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Faraday Society

The Faraday Society was a British society for the study of physical chemistry, founded in 1903 and named in honour of Michael Faraday. In 1980, it merged with several similar organisations, including the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Society for Analytical Chemistry to form the Royal Society of Chemistry, both a learned society and a professional body. At that time, the Faraday Division became one of six units within the Royal Society of Chemistry; the Faraday Society published Faraday Transactions from 1905 to 1971, when the Royal Society of Chemistry took over the publication. Of particular note were the conferences called Faraday Discussions, which were published under the same name; the publication includes the discussion of the paper as well as the paper itself. At the meeting, more time is given to the discussion than to the author presenting the paper as the audience are given the papers prior to the meeting; these conferences continue to be run by the Royal Society of Chemistry.

In addition to its presidents, key figures at the Faraday Society included George Stanley Withers Marlow and Editor of the society from 1926–1948, his successor Frederick Clifford Tompkins. Tompkins served as Editor until 1977, as the President of the Faraday Division of the amalgamated Royal Society of Chemistry from 1978-1979. Prior to the amalgamation, Tompkins received valuable assistance from D. A. Young, who became Editor as of 1977. Sir Joseph Swan: 1903–1904 Lord Kelvin: 1905–1907 Sir William Henry Perkin: 1907 Sir Oliver Lodge: 1908–1909 Sir James Swinburne: 1909–1911 Sir Richard T. Glazebrook: 1911–1913 Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield: 1913–1920 Professor Alfred W Porter: 1920–1922 Sir Robert Robertson: 1922–1924 Sir Frederick George Donnan: 1924–1926 Professor Cecil Henry Desch: 1926–1928 Professor Thomas Martin Lowry: 1928–1930 Sir Robert Mond: 1930–1932 Professor Nevil Vincent Sidgwick: 1932–1934 William Rintoul: 1934–1936 Professor Morris William Travers: 1936–1938 Sir Eric Keightley Rideal: 1938–1945 Professor William Edward Garner: 1945–1947 Professor Arthur John Allmand: 1947–1948 Sir John Lennard-Jones: 1948–1950 Sir Charles Goodeve: 1950–1952 Sir Hugh Taylor: 1952–1953 Professor Ronald George Wreyford Norrish: 1953–1955 Ronald Percy Bell: 1956–1957 Sir Harry Work Melville: 1958 Dr Edgar William Steacie: 1959 Sir Harry Work Melville: 1960 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood: 1961–1962 Professor Alfred Rene Ubbelhode: 1963–1964 Sir Frederick Sydney Dainton: 1965–1966 Professor Cecil Bawn: 1967–1968 Professor Geoffrey Gee: 1969–1970 Professor John Wilfrid Linnett: 1971–1972 Marlow Award

Set Your Loving Free

"Set Your Loving Free" is a song recorded by British singer Lisa Stansfield for her 1991 album, Real Love. It was written by Stansfield, Ian Devaney and Andy Morris, produced by Devaney and Morris; the song received positive reviews from music critics. AllMusic editor Alex Henderson noted the song as "sleek"."Set Your Loving Free" was released as the fourth European single on 25 May 1992. It included; the Nick Brandt-directed music video, starring Linus Roache, was released. The song reached number twenty-eight in the United Kingdom and number twenty on the Hot Dance Club Songs in the United States, where it was released as B-side of "A Little More Love." "Set Your Loving Free" was remixed by Masters at Work. In 2003, it was included on Biography: The Greatest Hits. In 2014, the remixes of "Set Your Loving Free" and "Whenever You're Gone" were included on the deluxe 2CD + DVD re-release of Real Love and on People Hold On... The Remix Anthology. European 7" single "Set Your Loving Free" – 4:09 "Whenever You're Gone" – 4:06European CD maxi-single "Set Your Loving Free" – 4:09 "Whenever You're Gone" – 4:06 "Set Your Loving Free" – 7:26European 12" single "Set Your Loving Free" – 7:26 "Set Your Loving Free" – 6:00 "Make Love to Ya" – 6:26 "Make Love to Ya" – 5:02European promotional CD single "Set Your Loving Free" – 7:26 "Set Your Loving Free" – 6:00 "Make Love to Ya" – 6:26 "Make Love to Ya" – 5:02 "Set Your Loving Free" – 4:41 "Set Your Loving Free" – 5:46 "Set Your Loving Free" – 7:26 "Set Your Loving Free" – 4:52

Rubus occidentalis

Rubus occidentalis is a species of Rubus native to eastern North America. Its common name black raspberry is shared with the related western American species Rubus leucodermis. Other names used include wild black raspberry, black caps, black cap raspberry and scotch cap. Rubus occidentalis is a deciduous shrub growing to 2–3 m tall, with prickly shoots; the leaves are pinnate, with five leaflets on leaves, strong-growing stems in their first year, three leaflets on leaves on flowering branchlets. The flowers are distinct in having long, slender sepals 6–8 mm long, more than twice as long as the petals; the round-shaped fruit is a 12–15 mm diameter aggregation of drupelets. Black raspberries are high in anthocyanins; this has led to their being useful as natural dyes. Preliminary studies to evaluate their benefit for cancer treatment in mammalian test systems are ongoing and a small-scale clinical trial has begun on patients with Barrett's esophagus; the black raspberry is closely related to the red raspberries Rubus idaeus and Rubus strigosus, sharing the distinctively white underside of the leaves and fruit that detaches from the carpel, but differing in the ripe fruit being black, in the stems being more prickly.

The black fruit makes them look like blackberries, though this is only superficial, with the taste being unique and not like either the red raspberry or the blackberry. As suggested by the common name, black raspberries have dark purple-black fruits, rich in anthocyanin pigments. However, due to occasional mutations in the genes controlling anthocyanin production, yellow-fruited variants sometimes occur, have been propagated in home/farm gardens in the midwestern United States; the yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry retain that species' distinctive flavor, different from the similar-appearing pale-fruited variants of cultivated red raspberries. The center for black raspberry production is in the Willamette Valley in Oregon; the main cultivar,'Munger', is grown on about 600 ha. Other cultivars include'John Robertson','Allen','Jewel','Blackhawk','Macblack','Plum Farmer','Dundee','Hanover', and'Huron'; the plants are summer tipped by hand, mechanically pruned in winter and machine harvested.

The yields are low per acre and this is why the fruits are expensive. The species has been used in the breeding of many Rubus hybrids. Wild purple raspberries have been found in various places in northeastern North America where the two parental species co-occur and hybridize naturally; the berries are dried or frozen, made into purées and juices, or processed as colorants. Fresh berries are marketed in season. Two well-known liqueurs based predominantly on black raspberry fruit include France's Chambord Liqueur Royale de France and South Korea's various kinds of Bokbunja. Dewberry, a sub-set of blackberries Rubus niveus and Rubus coreanus, related Asian species Media related to Rubus occidentalis at Wikimedia Commons

Wolfgang Thonke

Wolfgang Thonke, was a journalist, graduated military scientist, major general, was the last Deputy Commanding General of the National People's Army Air Force in the former German Democratic Republic. He was a military aviator/fighter pilot of “performance level I” with more than 1,500 flight hours. Thonke was born as a child of a worker's family. After World War II he was fled to relatives in Bautzen, he passed the school-leaving examination of the secondary school and joined the National People's Army in 1957 as a volunteer. There he became a professional soldier and applied for the attendance of the Air Force Officer's School in Bautzen. In 1958 he became a member of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. After graduation with distinction in 1959, he became a professional officer and served as flight instructor in the 3rd Fliegerausbildungsgeschwader of the Air Force Officer's School. From 1961 to 1965 it was followed by an assignment as instructor flight tactics/ weapon's control of the Fliegerausbildungsgeschwader 15 on aerodrome Rotenburg/Görlitz.

Due to his permanent excellent performance as tutor/ instructor and pilot, to train and educate officer students, possible future military pilots, on ground and on air, Thonke was promoted to captain, andin 1963 became A3 of the Air Force Officer's School. After this assignment he served as deputy commander on flight training of the Air Force Officer’s School from 1968 to 1973; because he performed on this staff position excellent as well, he was delegated to high-school study on the Military University Friedrich Engels in Dresden from 1973 to 1975. Here he passed all examination with graduation in military science. After successful graduation lieutenant colonel Thonke was appointed to Commander of the Jagdfliegergeschwader 1 from 1973 to 1975. Hereafter Thonke was assigned to the command and general staff officers course to the General Staff Academy from 1975 to 1977. After successful study and promotion to military scientist Dr.rer.mil. Colonel Thonke was assigned as chief of the flight inspection department of the Kommando LSK/LV.

This was followed by an engagement as A3 of the fighter aircraft units in 1981, after that he became commander of the fighter aircraft units in the Kommando LSK/LV. He served in this position until 1986. In 1986 W. Thonke was appointed to commander of the Officers high school „Otto Lilienthal” in Bautzen, on October 7, 1987, he was appointed to major general; the final assignment on general rank from 1989 to 1990 W. Thonke performed as Assistant Commander in Chief A3 of the Air Force in the Kommando LSK/LV in Strausberg. With the disbandment of the National People's Army, Major General Thonke retired with effective date of October 2, 1990. Among numerous orders and decorations major general Lothar Engelhardt was awarded with: Patriotic Order of Merit, in bronze Combat order "Of Merit for the Nation and Fatherland", in silver, bronze Meritorious Military Pilot of the German Democratic Republic Medal of Merit of the National People's Army, in gold and bronze Medal Brotherhood in Arms, in silver Medal "For Strengthening of Brotherhood in Arms" Medal 30th Anniversary of the Foundation of the GDR Medal for Faithful Service in the National People's Army in bronze, gold, XX-years service Dr. Wolfgang Thonke worked as a freelance journalist since 1990 and was member of the Fliegerstammtisch Strausberg.

He found his last resting-place in the family burial-place of the churchyard St. Marine of Strausberg, 1 March 2019. Dr. Thonke died leaving his widow three children. Schönbohm, Jörg. Two Armies and One Fatherland. Peter and Elfi Johnson, translators. Berghahn Books, Rhode Island, 1996

Mylae (Thessaly)

Mylae was a town and polis of Perrhaebia in ancient Thessaly. Livy describes recounts the battle for the town during the Third Macedonian War, in 171 BCE; the army of Perseus of Macedon, having obtained the surrender of Pythium and Doliche, having taken Cyretiae, went against the city of Mylae, but it was well fortified and its inhabitants resisted a siege of three days. On the fourth day, when the defenders were exhausted, the Macedonians launched a stronger attack against the walls and the door but the defenders rejected them and made a sortie against the Macedonians. Given their numerical inferiority, the defenders had to flee their city, the Macedonians were able to penetrate through the doors that were open, took the city, looted it, sold it to the men who survived as slaves. Mogens Herman Hansen identifies the site of Mylae as being just north of the modern town of Vlachogianni, while for others the identification with the Vlachogianni site is only tentative; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed..

"Mylae". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray

Name of Australia

The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern", from the hypothetical Terra Australis postulated in pre-modern geography. The name was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders from 1804, it has been in official use since 1817, replacing "New Holland" as the name for the continent; the name Australia has been applied to two continents. It was applied to the south polar continent, or sixth continent, now known as Antarctica; the name is a shortened form of Terra Australis, one of the names given to the imagined land mass, thought to surround the south pole. The earliest known use of the name Australia in Latin was in 1545, when the word appears in a woodcut illustration of the globe titled "Sphere of the Winds" contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt. In the nineteenth century, the name Australia was re-assigned to the fifth continent. Thereafter, the south polar continent remained nameless for some eighty years until the new name of Antarctica was invented.

A Terra Australis "land of the south" appeared on world maps from the 15th century, although it was not based on any actual surveying of such a landmass but rather on the hypothesis that continents in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the south. This theory of balancing land is on record as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius; the earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a variation of the original Spanish name "Austrialia del Espiritu Santo" coined by navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós in 1606 for the largest island of Vanuatu, believing his expedition had reached Terra Australis. This is a rare combination of terms "Austral" and "Austria", the latter in honour of the Habsburg dynasty that ruled Spain at the time; the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.

Australia was used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny, under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur. Referring to the entire South Pacific region, Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771; the name Australia was applied to the continent for the first time in 1794, with the botanists George Shaw and Sir James Smith writing of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland" in their 1793 Zoology and Botany of New Holland, James Wilson including it on a 1799 chart. The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who pushed for it to be formally adopted as early as 1804; when preparing his manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was persuaded by his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, to use the term Terra Australis as this was the name most familiar to the public.

Flinders did so, published the following rationale: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude. In the footnote to this Flinders wrote: Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to AUSTRALIA; this is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text. Despite popular conception, the book was not instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came to be accepted over the following ten years; the first time that the name Australia appears to have been used was in a despatch to Lord Bathurst of 4 April 1817 in which Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Capt. Flinders' charts of Australia. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known as Australia. Ulimaroa was a name given to Australia by the Swedish geographer and cartographer Daniel Djurberg in 1776.

Djurberg adapted the name from Olhemaroa, a Maori word found in Hawkesworth's edition of Captain James Cook and Sir Joseph Banks' journals, thought to have been a misunderstood translation — the Maori were referring to Grand Terre, the largest island of New Caledonia. Djurberg believed the name meant something like "big red land", whereas modern linguists believe it meant "long hand" — echoing the geography of Grand Terre; the spurious name continued to be reproduced on certain European maps some Austrian, Czech and Swedish maps, until around 1820, including in Carl Almqvist's 1817 novel Parjumouf Saga ifrån Nya Holland. The sovereign country Australia, formed in 1901 by the Federation of the six British colonies, is known as the Commonwealth of Australia, abbreviated within the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act and the Constitution of Australia to "the Commonwealth"; the country has been refe