtø and Bøtø Fang, but these were silted up. However, an inlet remained at Gedesby leading into the Bøtø Nor lake stretching 16 km from Sildestrup to Gedesby, between 1860 and 1865, the inlet was closed, a dike was built and the inland area was drained. Marielysts white sand beach is the most western of those along the zone of five countries. In a survey of ten Danish beaches carried out in 2011, Marielysts beach, stretching no less than 20 kilometres, the soft white sandy beach was judged to be particularly suitable for children. Other localities along the beach are Eikenøre, Stovby, behind the sand dunes along the beach, there is a dyke which was built at the end of the 19th century to protect the inland area from flooding, enabling it to be used for farming.
A footpath offers pleasant walks over the full 20 km stretch next to the sea, after the sea floods caused by a storm in 1872, Hans Jørgensen succeeded in draining the land in the area for farming. He named his new farmhouse Marielyst after his wife Marie, in 1906, the lawyer Frederik Graae converted the farmhouse into a hotel with 12 rooms called Marielyst Østersøbad. He opened it on 28 July 1906, inviting local and national celebrities as well as representatives of the international press, thanks to its great success, additional accommodation was made available in another farmhouse, Nørrevang. In 1908–1909, Graae built three sophisticated Art Nouveau homes called Troldtøj, Kitwalde and Tannhäuser after works by Holger Drachmann, decorated with paintings by Olaf Rude and Carl Holm, they were purchased by wealthy families from Copenhagen. Local residents followed in the 1920s, building mostly two-storey brick houses with a sea view from the first floor, wooden houses followed as land prices rose.
In 1919, Laurits Hansen opened the first grocery on Marielyst Torv, the Tannhäuser residence became a guest house in 1932, with a restaurant in 1939. After the Storstrøm Bridge to Zealand was opened in 1937, Strandhotellet was built in 1938, another hotel, Marielyst Strandhotel, came in 1956 but was torn down in 2006 to make way for holiday apartments. Around 1940, Marielyst became a summer house development with some 500 small holiday homes located between Bøtøvej and Storkevej. In the 1960s and 1970s, there was renewed interest in summer houses in the surrounding area, today there are over 6,000 summer houses in and around Marielyst. Marielyst, built in the style of a Mediterranean resort, has a selection of hotels, shops, holiday apartments
Beam bridges are the simplest structural forms for bridge spans supported by an abutment or pier at each end. No moments are transferred throughout the support, hence their structural type is known as simply supported, the simplest beam bridge could be a log, a wood plank, or a stone slab laid across a stream. Bridges designed for modern infrastructure will usually be constructed of steel or reinforced concrete, the concrete elements may be reinforced, prestressed or post-tensioned. Types of construction could include having many beams side by side with a deck across the top of them, the main beams could be I-beams, trusses, or box girders. They could be half-through, or braced across the top to create a through bridge, beam bridges are not limited to a single span. Some viaducts such as the Feiyunjiang Bridge in China have multiple simply supported spans supported by piers and this is opposed to viaducts using continuous spans over the piers. Beam bridges are only used for relatively short distances because, unlike truss bridges.
The only supports are provided by piers, the farther apart its supports, the weaker a beam bridge gets. As a result, beam bridges rarely span more than 250 feet and this doesnt mean beam bridges arent used to cross great distances, it only means that a series of beam bridges must be joined together, creating whats known as a continuous span
Scandinavia /ˌskændᵻˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. The term Scandinavia always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, an overseas territory of Denmark. This looser definition almost equates to that of the Nordic countries, in Nordic languages, only Denmark and Sweden are commonly included in the definition of Scandinavia. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the geographical area, the name Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to the formerly Danish, now Swedish, region Scania. Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse, Finland is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the north of Scandinavia.
The Danish and Swedish languages form a continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent, Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in Scandinavia, the southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia have a temperate climate. Scandinavia extends north of the Arctic Circle, but has mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Much of the Scandinavian mountains have a tundra climate. There are many lakes and moraines, legacies of the last glacial period, Scandinavia usually refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden.
Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elders writings, and was used vaguely for Scania, as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism, the term is often defined according to the conventions of the cultures that lay claim to the term in their own use. More precisely, and subject to no dispute, is that Finland is included in the broader term Nordic countries, various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, Norways government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America, Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries
Idestrup is a town some 7 kilometres southeast of Nykobing Falster on the Danish island of Falster. As of 2015, it has a population of 1,188, Idestrup Church built in the Romanesque style dates from the 12th century. With its whitewashed walls, rounded windows and a red tiled roof it stands in the middle of the town, other buildings of interest include the dairy from the late 19th century, the foramlingshus from 1901 and the old peoples home with a history going back to 1924. The towns development owes much to Edward Tesdorph, originally a farmer and he was behind the local high tension power station as well as the sugar refinery in Nykøbing. Various iron age and bronze age finds have recently made in. The town has an association, Idestrup-Væggerløse Idrætsforening, and Idestrup Hallen. There is a library, food store and, since 2011, a new private school