Wali-ur-Rehman was a senior Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan commander based in South Waziristan. Wali-ur-Rehman was formerly a spokesman for Baitullah Mehsud, the leader of the TTP. Wali-ur-Rehmans family hails from the Mal Khel branch of the Mehsud tribe in South Waziristan, in 1996, he finished studies at the Jamia Islamia Imdadia madrassa in Faisalabad and returned to South Waziristan to teach in a madrassa in Kani Guram. He was affiliated with the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam party prior to joining the Taliban in 2004, following Baitullah Mehsuds death in a missile attack launched from a Predator drone, a shura convened to choose his successor to lead the Pakistani Taliban. Wali-ur-Rehman was considered a contender for leadership, on 9 August 2009, it was rumored that a heated exchange at the shura escalated to open gunfire, and Wali-ur-Rehman allegedly shot Hakimullah Mehsud, another leadership contender. Rehman called a Reuters reporter to deny there was fighting or a shura. He and Hakimullah telephoned the BBC to confirm the death of Baitullah Mehsud, on 2 November 2009, Pakistani authorities offered a Rs50 million reward for information that leads to the capture or killing of Wali-ur-Rehman.
They offered the reward for similar information regarding Hakimullah Mehsud and Qari Hussain. On 1 September 2010, the United States added him and Hakimullah Mehsud to its list of Specially Designated Global Terrorists and the TTP to its list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. On 26 August 2011, an interview with him was aired on Al-Arabiya TV, in which he threatened to wreak vengeance on the U. S. the strike killed six of his associates. His death was confirmed by Tehrik-e-Taliban spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan on 30 May 2013, in retaliation, the Jundul Hafsa group of the Taliban took credit for storming the base camp of the mountain Nanga Parbat. Two guides were abducted who led them to site where 10 foreign tourists were killed including two Chinese, one Chinese-American and one Nepalese, other reports said five Ukrainians and one Russian were killed. A Taliban spokesman stated By killing foreigners, we wanted to give a message to the world to play their role in bringing an end to the drone attacks
TTP is solely focused against state of Pakistan and believed to enjoy foreign support. Most, but not all, Pakistani Taliban groups coalesce under the TTP, in December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. The TTP in contrast has almost exclusively targeted elements of the Pakistani state although it took credit for the 2009 Camp Chapman attack, Maulana Fazlullah became the groups new leader in late 2013. In the following year the TTP fragmented into at least four groups, a 2004 article by the BBC explains, The military offensive had been part of the overall war against al-Qaeda. Since the start of the operation, the authorities have firmly established that a large number of Uzbek, Chechen. It was in July 2002 that Pakistani troops, for the first time in 55 years, soon they were in Shawal valley of North Waziristan, and in South Waziristan. This was made possible after long negotiations with tribes, who reluctantly agreed to allow the militarys presence on the assurance that it would bring in funds.
But once the action started in South Waziristan a number of Waziri sub-tribes took it as an attempt to subjugate them. By this time, the militants had killed around 200 rival tribal elders in the region to consolidate control, several Pakistani analysts cite the inception of U. S. missile strikes in the FATA as a catalyzing factor in the rise of tribal militancy in the area. More specifically they single out an October 2006 strike on a madrassah in Bajaur that was run by the Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi as a turning point, in December 2007, the existence of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan was officially announced under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud. On 25 August 2008, Pakistan banned the group, froze its bank accounts and assets, the government announced that bounties would be placed on prominent leaders of the TTP. However, the SIM did not last very long and collapsed shortly after its announcement, Qari Mehsud indicated in a video recorded in April 2010 the TTP would make cities in the United States a main target in response to U. S. drone attacks on TTP leaders.
The TTP claimed responsibility for the December 2009 suicide attack on CIA facilities in Camp Chapman in Afghanistan, in July 2012, the TTP threatened to attack Myanmar in the wake of sectarian violence against Rohingya Muslims in the Arakan state. While the TTP has been conducting an insurgency in Pakistan, its ability to expand operations to other countries has been questioned and this was a rare occasion in which it warned of violence in another country. In August 2009, a strike from a suspected U. S. drone killed Baitullah Mehsud. The TTP soon held a shura to appoint his successor, Government sources reported that fighting broke out during the shura between Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali-ur-Rehman. While Pakistani news channels reported that Hakimullah had been killed in the shooting, on 18 August, Pakistani security officials announced the capture of Maulvi Omar, chief spokesperson of the TTP. Omar, who had denied the death of Baitullah, retracted his previous statements and he acknowledged turmoil among TTP leadership following the killing
Faisal Shahzad is a Pakistani-American citizen who was arrested for the attempted May 1,2010, Times Square car bombing. On June 21,2010, in Federal District Court in Manhattan, throughout his court appearance, Shahzad was unrepentant. The United States Attorney indicated there was no deal, so Shahzad faced the maximum sentence. Shahzad was arrested approximately 53 hours after the attempt, at 11,45 p. m. EDT on May 3,2010, by U. S. Customs and he was arrested at John F. Kennedy International Airport, after boarding Emirates Flight 202 to Dubai. His final destination had been Islamabad, Pakistan, a federal complaint was filed on May 4, alleging that Shahzad committed five terrorism-related crimes, including the attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction. Shahzad waived his right to a speedy hearing. Shahzad has reportedly implicated himself in the crimes, and has information to authorities since his arrest. Shahzad admitted training in bomb-making at a run by a militant Islamist faction in the Waziristan region in Pakistan along the Afghan border.
As of May 7, Shahzad was continuing to answer questions, Pakistani officials have arrested more than a dozen people in connection with the plot. Shahzad is married and the father of two children, both born in the United States. Since 1997, he had lived mostly in the United States, attending college on extended visas, and earning an undergraduate degree and he worked for two major companies as a financial analyst before quitting his jobs. He separated from his wife, Huma Mian, in 2009 and she returned with their children to her parents in Dhahran, Shahzad is a naturalized U. S. citizen. He was born in Pakistan in either Karachi or Pabbi, the youngest of four children and his father was born in the village of Mohib Banda. Shahzad comes from a wealthy, well-educated family in northwest Pakistan, Shahzads father, Baharul Haq, lives in the Hayatabad suburb of Peshawar. His father was an official in the Pakistan Air Force. His children grew up in privilege and he is a deputy director general of the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan.
He had begun as an airman, but became a fighter pilot excelling in aerobatics. Shahzad is probably of mixed ethnic background because the Government of Pakistan stated that he is of Kashmiri descent and he had lost his home to foreclosure last year
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The territory is almost exclusively inhabited by the Pashtuns, who live in the neighbouring provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Balochistan, they are largely Muslims. The main towns of the territory are Parachinar, Razmak, Wana, Landi Kotal and Khaar. The annexed areas continued under the same governance after the independence of Pakistan in 1947, through the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, in 2001, the Tehrik-e-Taliban militants began entering into the region. In 2003, Taliban forces sheltered in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas began crossing the border into Afghanistan, attacking military, Afghanistan is a key location for these frequent battles. This heavily fortified military base has housed mostly American special operations forces since 2002 and is located just six kilometers from the Pakistani border and it is considered the most dangerous location in Afghanistan. With the encouragement of the United States,80,000 Pakistani troops entered the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in March 2004 to search for al-Qaeda operatives and they were met with fierce resistance from Pakistani Taliban.
It was not the elders, but the Pakistani Taliban who negotiated a truce with the army, troops entered the region, into South Waziristan and North Waziristan eight more times between 2004 and 2006 and faced further Pakistani Taliban resistance. On 4 June 2007, the National Security Council of Pakistan met to decide the fate of Waziristan and take up a number of political, the meeting was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and it was attended by the Chief Ministers and Governors of all four provinces. They discussed the law and order situation and the threat posed to state security. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are bordered by, Afghanistan to the north and west with the border marked by the Durand Line, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the east, and Balochistan to the south. The seven Tribal Areas lie in a strip that is adjacent to the west side of the six Frontier Regions. The areas within each of two regions are geographically arranged in a sequence from north to south. The geographical arrangement of the seven Tribal Areas in order from north to south is, Mohmand, Orakzai, North Waziristan, South Waziristan.
The geographical arrangement of the six Frontier Regions in order from north to south is, Kohat, Lakki Marwat, Dera Ismail Khan. The total population of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas was estimated in 2000 to be about 3,341,080 people, only 3. 1% of the population resides in established townships. It is thus the most rural administrative unit in Pakistan, according to 2011 estimates FATA gained 62. 1% population over its 1998 figures totaling up to 4,452,913. This is the fourth highest increase in population after Balochistan, Sindh,99. 1% of population speaks the Pashto language. However, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas were not allowed to organize political parties and this was a departure from prior tribal politics, where power was focused in the hands of secular authorities, Maliks
Fazlullah (militant leader)
He married the daughter of Sufi Muhammad, the founder of Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi. It is rumored that Fazullah kidnapped Sufi Muhammmads daughter as a student in Sufi Muhammad Madrassa, MSNBC, a news channel in the United States obtained an alleged picture of Fazlullah. On 23 March 2015, Pakistani military forces and the Pakistani media reported that Fazlullah was killed on the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan and this claim was denied by the Tehrik-i-Taliban. On 12 January 2002, Fazlullah became the leader of Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi due to the enforcement of a ban by Pervez Musharraf, the ban led to the arrest and capture of Sufi Muhammad, which placed Fazlullah into the leadership role. Although Sufi Muhammed was freed in 2008, he did not seek to usurp Fazlullahs leadership in the TNSM, Fazlullah managed to restore the organization, bootstrapping on the relief efforts by Islamist extremist groups following the 8 October 2005-earthquake. New cadres began moving into the Swat Valley, Fazlullah was allegedly arrested by Pakistani security forces while coming back from Afghanistan.
While in prison, Sufi Muhammad changed his name from Fazal hayat to Fazlullah, while imprisoned, Fazlullah studied from a variety of religious books that were provided by Sufi Muhammmd. These books included the Holy Quran translation and Tafseer, in February 2009, Sufi Muhammad assisted in the negotiation of a cease fire between TNSM forces and the Pakistani army. As part of the cease fire Pakistan agreed to allow Sharia law in Malakand District, in the aftermath of the 2007 siege of Lal Masjid, Fazlullahs forces and Baitullah Mehsuds Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan formed an alliance. Fazlullah and his army reportedly received orders from Mehsud. A temporary cease-fire from May to September 2007 allowed Fazlullah to consolidate his forces in Swat. With the support of more than 4,500 militants, by late October 2007 Fazlullah had established a government in 59 villages in Swat Valley by starting Islamic courts to enforce sharia law. On 10 July 2009, BBC reported that Fazlullah was near death after being wounded, corroborating statements made by senior government.
This was a day after the army announced it had wounded the Taliban chief in the Swat valley, the Taliban have denied that Fazlullah was critically injured. The Pakistan army, refuted this claim and insisted that a man impersonated Fazlullah when he denied that he was critically injured. Fazlullah developed a $2.5 million Madrassa with assistance from the Taliban which was used as his base of operations and it was funded by the JEI faction led by Maulana Sami-ul-haq. On 29 November 2007, Pakistani security forces captured Fazlullahs headquarters, Fazlullah himself had already fled to another village. Security Forces have now retaken most of the Swat region, in 2007, Fazullah was allegedly hiding in the Konar province in Afghanistan
Dadullah (Pakistani Taliban)
Not to be confused with the Afghan Taliban leader Mullah Dadullah. Jamal Said better known by the nom de guerre Mullah Dadullah and he was self-proclaimed Taliban leader in Pakistans northern Bajaur Agency. He was killed in a NATO airstrike in the Shigal wa Sheltan District of Afghanistans neighbouring Kunar Province on 24 August 2012 and his deputy and ten Taliban fighters were killed in the strike. Dadullah was a prayer leader and became a Taliban commander. It was reported by AP that Dadullah became leader of the group after Bajurs former Pakistani Taliban leader and he was succeeded by Maulana Abu Bakr
2014 Jinnah International Airport attack
On 8 June 2014,10 militants armed with automatic weapons, a rocket launcher, suicide vests, and grenades attacked Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, Pakistan. 36 people were killed, including all 10 attackers, and 18 others were wounded, the militant organisation Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan initially claimed responsibility for the attack. According to state media, the attackers were foreigners of Uzbek origin who belonged to the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the TTP confirmed that the attack was a joint operation they executed with the IMU, who independently admitted to having supplied personnel for the attack. Following the attack, the Pakistani military conducted a series of strikes on militant hideouts in the tribal areas along the Afghan border. At least 25 militants were killed on 10 June, including foreign fighters, two drone attacks on 12 June killed Uzbek and some local militants. On 15 June, the Pakistani military intensified air strikes in North Waziristan, at least 105 insurgents were reported killed, a majority of whom were Uzbeks, including those linked to the airport attack.
Some other foreign militants were reported killed. According to military sources, a key Uzbek commander and mastermind of the attack and these military responses culminated in Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a comprehensive Pakistan Armed Forces operation against militants in North Waziristan. Jinnah International Airport is Pakistans largest and busiest airport, and serves as the hub for Pakistan International Airlines, many domestic and international flights transit through the airport daily. This attack was the first large-scale incident in the airport in years, earlier in 2011, a similar attack had taken place on the Mehran naval airbase in Karachi, and in 2012, the Bacha Khan International Airport in Peshawar, northwest Pakistan, was attacked by militants. The attack began at 11,10 PM on 8 June, the attackers were dressed as security guards, with some wearing suicide vests. They were wearing uniforms of the Airports Security Force, a senior Pakistani intelligence official said some of the militants tried to hijack a plane, but were unsuccessful.
Airports Security Force troops fought back, limited the terrorists attack, within 2 hours, eight of the ten militants were shot dead by the Airports Security Force troops and the remaining two blew themselves up when they were cornered. About 90 minutes after the attack began, hundreds of Rangers and Army troops arrived on the scene, at least 18 security personnel were injured in the attack and admitted to Abbasi Shaheed Hospital. Seven bodies that were burnt beyond recognition were recovered from the cold storage facility after a 28-hour rescue operation. Two aircraft of PIA and one Air Indus plane were reported damaged, the PIA did not initially elaborate on damage incurred by its aircraft, although sources reported that the planes had either been hit by bullets or shrapnel pieces and received minor damages. Two cargo warehouses stored with NATO Supplies i. e. jeeps, drones and explosives to be exported to Afghanistan caught fire, during the time the warehouse was on fire, multiple explosions were heard inside from time to time.
After the attack, the airport was cleared and handed over to the Civil Aviation Authority, both PIA aircraft were written off due to damage sustained
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country. It was formerly known as North-West Frontier Province and commonly called Sarhad and its provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar, followed by Mardan. It shares borders with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west, Gilgit–Baltistan to the northeast, Azad Kashmir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa does not share a border with Balochistan, which lies to its southwest. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shares a border with Afghanistan, connected through the Khyber Pass. It is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, the ruins of its capital and the most prominent center of learning in the Peshawar Valley, Takht-i-Bahi. It has been under the suzerainty of the Persians, Mauryans, Shahis, Mughals, Sikhs, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy though it is geographically the smallest of four. It comprises 10. 5% of Pakistans economy, and is home to 11.
9% of Pakistans total population, with the majority of the inhabitants being Pashtuns, Chitrali. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means Khyber side of the land of Pakhtuns while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means Land of Pakhtuns and according to scholars it means Pakhtun culture. When the British established it as a province, they called it North West Frontier Province due to its location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After independence of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pakhtun nationalist party and their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but that is not the case for Pashtun people. Major political parties especially Pakistan Muslim League were against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khans demand of separate nation Pashtunistan. The ancient Aryan Migration is believed to have taken place around 2000 BCE, darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river.
Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued the races dwelling west of the Indus, Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government. The satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes invasion of Greece in 480 BCE, in the spring of 327 BCE Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwas Bajaur. Alexander made Embolima his base, after Alexanders death in 323 BCE Porus obtained possession of the region, but was murdered by Eudemus in 317 BCE. Eudemus left the region, and with his departure Macedonian power collapsed, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, declared himself master of the province. His grandson, made Buddhism the dominant religion in ancient Gandhara, after Ashokas death the Mauryan empire collapse, just as in the west the Seleucid power was rising
Assassination of Benazir Bhutto
The assassination of Benazir Bhutto took place on 27 December 2007 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Benazir Bhutto, twice Prime Minister of Pakistan and then-leader of the opposition Pakistan Peoples Party, had been campaigning ahead of elections scheduled for January 2008. Shots were fired at her after a rally at Liaquat National Bagh. She was declared dead at 18,16 local time, at Rawalpindi General Hospital, twenty-four other people were killed by the bombing. Bhutto had previously survived an attempt on her life that killed at least 139 people. Bhuttos aides rejected this version, and argued instead that she suffered two gunshots before the bomb detonation, the Interior Ministry subsequently backtracked from its previous claim. In May 2007, Bhutto asked for protection from foreign contracting agencies Blackwater. The United Nations investigation of the incident revealed that, Ms. Bhuttos assassination could have been prevented if adequate security measures had been taken, Bhutto had opted for self-exile while her court cases for corruption remained pending in foreign and Pakistani courts.
Bhutto survived an attempt in Karachi during this homecoming. En route to a rally in Karachi on 18 October 2007, Bhutto was not injured, but the explosions, found to be a suicide-bomb attack, killed 139 people and injured at least 450. The dead included at least 50 of the security guards from her Pakistan Peoples Party, a number of senior officials were injured. Bhutto was escorted unharmed from the scene, after the bombing Bhutto and her husband asked Musharraf for greater security, including tinted windows, jammers for bombs, private guards, and four police vehicles. These calls were echoed by three U. S, Bhuttos supporters and the Pakistani government dispute whether or not she was provided adequate protection. Israel had not yet decided whether or not to provide aid because it did not want to upset relations with Pakistan, Bhutto tried to obtain private security personnel, approaching both the U. S. -based Blackwater and UK-based ArmorGroup. However, the Pakistani government refused to give visas to the security contractors.
Despite this, American diplomats provided Bhutto with confidential U. S. intelligence on threats against her, Benazir Bhutto had just addressed a rally of Pakistan Peoples Party supporters in the city of Rawalpindi when the rally was rocked by an explosion. Initial police reports stated that one or more assassins fired at Bhuttos bulletproof white Toyota Land Cruiser just as she was about to drive off after the rally, a suicide bomber detonating a bomb next to her vehicle followed. According to Getty Images photographer John Moore, Bhutto was standing through her vehicles sunroof to wave at supporters, the Times of India aired an amateur clip showing the assassin firing three gun shots at Bhutto before the blast
Qari Hussain Ahmad Mehsud was a top lieutenant in the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and the organizer of the groups suicide bombing squads. He was a cousin of Hakimullah Mehsud, Hussain ran a training camp for suicide bombers in South Waziristan and had been active in violent acts against the Pakistani government. In May 2007 he directed a campaign of attacks in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, the attacks included targeted killings of tribal elders and political agents, and attacks on police which resulted in many civilian deaths. The violent nature of the attacks almost led to a split with Baitullah Mehsud, Hussain was still a commander of Taliban forces. Hussain was reported dead after his home was destroyed in January 2008 and he was reported killed in a 23 June 2009 airstrike at Makeen in South Waziristan, but phoned reporters to prove he was alive. A few days after the airstrike, the Pakistan government announced a 10 million rupee reward for the killing or capture of Hussain, the News International reported that top Pakistani and US sources confirmed Hussains death in the same drone strike against Mehsud.
However, he again appeared in an interview, speaking with Rediff. com in March 2010. Hussain claimed responsibility for the 2010 Times Square car bomb attempt in an audiotape that was posted on the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan News Channel on the website YouTube, on October 15,2010, several reports came out indicating that Qari Hussain was killed in an American drone strike. Geo TV said that he and five Turks were killed on October 2 in the Dattakhel area, the Press Trust of India stated that he and three others were killed on October 7 outside of Miranshah in Jungle Khel. While Taliban spokesman Azam Tariq denied these reports were true, Qari Hussein never contacted media to confirm his survival. On October 26, a senior Taliban operative as well as a terrorism expert contacted the Asia Times confirming Mehsuds death. The TTP officially confirmed Mehsuds death in December 2013