In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Clarendon is a city in, the county seat of, Monroe County, United States. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the city's position on the White River at the mouth of the Cache River has defined the community since first incorporating in 1859. Although the river has brought devastation and disaster to the city throughout history, it has provided economic opportunities, transportation and tourism to the city. Once home to a variety of industries, today Clarendon's economy is based on agriculture. Similar to many Delta communities, the city's population has been dwindling since mechanization on the farm reduced the number of agricultural-related jobs in the area. At the 2010 Census, the population was 1,664, the lowest value recorded since 1890; the area around Clarendon was populated by various Native American groups. By 1799, French hunters and trappers had built cabins at the mouth of the Cache River, it was the point where The Military Road from Memphis, Tennessee to Little Rock crossed the White River.
The Military Road was begun in 1826 and completed in 1828. By that date, a ferry crossing and post office had been established in Clarendon, the town served as the terminus for a stagecoach line to the west; the Military Road was used as the route for some groups of Native Americans being relocated from eastern states to Oklahoma during the forced relocations known as the Trail of Tears. A railroad bridge across the White River was constructed in 1883 by the St. Louis Railway; the city of Clarendon was incorporated in 1859. In 1864, the city was burned to the ground by Union forces in retaliation for the sinking of the tinclad Union gunboat USS Queen City by forces under the command of Confederate Brigadier General Joseph O. Shelby; the town's charter was dissolved in 1884, it was reincorporated in 1898. In the early 1900s, Clarendon developed a number of industries, including lumber and barrels, buttons made from the shells of the area's plentiful freshwater mussels; the mussels provided freshwater pearls, which were bought and sold at the Clarendon Pearl Market.
The Moss Brothers Bat Company supplied baseball bats to a number of major league baseball players during this era. Like most of eastern Arkansas, Clarendon was devastated by the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927; the main levee at Clarendon held until the White River reached a height of 38.5 feet, 8.5 above normal flood stage. While no fatalities were reported, the town was inundated by water up to the second floor of many buildings, the catastrophic inrush of water when the levee broke caused considerable damage to many buildings; the cleanup of mud and debris took many years. The area around Clarendon today is agricultural; the reported rediscovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker in 2004-2005 in the Cache River and White River National Wildlife Refuges has brought new attention to the area. Clarendon is located at 34°41′39″N 91°18′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which 1.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Clarendon is located at the mouth of the Cache River.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Clarendon has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,960 people, 814 households, 520 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,072.9 people per square mile. There were 925 housing units at an average density of 506.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.47% White, 30.20% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.82% from two or more races. 2.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 814 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the city, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,927, the median income for a family was $30,250. Males had a median income of $25,972 versus $18,125 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,902. About 20.8% of families and 28.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.4% of those under age 18 and 26.5% of those age 65 or over. The economy of Clarendon is defined by the agricultural sector; the city and Clarendon School District are key employers in the city. Public education for elementary and secondary school students is provided by the Clarendon School District, which includes: Clarendon Elementary School, serving prekindergarten through grade 6.
Clarendon High School, serving grades 7 through 12. The Mid-Delta Health Center in Clarendon provides medical and dental service
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Joplin is a city in southern Jasper County and northern Newton County in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Missouri. Joplin is the largest city in Jasper County; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 50,150. Joplin is the main hub of the three-county Missouri-Oklahoma Metro area. Lead was discovered in the Joplin Creek Valley before the Civil War, but only after the war did significant development take place. By 1871, numerous mining camps sprang up in the valley and resident John C. Cox filed a plan for a city on the east side of the valley. Cox named his village Joplin City after the spring and creek nearby, named for the Reverend Harris G. Joplin, who settled upon its banks circa 1840. Carthage resident Patrick Murphy filed a plan for a city on the opposite side of the valley and named it Murphysburg. While the nearest sheriff was in Carthage, frontier lawlessness abounded in Joplin; the historic period was referred to as the "Reign of Terror". The cities merged into Union City, but when the merger was found illegal, the cities split.
Murphy suggested. The cities merged again on March 1873, this time permanently, as the City of Joplin. While Joplin was first settled for lead mining, zinc referred to as "jack", was the most important mineral resource; as railroads were built to connect Joplin to major markets in other cities, it was on the verge of dramatic growth. By the start of the twentieth century, the city was becoming a regional metropolis. Construction centered around Main Street, with many bars and fine homes nearby. Joplin's three-story "House of Lords" was its most famous saloon, with a bar and restaurant on the first floor, gambling on the second, a brothel on the third. Trolley and rail lines made Joplin the hub of southwest Missouri; as the center of the "Tri-state district", it soon became the lead- and zinc-mining capital of the world. As a result of extensive surface and deep mining, Joplin is dotted with open-pit mines and mine shafts. Mining left many tailings piles; the open-pit mines pose hazards. The main part of Joplin is nearly 75% undermined, with some mine shafts well over 100 ft deep.
These mine shafts have caved in, creating sinkholes. The mining history and geology are well documented in the mineral museum in town. Joplin began to add cultural amenities, it was seen as the symbol of a thriving city. In 1930, the grand commercial Electric Theater was built, one of the many movie palaces of the time, it was purchased and renamed the Fox by Fox Theatres corporation. With the Depression and post-World War II suburban development, moviegoing declined at such large venues. In 1933 during the Great Depression, the notorious criminals Bonnie and Clyde spent some weeks in Joplin, where they robbed several area businesses. Tipped off by a neighbor, the Joplin Police Department attempted to apprehend the pair. Bonnie and Clyde escaped after killing Newton County Constable John Wesley Harryman and Joplin Police Detective Harry McGinnis; the Joplin Globe developed and printed the film, which showed now-legendary photos of Bonnie holding Clyde at mock gunpoint, of Bonnie with her foot on a car fender, posed with a pistol in her hand and cigar in her mouth.
The Missouri Advisory Council on Historic Preservation nominated the house where the couple stayed, at 34th Street and Oak Ridge Drive, for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places on February 13, 2009. After World War II, most of the mines were closed, population growth leveled off; the main road through Joplin running east and west was designated as part of U. S. Route 66, which became famous as more Americans took to newly constructed highways; the roads provided improved access between cities, but they drew off population to newer housing and retail centers. In the 1960s and 1970s, nearly 40 acres of the city's downtown were razed in an attempt at urban renewal, as population and businesses had moved to a suburban fringe along newly constructed highways; the Keystone Hotel and Worth Block were notable historic structures. Christman's Department Store stands, as does the Joplin Union Depot, since railroad restructuring and the decline in passenger traffic led to its closure. Other notable historic structures in Joplin include the Carnegie Library and Red's Diner, the Frisco Depot, the Scottish Rite Cathedral, the Crystal Cave.
The Newman Mercantile Store has been adapted for use as City Hall. The Fox Theatre has been adapted for use as the Central Christian Center. On May 5, 1971, Joplin was struck by a severe tornado, resulting in one death and 50 injuries, along with major damage to many houses and businesses. On November 11, 1978, Joplin's once-stately Connor Hotel, slated for implosion to make way for a new public library and prematurely. Two demolition workers were killed instantly. A third, Alfred Sommers, survived; the city has two major hospitals which serve the Four States region, Freeman Health System and Mercy Hospital Joplin, the latter replacing St. John's Regional Medical Center, destroyed in the May 22, 2011, tornado. Freeman Hospital East and Landmark Hospital serve; the city's park system has ne
St. Louis Southwestern Railway
The St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known by its nickname of "The Cotton Belt Route" or Cotton Belt, is a former US Class I railroad which operated between St. Louis and various points in the states of Arkansas, Tennessee and Texas from 1891 to 1980. In 1980 the Cotton Belt began operating the Rock Island's Golden State Route which added the states of Kansas and New Mexico to the operation. Operation of the Cotton Belt was assumed by parent Southern Pacific in 1992; the Cotton Belt was one of the lines comprising the railroad empire acquired by financier Jay Gould in the last quarter of the 19th century. Construction of the original Tyler Tap Railroad began in the summer of 1875. On October 18, 1903, the Cotton Belt gained trackage rights via the Thebes Bridge and the Missouri Pacific Railroad along the eastern shore of the Mississippi River to reach East St. Louis and used Terminal Railroad Association trackage rights into St. Louis; the Cotton Belt operated a yard and a locomotive servicing facility in East St. Louis, just east of Valley Junction, south of Alton and Southern Railroad's Gateway Yard, north of Kansas City Southern's East St. Louis Yard.
The Cotton Belt operated a freight station in downtown St. Louis. Union Pacific Railroad now operates the yard, but the engine servicing facilities have been demolished; the Cotton Belt and its subsidiary St. Louis Southwestern Railway of Texas together operated 1,607 miles of road in 1945. In 1925 SSW and SSW of Texas reported a total of 1474 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 75 million passenger-miles; the Southern Pacific Company gained Interstate Commerce Commission approval to control the Cotton Belt system on April 14, 1932, but continued to operate it as a separate company until 1992, when the SP consolidated the Cotton Belt's operations into the parent company. Cotton Belt diesel locomotives from 1959 on were painted in Southern Pacific's "bloody nose" scheme: a dark gray locomotive body with a red "winged" nose. Cotton Belt was painted on the sides and in years the letters SSW were painted on the nose. In 1996 the Union Pacific Railroad finished the acquisition, begun a century before with the purchase of the Southern Pacific by UP in 1901, until divestiture was ordered in 1913.
The merged company retained the name Union Pacific for all railroad operations. Many former SSW locomotives are used by Union Pacific today, although few still sport unmodified Cotton Belt paint. Most of the remaining units have been repainted with the UP livery, while others wear "patched" SSW paint with a UP shield logo and new numbers applied over the SSW number; the Cotton Belt ran passenger trains from St. Louis to Texas and from Memphis to Dallas and Shreveport, Louisiana. Cotton Belt's Lone Star operated from Memphis Union Station to Dallas Union Terminal with a connecting section from Lewisville, Arkansas, to Shreveport; the Morning Star was the second named train over much of this route, operating out of St. Louis Union Station to Dallas, with a separate Memphis section inaugurated in 1941 to provide a convenient connection with the Southern Railway's Tennessean to and from Washington, D. C. and New York City. The Cotton Belt operated passenger trains between Mt. Pleasant and Waco, a doodlebug between Tyler and Lufkin.
The Cotton Belt began a series of passenger train cutbacks in the early 1950s. The railroad had 25 steam engines and four gas electric motor cars available for passenger service in 1949. By late 1952 nine diesels had replaced the steam locomotives and motorcars and passenger train mileage had been trimmed considerably; the Cotton Belt was one of the first Class 1 lines in the southwest to discontinue passenger service. The last Cotton Belt passenger train, #8, operated on November 30, 1959, from Pine Bluff, Arkansas, to East St. Louis, Illinois. Arkansas and Memphis Railway Bridge and Terminal Company 20% Arkansas and Southern Railway 1887 predecessor of SLA&T line to Shreveport Arkansas Short Line Blytheville and Arkansas Southern Railroad Cairo and Southern Railroad Central Arkansas and Eastern Railroad Company Dallas Terminal Railway and Union Depot Company Deering Southwestern Railway Eastern Texas Railroad Gideon and North Island Railway Gray's Point Terminal Railway Company Kansas and Gulf Short Line Railroad Company Little River Valley and Arkansas Railroad Company Manila and Southwestern Memphis Union Station Company 20% Paragould Southeastern Railway Company Pine Bluff Arkansas River Railway St. Louis and Texas Railway St. Louis and Texas Terminal Railway St. Louis Southwestern Railway Company of Texas Shreveport Bridge and Terminal Company Southern Illinois and Missouri Bridge Company 40% Southwest Greyhound Lines, Inc. 16.7% Southwestern Transportation Company Trucking subsidiary founded October 1, 1928 Stephenville North and South Texas Railway Stuttgart and Arkansas River Railroad Company Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis 6.25% Texarkana Union Station Trust 21% Texas and Louisiana Railroad Texas and St. Louis Railway Texas and St. Louis Railway Company of Arkansas Tyler Southeastern Railway Company Tyler T
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Monroe County, Arkansas
Monroe County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for the fifth President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 20th county on November 2, 1829, Monroe County is home to two incorporated town and three incorporated cities, including Clarendon, the county seat, Brinkley, the most populous city; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying only 621 square miles, Monroe County is the 22nd smallest county in Arkansas; as of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 8,149 people in 4,455 households. Based on population, the county is the fifth-smallest county of the 75 in Arkansas. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county is flat with fertile soils. Covered in forest, bayous and grasslands, the area was cleared for agriculture by early European-American settlers who used enslaved African Americans to do the work and to cultivate cotton, it is drained by the Cache River, Bayou DeView, the White River.
Three large protected areas preserve old growth bald cypress forest and wildlife habitat in the county: Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Dagmar Wildlife Management Area and White River NWR and provide places for hunting and fishing. Interstate 40 is the only Interstate highway in Monroe County, crossing the county from east to west through Brinkley, the largest city; the county has three United States highways and twelve Arkansas state highways run in the county. A Union Pacific Railroad line crosses the county from southwest to northeast. Shortly after the United States had completed the Louisiana Purchase, officials began to survey the territory at a site near the intersection of Monroe and Lee counties. From forested wetlands in what would become southern Monroe County 900,000 square miles of land would be explored after President James Madison commissioned a survey of the purchase area; the point was commemorated in 1961 by the Arkansas General Assembly as part of Louisiana Purchase State Park.
Settlement in Monroe County began when Dedrick Pike settled in 1816 where the Cache River enters the White River. The settlement was named Mouth of the Cache, a post office by that name was opened years later; the community renamed itself Clarendon in 1824 in honor of the Earl of Clarendon. Monroe County was established under the Arkansas territorial legislature in 1829, the county seat was established at Lawrenceville, where a jail and courthouse were erected. A ferry across the White River was founded in 1836. In 1857 the county seat was moved to Arkansas; the new brick courthouse was nearly finished by the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The county sent five units into Confederate service. After Union troops captured Clarendon in 1863, they destroyed the small city; the Union had dismantled the brick courthouse and shipped the bricks to De Valls Bluff. After the war, during Reconstruction, there was a high level of violence by insurgent whites seeking to suppress the rights of freedmen and to keep them from voting.
After Republican Congressman James M. Hinds was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in Monroe County in October, 1868, Governor Powell Clayton established martial law in ten counties, including Monroe County, as the attacks and murders were out of control. Four military districts were operated for four years in an effort to suppress guerrilla insurgency by white paramilitary groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan and others, they continued to challenge enfranchisement of blacks and the increasing power of Republicans in the county. The Monroe County Sun newspaper was established in 1876. Violence continued after Reconstruction, when Democrats had regained control of the state legislature. Whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 12 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the fourth-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940; the county is located in one of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas. The Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. Large portions of Monroe County are within the Grand Prairie, a subdivision of the Arkansas Delta known today for rice farming and aquaculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 621 square miles, of which 607 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Prior to settlement, Monroe County was densely forested, with bayous and swamps crossing the land.
Seeking to take advantage of the area's fertile soils, settlers cleared the land to better suit row crops. Although some swampland has been preserved in the conservation areas like the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, some former farmland has undergone reforestation, the majority of the county remains in cultivation. Another large land use in Monroe County is the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, owned by the