Noodles are unleavened dough, stretched, extruded, or rolled flat and cut into one or a variety of shapes which include long, thin strips, or waves, tubes, strings, or shells, or folded over, or cut into other shapes. Noodles are cooked in boiling water, sometimes with cooking oil or salt added, they are pan-fried or deep-fried. Noodles can be served in a soup. Noodles can be dried and stored for future use; the material composition or geocultural origin must be specified. Noodles are a staple food in many cultures; the word derives from the late 18th century German word Nudel. The origin of noodles is Chinese, the earliest written record of noodles is found in a book dated to the Eastern Han period. Noodles were made from wheat dough, it became a staple food for the people of the Han dynasty. A Nature article claimed the oldest evidence of noodle consumption was from 4,000 years ago in China. In 2005, a team of archaeologists reported finding an earthenware bowl that contained 4000-year-old noodles at the Lajia archaeological site.
These noodle were said to resemble lamian, which are a type of Chinese noodle, made by pulling and stretching the dough by hand. Analyzing the husk phytoliths and starch grains present in the sediment associated with the noodles, it was determined that the noodles were made from millet, identified as belonging to Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica specifically. However, looking at the production process of making noodles from millet, other researchers determined that it is not feasible to stretch millet dough into noodles, concluding that the analyzed husk phytoliths and starch grains did not originate from the noodles that were found, they criticized the sampling method, the morphological observations of the starch granule samples, the exclusion of wheat and barley as components. It has been noted that millet dough cannot be hand-pulled into noodles, as the absence of gluten in millet causes the dough to be not elastic and thus not malleable. Wheat noodles in Japan were adapted from a Chinese recipe by a Buddhist monk as early as the 9th century.
Reshteh noodles were eaten by the people of Persia by the 13th century. Innovations continued, as for example, noodles made from buckwheat were developed in the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. Ramen noodles, based on Chinese noodles, became popular in Japan by 1900. In the 1st century BCE, Horace wrote of fried sheets of dough called lagana. However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough, does not correspond to the current definition of either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and the shape. In the 2nd century CE, the Greek physician Galen mentioned itrion, referring to all homogenous mixtures from flour and water; the Latinized itrium was used as a reference to a kind of boiled dough. The Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium was common in Israel from the 3rd to 5th centuries CE. Arabs adapted noodles for long journeys in the first written record of dry pasta; the ninth-century Arab physician Isho bar Ali defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate of the Greek word, as string-like shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking.
Muhammad al-Idrisi wrote in 1154 that itriyya was exported from Norman Sicily. Itriya was known by the Aramaic speakers under the Persian sphere and during the Islamic rule referred to a small soup noodle prepared by twisting bits of kneaded dough into shape; the first concrete information on pasta products in Italy dates to 14th centuries. Pasta has taken on a variety of shapes based on regional specializations. Since at least the 20th century, pasta has become a staple in elsewhere. In the area that would become Germany, written mention of Spätzle has been found in documents dating from 1725, although medieval illustrations are believed to place this noodle at an earlier date. Zacierki is a type of noodle found in Polish cuisine, it was part of the rations distributed in the Łódź Ghetto in German-occupied Poland. The diary of a young girl from Łódź recounts a fight she had with her father over a spoonful of zacierki taken from the family's meager supply of 200 grams. Baked noodles: Boiled and drained noodles are combined with other ingredients and baked.
Popular examples include many casseroles. Basic noodles: These are cooked in water or broth drained. Other foods can be added or the noodles are added to other foods or the noodles can be served plain with a dipping sauce or oil to be added at the table. In general, noodles absorb flavors. Chilled noodles: noodles that are served cold, sometimes in a salad. Examples include cold udon. Fried noodles: dishes made of noodles stir fried with various meats, seafood and dairy products. Typical examples include chow mein, lo mein, mie goreng, hokkien mee, some varieties of pancit, Curry Noodles, pad thai. Noodle soup: noodles served in broth. Examples are phở, beef noodle soup, chicken noodle soup, laksa and batchoy. Instant noodles Frozen noodles The dictionary definition of noodle at Wiktionary Media related to Nood
Capellini is a thin variety of Italian pasta, with a diameter between 0.85 and 0.92 millimetres. Like spaghetti, it is rod-shaped, in the form of long strands. Capelli d'angelo is a thinner variant with a diameter between 0.88 millimetres. It is sold in a nest-like shape. Capelli d'angelo has been popular in Italy since at least the 14th century; as a light pasta, it goes well in soups or with seafood or light sauces. Vermicelli Fideo List of pasta Italian cuisine
Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide. It has evolved over many centuries, shaped by Jewish dietary laws, Jewish Festival and Shabbat traditions. Jewish cuisine is influenced by the economics and culinary traditions of the many countries where Jewish communities have settled and varies throughout the whole world; the distinctive styles in Jewish cuisine are Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, Yemenite and Latin-American. There are dishes from Jewish communities from Ethiopia to Central Asia. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and since the late 1970s, a nascent Israeli "fusion cuisine" has developed. Jewish Israeli cuisine has adapted a multitude of elements, overlapping techniques and ingredients from many diaspora Jewish culinary traditions. Using agricultural products from dishes of one Jewish culinary tradition in the elaboration of dishes of other Jewish culinary traditions, as well as incorporating and adapting various other Middle Eastern dishes from the local non-Jewish population of the Land of Israel, Israeli Jewish cuisine is both authentically Jewish and distinctively local "Israeli", yet hybridised from its multicultural diasporas Jewish origins.
The laws of keeping kosher have influenced Jewish cooking by prescribing what foods are permitted and how food must be prepared. The word kosher is translated as "proper." Certain foods, notably pork and shellfish, are forbidden. Observant Jews will eat only meat or poultry, certified kosher; the meat must have been slaughtered by a shochet in accordance with Jewish law and is drained of blood. Before it is cooked, it is soaked in water for half an hour placed on a perforated board, sprinkled with coarse salt and left to sit for one hour. At the end of this time, the salt is washed off and the meat is ready for cooking. Today, kosher meats purchased from a butcher or supermarket are already koshered as described above and no additional soaking or salting is required. According to kashrut and poultry may not be combined with dairy products, nor may they touch plates or utensils that have been touched by dairy products. Therefore, Jews who observe kashrut divide their kitchens into different sections for meat and for dairy, with separate ovens and utensils.
As a result, butter and cream are not used in preparing dishes made with meat or intended to be served together with meat. Oil, pareve margarine, rendered chicken fat. Despite religious prohibitions, some foods not considered kosher have made their way into traditional Jewish cuisine; the hearty cuisine of Ashkenazi Jews was based on centuries of living in the cold climate of Central and Eastern Europe, whereas the lighter, "sunnier" cuisine of Sephardi Jews was affected by life in the Mediterranean region. Each Jewish community has its traditional dishes revolving around specialties from their home country. In Spain and Portugal, olives are a common ingredient and many foods are fried in oil; the idea of frying fish in the stereotypically British fish and chips, for example, was introduced to Britain by Sephardic Jewish immigrants. In Germany, stews were popular; the Jews of Netherlands specialized in pickles, butter cakes and bolas. In Poland, Jews made various kinds of stuffed and stewed fish along with matza ball soup or lokshen noodles.
In North Africa, Jews eat tagine. Thus, a traditional Shabbat meal for Ashkenazi Jews might include stuffed vine leaves, roast beef, pot roast, or chicken, carrots tzimmes and potatoes. A traditional Shabbat meal for Sephardi Jews would focus more on salads and other Middle Eastern specialties; the daily diet of the ordinary ancient Israelite was one of bread, cooked grains and legumes. Bread was eaten with every meal. Vegetables played a significant role in the diet; the Israelites drank goat and sheep’s milk when it was available in the spring and summer and ate butter and cheese. Figs and grapes were the fruits most eaten, while dates and other fruits and nuts were eaten more occasionally. Wine was the most popular beverage and sometimes other fermented beverages were produced. Olives were used for their oil. Meat goat and mutton, was eaten and reserved for special occasions, such as celebrations, festival meals, or sacrificial feasts. Game, birds and fish were eaten, depending on availability.
Most food was eaten fresh and in season. Fruits and vegetables had to be eaten before they spoiled. People had to contend with periodic episodes of famine. Producing enough food required hard and well-timed labor and the climatic conditions resulted in unpredictable harvests and the need to store as much food as possible. Thus, grapes were made into raisins and wine, olives were made into oil, figs and lentils were dried and grains were stored for use throughout the year; the cuisine maintained many consistent traits based on the main products available from the
Cavatelli are small pasta shells from eggless semolina dough that look like miniature hot dog buns. Cavatelli in a literal sense, means "little hollows". Ricotta cavatelli adds ricotta cheese to the dough mix, it is cooked with garlic and broccoli or broccoli rabe. Many varieties and local names of Cavatelli exist, including orecchie di prete. In Apulia a number of varieties of Cavatelli have specific names including pizzicarieddi. A particular variety of Cavatelli is typical of the area of Teggiano in Campania, where they are referred to as Parmatieddi. Parmatieddi are flat-shaped, they are obtained by rolling a stick dough with three fingers of one hand, instead of with a single finger as done for the common Cavatelli. Parmatieddi are served as first course on Palm Sunday and their shape similar to that of a tree leaf, would like to recall that of palm branches the crowd scattered in front of Jesus when he entered into Jerusalem. List of pasta
Campanelle, is a type of pasta, shaped like a cone with a ruffled edge, or a bell-like flower. It is sometimes referred to as gigli, it is intended to be served in a casserole. In Italian, campanelle can refer to "handbells." List of pasta Campanella Italian cuisine La campanella, one of Franz Liszt's Grandes études de Paganini The dictionary definition of campanelle at Wiktionary Media related to Campanelle at Wikimedia Commons
Agnolotti is a type of pasta typical of the Piedmont region of Italy, made with small pieces of flattened pasta dough, folded over a filling of roasted meat or vegetables. Agnolotti is the plural form of the Italian word agnolotto. According to a legend, the origin of the name may come from a cook called Angiolino, or "Angelot", an individual from Montferrat, said to be the inventor of the recipe. Agnolotti can be di di grasso depending on their filling of vegetables or meat. Although their primitive shape was semi-circular, traditionally agnolotti are of a square shape with sides of about one or two inches. However, they can be of a smaller, rectangular shape when they are called agnolotti al plin. Plin means "a pinch", because one pinches with thumb and forefinger between each mound of filling to close and seal the little pasta packets. Agnolotti al plin are always stuffed with meat. Agnolotti are prepared by immersion in boiling water, they are dressed with beef broth and a little melted butter or in a fresh sage and melted butter sauce, as a complex sauce would detract from the flavours in the agnolotti pockets.
In both cases they may be topped with Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, but no cheese is contained within agnolotti. The dish is associated with Piedmont in Italy and is not to be confused with Piacenza's stuffed pasta pockets called anolini. In the Monferrato region of Italy, located within Piedmont, a special version of agnolotti is filled with donkey meat. Similar recipes without meat are not properly ravioli. Food portal List of dumplings Lang, Jenifer Harvey, ed.. "Agnolotti". Larousse Gastronomique: The New American Edition of the World's Greatest Culinary Encyclopedia. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0517570327. OCLC 777810992
The bow tie is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, called the bow knot for that reason, it consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner so that the two opposite ends form loops. There are three types of bow ties: the pre-tied, the clip on, the self tie. Pre-tied bow ties are ties in which the distinctive bow is sewn onto a band that goes around the neck and clips to secure; some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, is known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie. Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics; some fabrics are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties. The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts.
This was soon adopted by the upper classes in France a leader in fashion, flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is uncertain whether the cravat evolved into the bow tie and four-in-hand necktie, or whether the cravat gave rise to the bow tie, which in turn led to the four-in-hand necktie; the most traditional bow ties are of a fixed length and are made for a specific size neck. Sizes can vary between 14 and 19 inches as with a comparable shirt collar. Fixed-length bow ties are preferred when worn with the most formal wing-collar shirts, so as not to expose the buckle or clasp of an adjustable bow tie. Adjustable bow ties are the standard when the tie is to be worn with a less formal, lie-down collar shirts which obscure the neckband of the tie. "One-size-fits-all" adjustable bow ties are a invention that help to moderate production costs. To its devotees, the bow tie suggests iconoclasm of an Old World sort, a fusty adherence to a contrarian point of view; the bow tie hints at intellectualism, real or feigned, sometimes suggests technical acumen because it is so hard to tie.
Bow ties are worn by magicians, country doctors and professors and by people hoping to look like the above. But most of all, wearing a bow tie is a way of broadcasting an aggressive lack of concern for what other people think. - Warren St John in The New York Times Popular perception tends to associate bow tie wearers with particular professions, such as architects, finance receipt collectors, university professors, teachers and politicians. Pediatricians wear bow ties since infants cannot grab them the way they could grab a four-in-hand necktie. Bow ties do not droop into places where they would get soiled or where they could, whether accidentally or deliberately, strangle the wearer. Clowns sometimes use an oversize bow tie for its comic effect. Classical musicians traditionally perform in white tie or black tie ensembles, of which both designs are bow ties. Bow ties are associated with weddings because of their universal inclusion in traditional formal attire. Bow ties, or slight variations thereof, have made their way into women's wear business attire.
The 1980s saw professional women in law and the corporate world, donning conservative tailored suits, with a rise of 6 million units in sales. These were worn with buttoned-up blouses, some with pleats up the front like tuxedo shirts, accessorized with bow ties that were fuller than the standard bow ties worn by their male counterparts, but consisting of the same fabrics and patterns as men's ties. Russell Smith, style columnist for Toronto's The Globe and Mail, records mixed opinions of bow tie wearers, he observed that bow ties were experiencing a potential comeback among men, though "the class conscious man recoils at the idea" of pre-tied bow ties and "eft-wingers"... "recoil at what they perceive to be a symbol of political conservatism." He argues that, that anachronism is the point, that bow tie wearers are making a public statement that they disdain changing fashion. Such people may not be economic conservatives, he argues, but they are social conservatives. In Smith's view, the bow tie is "the embodiment of propriety," an indicator of fastidiousness, "an instant sign of nerddom in Hollywood movies," but "not the mark of a ladies' man" and "not sexy."
To this image he attributes the association of the bow tie with newspaper editors, high-school principals, bachelor English teachers. Most men, only wear bow ties with formal dress; the four-in-hand necktie is still more prominent in contemporary Western society, it being seen the most at business meetings, formal functions and sometimes at home. However, the bow tie is making a comeback at fun-formal events such as dinners, cocktail parties, nights out on the town. Bow ties are worn with suits by those trying to convey a more dressed-up, formal image, whether in business or social venues. Bow ties are still popular with men of all ages in the American South, having never gone out of fashion there. Traditional opinion remains that it is inappropriate to wear anything other than a bow tie with a dinner jacket. Bow ties are sometimes worn as an alternative to ascot ties and four-in-hand neckties when wearing morning dress; the dress code of "black tie" requires a black bow tie. Most military mess dress uniforms incorporate a bow tie.
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