The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland. Some moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa in the 5th century; the traditional view has been that the Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula rivers during the 2nd century BC and settled in Silesia from around 120 BC. They are associated with the Przeworsk culture and were the same people as the Lugii. Expanding into Dacia during the Marcomannic Wars and to Pannonia during the Crisis of the Third Century, the Vandals were confined to Pannonia by the Goths around 330 AD, where they received permission to settle from Constantine the Great. Around 400, raids by the Huns forced many Germanic tribes to migrate into the territory of the Roman Empire, fearing that they might be targeted next the Vandals were pushed westwards, crossing the Rhine into Gaul along with other tribes in 406.
In 409 the Vandals crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, where their main groups, the Hasdingi and the Silingi, settled in Gallaecia and Baetica respectively. After the Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian Alans and Silingi Vandals voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic, pushed from Gallaecia to Baetica by a Roman-Suebi coalition in 419. In 429, under king Genseric, the Vandals entered North Africa. By 439 they established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa as well as Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, they fended off several Roman attempts to recapture the African province, sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War of 533–4, in which Emperor Justinian I's forces reconquered the province for the Eastern Roman Empire. Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the Vandals as barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome; this led to the use of the term "vandalism" to describe any pointless destruction the "barbarian" defacing of artwork.
However, modern historians tend to regard the Vandals during the transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages as perpetuators, not destroyers, of Roman culture. The name of the Vandals has been connected to that of Vendel, the name of a province in Uppland, eponymous of the Vendel Period of Swedish prehistory, corresponding to the late Germanic Iron Age leading up to the Viking Age; the connection would be that Vendel is the original homeland of the Vandals prior to the Migration Period, retains their tribal name as a toponym. Further possible homelands of the Vandals in Scandinavia are Vendsyssel in Denmark and Hallingdal in Norway; the etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to wander". The Germanic mythological figure of Aurvandil "shining wanderer. R. Much has forwarded the theory that the tribal name Vandal reflects worship of Aurvandil or "the Dioscuri" involving an origin myth that the Vandalic kings were descended from Aurvandil; some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to Slavs: Veneti, Lusatians or Poles.
It was once thought that the Slovenes were the descendants of the Vandals, but this is not the view of modern scholars. Both Jordanes in his Getica and the Gotlandic Gutasaga tell that the Goths and Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula prior to the 2nd century BC, settled in Silesia from around 120 BC; the earliest mention of the Vandals is from Pliny the Elder, who used the term Vandilii in a broad way to define one of the major groupings of all Germanic peoples. Tribes within this category who he mentions are the Burgundiones, Varini and the Gutones. According to the Gallaecian Christian priest and theologian Paulus Orosius, the Vandals, who lived in Scoringa, near Stockholm, were of the same stock as the Suiones and the Goths; the Vandals are associated with the Przeworsk culture, but the culture extended over several eastern European peoples. Their origin and linguistic affiliation are debated; the bearers of the Przeworsk culture practiced cremation and inhumation.
The Lugii are identified by modern historians as the same people as the Vandals. The Lugii are mentioned by Strabo and Ptolemy as a large group of tribes between the Vistula and the Oder. None of those authors mentions the Vandals, while Pliny the Elder mentions the Vandals but not the Lugii. According to John Anderson, the "Lugii and Vandili are designations of the same tribal group, the latter an extended ethnic name, the former a cult-title." Herwig Wolfram notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the Vandals were one cultic community that lived in the same region of the Oder in Silesia, where it was first under Celtic and under Germanic domination." By the end of the 2nd century, the Vandals were divided in two main tribal groups, the Silingi and the Hasdingi, with the Silingi being associated with Silesia and the Hasdingi living in the Sudetes. Around the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic tribes of Scandinavian origin towards the south-east, creating turmoil along the entire Roman frontier.
The 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius noted that the Goths and Vandals were ph
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion to express the triumph of the Catholic Church. It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, dramatic intensity. Common features of Baroque architecture included gigantism of proportions. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Catholic Church; the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.
Lutheran Baroque art, such as the example of Dresden Frauenkirche, developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the papal reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII, spanning from 1623 to 1667; the three principal architects of this period were the sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco Borromini and the painter Pietro da Cortona and each evolved his own distinctively individual architectural expression. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in regional variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples and Lecce. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona's architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe, which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style.
By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France—with the Château de Maisons near Paris by François Mansart—and throughout Europe. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was promoted by the Jesuits. Michelangelo's late Roman buildings St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture, his pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesù, which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno. Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can include: in churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements dramatic use of light. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction. Colonialism brought in huge amounts of wealth, not only in the silver, extracted from the mines in Bolivia and elsewhere, but in the resultant trade in commodities, such as sugar and tobacco.
The need to control trade routes and slavery, which lay in the hands of the French during the 17th century, created an endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French religious wars, the Thirty Years' War, Franco–Spanish War, the Franco-Dutch War, so on. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only in the following century; this explains why the Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed throughout the Spanish Empire, was to a large extent, in Spain, an architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria, where we see the construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French, under Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize their economy, thus, were able to become at least, the benefactors of the flow of wealth. While this was good for the building in
Rieti is a city and comune in Lazio, central Italy, with a population of 47,700. It is the capital of province of Rieti and see of the diocese of Rieti, as well as the modern capital of the Sabina region; the town centre stands on a small hilltop, commanding from the southern edge the wide Rieti valley, at the bottom of Sabine mountains and of monti Reatini, including mount Terminillo. The plain was once a large lake, drained by the ancient Romans, is now the fertile basin of the Velino River. Only the small Ripasottile and Lungo lakes remain of the larger original. According to the legend, Reate was founded by a divinity, it was founded at the beginning of the Iron Age. In earlier times the lands around Rieti were inhabited by Umbri by Aborigines and on by Sabines, who reached the lands sited in the nearby of Tevere river. Reate was a major site of the Sabine nation well before the foundation of Rome. According to the legend, when Romulus founded Rome, Romans kidnapped Sabine women in order to populate the town and this led to a war between Romans and Sabines.
The battle of the Lacus Curtius came to an end only when the women threw themselves between the armies, begging the men who were by their relatives to stop fighting. Romulus and Titus Tatius relented and a collaboration between the two people started. According to an account more based on history, Sabines settled on the Quirinale because of their continuous need for grazing-lands. After the final Roman conquest, carried out by Manius Curius Dentatus in the late 3rd century BC, the village became a strategic point in the early Italian road network, dominating the "salt" track that linked Rome to the Adriatic Sea through the Apennines. Many lands of Reate and Amiternum were allocated to Romans. From the outset, Sabines were offered Roman citizenship but without voting rights, until in 268 BC they gained full citizenship, were incorporated into two new tribes. Curius Dentatus drained a large portion of the lake by diverting the Velino river into the Nera; the wide area once occupied by the lake turned into a fertile plain.
Following Roman customs, the land was split into characteristic square allotments. The town itself underwent significant development, being re-organised according to typical Roman urban standards, was fortified with strong walls. A stone bridge was laid across the Velino river, a large viaduct was built to bring goods from the Via Salaria directly to Rieti's southern gate. Roman Reate receives a number of mentions in Latin literature, thanks to its flourishing soil, its valued assets, some peculiarities of the surroundings. Cicero, for instance, describes the tensions between Reate and Interamna following the lake drainage, refers to the country houses that his friend Q. Axius owned in the plain. One of the most important Sabine families that gained success in Rome was the Gens Flavia, from which Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus descended; the Reatin poet and writer Marcus Terentius Varro was born in 116 BC and he is referred to as the father of Roman erudition. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire Rieti suffered destruction by Barbarians, but never ceased to be an important gastaldate during the Lombard domination, as part of the Duchy of Spoleto.
Under the Franks, it was the county capital. It was sacked by the Saracens in the 9th and 10th century and by the Norman king Roger II of Sicily in 1149; the city was rebuilt with the help of the Roman comune, from 1198 was a free commune, of Guelph orientation, with a podestà of its own. As a favourite Papal seat, Rieti was the place of important historical events: Constance of Hauteville married here by proxy Emperor Henry VI. Charles I of Anjou was crowned King of Apulia and Jerusalem by Pope Nicholas I in 1289. Pope Gregory IX celebrated canonized St. Dominic in Rieti. After the Papal seat had been moved to Avignon, Rieti was conquered by the King of Naples, while inner struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines broke out. In 1354 it was won back by Cardinal Albornoz, it became a feudal seigneury of the Alfani family within the Papal States. More of the surrounding plain was drained in the following century, but this led to confrontation with the neighboring Terni. Rieti was province capital of the Papal States from 1816 to 1860.
After the unification of Italy, it was part of Umbria, being annexed to Lazio in 1923. It became the provincial capital on January 2, 1927; the ancient Sabine and Roman city was crowded with buildings, including baths. Only scarce remains were found during excavations in 19th and 20th century: the foundations of a large temple, the stone floor of the main square, walls from private houses, concrete vaults and pottery items; the most striking remains are the stone bridge across the viaduct. Piazza San Rufo is traditionally considered to be the exact centre of Italy. Other sights include: Rieti Cathedral: Construction started in 1109 over a pre-existing basilica, was consecrated in 1225 and entirely rebuilt in 1639, it has a stunning Romanesque bell tower from 1252. The entrance portico leads to a 13th-century portal; the interior, on Latin cross plan with one nave and two aisles, has Baroque decorations, including a St. Barbara sculpted by Giannantonio M
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Roman Catholic Diocese of Rieti
The Diocese of Rieti is a See of the Catholic Church in Italy. It is subject to the Holy See; the diocese was established in the fifth century. It lost territory in 1309 to the now-suppressed Diocese of Città Ducale. On 3 June 1925 Pope Pius XI added S. Salvatore Maggiore to the name of the diocese. In 2014 there was one priest for every 1,000 Catholics in the diocese. Pietro Guerra... Angelo Capranica Giovanni Colonna Pompeo Colonna Scipione Colonna Pompeo Colonna Mario Aligeri Giovanni Battista Osio Marco Antonio Amulio Mariano Vittori Alfonso María Binarini Costantino Barzellini, O. F. M. Conv. Giulio Cesare Segni Giovanni Desideri Gaspare Pasquali, O. F. M. Conv. Pier Paolo Crescenzi Giovanni Battista Toschi Gregorio Naro Giovanni Francesco Guidi di Bagno Giorgio Bolognetti Odoardo Vecchiarelli Giulio Gabrielli Ippolito Vicentini François-Marie Abbati Bernardino Guinigi Antonino Serafino Camarda, O. P. Gaetano de Carli Girolamo Clarelli Giovanni de Vita Vincenzo Ferretti Saverio Marini Carlo Fioravanti Francesco Saverio Pereira Timoteo Maria Ascensi, O.
C. D. Gabriele Ferretti Benedetto Cappelletti Filippo de' Conti Curoli Gaetano Carletti Egidio Mauri, O. P. Carlo Bertuzzi Bonaventura Quintarelli Tranquillo Guarneri Francesco Sidoli Massimo Rinaldi, C. S. Benigno Luciano Migliorini, O. F. M. Raffaele Baratta Vito Nicola Cavanna Dino Trabalzini Francesco Amadio Giuseppe Molinari Delio Lucarelli Domenico Pompili Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio.
Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. GCatholic Catholic Hierarchy This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Province of Rieti
The Province of Rieti is a province in the Lazio region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Rieti. Established in 1927, it has an area of 2,750.52 square kilometres with a total population of 157,887 people as of 2017. There are 73 comuni in the province. Rieti is located in the north-east Lazio, it is bordered to the west, along the river Tiber by the Province of Viterbo and to the south-west by the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. It is bordered by the regions of Umbria to the north and by Marche to the east; the province is mountainous with the Monti della Duchessa and the Monti del Cicolano ranges in the south with Monte Nuria and Monte Giano, the Monti Reatini range with Monte Terminillo in the north in part of the Abruzzese Apennines, Monti della Laga to the east on the border with Abruzzo. Of particular importance are the two artificial lakes in the Valle del Salto: Lago del Salto and Lago del Turano, which were both created during the Fascist period. Lago del Salto known as Del Salto Lake is the largest in the Lazio region and is situated at an altitude of 1,755 metres.
There are several protected areas in the province. To the south lies the Parco regionale naturale dei Monti Lucretili, to the southeast the Riserva regionale Montagne della Duchessa, a small part of the Parco regionale naturale del Sirente - Velino. Between the two areas is the Riserva naturale Monte Navegna e Monte Cervia (between the lakes of Salto and Turano. In the east, in the Monti della Laga range is the Parco Nazionale del Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga. Of note is the Riserva parziale naturale dei Laghi Lungo e Ripasottile on the Rieti plain, the Riserva naturale di Nazzano, Tevere-Farfa to the west. Riserva parziale naturale dei Laghi Lungo e Ripasottile contains the lakes of Lungo and Ripasottile, which support a diversity of wildlife birds such as herons and little grebes. There are numerous natural oases, castles and Franciscan sanctuaries dotted about Rieti Province. Media related to Province of Rieti at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Thomas of Maurienne
Thomas of Maurienne was the first abbot of the Abbey of Farfa, which he founded between 680 and c.700. Although the sources of his life are much and he is surrounded by legends, his historicity is beyond doubt. Thomas is said to have hailed from Maurienne. According to the twelfth-century Chronicon Farfense of Gregory of Catino, Thomas was on a pilgrimage when in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, he had a vision of the Virgin Mary, who told him to go to Italy and re-establish an abandoned basilica, founded in her name. With a small group of disciples and divine guidance, Thomas found the ruins of a basilica in a deserted region in the Sabina; the reliability of this story is thrown in some doubt by the extensive use of topoi, such as the vision, the pilgrimage, the desert and "the reoccupation of an earlier Christian site". It was believed in Thomas's day that the basilica had been founded in the sixth century by a certain Laurence of Syria, about whom nothing concrete is known; the church stands on a terrace excavated in Late Antiquity and archaeological digs by the British School at Rome have uncovered a late antique wall enclosure on the site, although the church itself has not been excavated.
During Thomas's abbacy, three monks from Farfa established the monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno. According to San Vincenzo's historian Ambrosius Autpert, in his Chronicon Vulturnense, it was Thomas who directed the monks to "the oratory of Christ's martyr Vincent on each side of the river is a thick forest which serves as a habitation for wild beasts and a hiding-place for robbers." During Thomas's tenure the abbey received a privilege from Pope John VII in 705, which recognised that the abbey was founded by "Bishop Laurence". This Papal privilege included a confirmation of the abbey's first grant of land, from Duke Faroald II of Spoleto; the charter refers only vaguely to lands which were demesne, quoting a letter the Pope had received from Faroald. Through his donations Faroald claimed to have "restored that place through Abbot Thomas and your recommendation", thus placing the initiative in the original land grant with the Pope. Faroald seems to have desired the Pope to confirm—or "strengthen" by exercise of his spiritual powers, the "chain of anathema"—Faroald's own conditions of the grant.
The Pope went further, he "established and decided" that nobody should place any exactions on the abbey and he limited the role of the "neighbouring bishop". Thomas was ordered to put the Papal privilege on display. According to the eleventh-century martyrology of the abbey, the Martyrologium Pharphense, Thomas was buried at the thirtieth milestone, as was Abbot Hilderic. Thomas had been succeeded by Aunepert by 720