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Rosenallis GAA

Rosenallis Gaelic Athletic Association club is a hurling and gaelic football club in the village of Rosenallis in County Laois, Ireland. The club colours are white; the club amalgamated with the Clonaslee-St. Manmans club to play senior hurling under the name Tinnahinch. Seamus Dooley, Declan Conroy and John Lennon are three of the club's most famous players, representing Laois at senior hurling level. Rosenallis has never won the Laois Senior Hurling Championship but has won the Laois Intermediate Hurling Championship three times. In 2012, Rosenallis GAA had a huge representation at county level. Patrick Keating played for Laois U21 hurling while at minor level, Ruaidhri C-Fennell and Dean Mahon played with the county footballers and Ronan Murray, John Lennon and Eoin Carroll played for the county hurlers. Leinster Junior Club Football Championship Winners 2016 Laois Intermediate Hurling Championship 1989, 1999, 2016 Laois Senior “A Hurling Championship2019 Laois Junior Football Championship 1994, 2016 Laois Intermediate Football Championship 1995, 2019 Official Rosenallis GAA Club website

Close studding

Close studding is a form of timber work used in timber-framed buildings in which vertical timbers are set close together, dividing the wall into narrow panels. Rather than being a structural feature, the primary aim of close studding is to produce an impressive front. Close studding first appeared in England in the 13th century and was used there from the mid-15th century until the end of the 17th century, it was common in France from the 15th century. Although close studding is defined by the distance between the vertical timbers, the spacing used is variable, up to a maximum of around 2 feet. Studs can either be divided by a middle rail. To give the frame stability, some form of diagonal bracing is required. Limewash and coloured paints would have been used to enhance the pattern; the use of close studding originated in East Anglia, where the technique was employed in the earliest surviving timber walls thought to date from the early 13th century. Among the earliest examples outside East Anglia are St Michael's Church, Baddiley in Cheshire and Mancetter Manor in Warwickshire.

It became fashionable in England around 1400, by the middle of the 15th century close studding was used across that country. Its popularity coincided with the dominance of the Perpendicular style of architecture, with its emphasis on verticals. Close studding remained in common use in England until the end of the 17th century. Close-studded buildings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries are seen in France, some experts believe the technique might have originated there. Close studding is common in the Normandy region of France, many images are here. Compared with square framing, close studding uses a lot of timber and is time consuming to construct. Public buildings such as guildhalls, market halls and inns employed close studding, it was used for private houses of the wealthy townhouses but the more prosperous farmhouses. Close studding was not employed in outbuildings, although occasional examples exist, such as the Gunthwaite Hall barn in Barnsley. Although most examples occur in timber-framed buildings, close studding was used on the upper storeys of houses with a stone or brick ground storey.

With its lavish use of timber, close studding was seen as a status symbol. This led to it being faked with paint or cosmetic planking; the heavy timber consumption also contributed to the decline in the use of close studding from the end of the 17th century, with a reduced supply of domestic hardwood as well as increased competition for timber. Regional variation occurred across England in the use of the middle rail, common in the midlands but rare in the east and south east. Variation in bracing is seen; some close-studded buildings dated before the mid-16th century, have arch or tension bracing to the exterior. In use, braces were constructed on the interior and concealed by plaster panelling. Close studding was sometimes used in association with decorative panel work or close panelling from the end of the 16th century. In such buildings, the lower storey would employ close studding, while the upper storeys would have small square panels with or without ornamentation. Examples include Moat Farm in Longdon.

An ornamental effect was sometimes obtained with herringbone or chevron bracing between the uprights. Good examples of the various forms of the technique include: Church of St James and St Paul, Cheshire: close studding with middle rail St Michael's Church, Cheshire: the chancel has close studding without a middle rail, with brick infill St Michael and All Angels Church, West Lancashire: close studded with middle rail St Peter's Church, Shropshire: close studding with middle rail Bear's Head Hotel, Cheshire: close studding with two rails Café'Cave St-Vincent', Compiègne, France: close studding with braces on upper storey over brick ground floor with stone trimming Crown Hotel, Cheshire: close studding on all three storeys with middle rail String of Horses Inn at Frankwell, Shropshire, now at Avoncroft Museum of Historic Buildings: close studding with middle rail on both ground and first storeys White Lion, Cheshire: lower storey has close studding, with decorative panelling above The Falcon, Cheshire a town house, now a public house, which has close studding on its east front at the level of the Chester Rows.

Chantry House, Cheshire: close studding, with tension braces and arch bracing and no middle rail. Gawsworth Old Rectory, Cheshire: close studding with middle rail and arch bracing Greyfriars, Worcestershire: close studding with middle rail to both storeys Mancetter Manor, Warwickshire: close studding with plaster infill Moat Farm, Worcestershire: close studding with middle rail on ground floor.

Bainbridge Bunting

Bainbridge Bunting was an American architectural historian and author. Bunting received his Ph. D. from Harvard University. In 1948, he was a faculty member of the University of New Mexico Art Department, until retiring in 1979. Bunting wrote numerous articles and three books on the architecture of New Mexico, was noted for his expertise in adobe architecture, the Zuni Pueblo and the architecture of John Gaw Meem. Bunting is credited by architectural historian Marcus Whiffen with having re-introduced the term "Châteauesque" to describe the architectural style and more known as "Chateau Style" or "French Chateau Style.". Houses of Boston's Back Bay Harvard: An Architectural History Early Architecture in New Mexico University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1976 ISBN 0-8263-0424-9 Taos adobes: Spanish colonial and territorial architecture of the Taos Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge. John Gaw Meem: Southwestern Architect, School of American Research Book, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, 1983 Of Earth and Timbers Made: New Mexico Architecture Bainbridge Bunting Papers, University of New Mexico, Center for Southwest Research

Franchise agreement

A franchise agreement is a legal, binding contract between a franchisor and franchisee. In the United States franchise agreements are enforced at the State level. Prior to a franchisee signing a contract, the US Federal Trade Commission regulates information disclosures under the authority of The Franchise Rule; the Franchise Rule requires a franchisee be supplied a Franchise Disclosure Document prior to signing a franchise agreement, a minimum of fourteen days before signing a franchise agreement. Once the Federal ten-day waiting period has passed, the Franchise Agreement becomes a State level jurisdiction document; each state has unique laws regarding franchise agreements. A franchise agreement contents can vary in content depending upon the franchise system, the state jurisdiction of the franchisor and arbitrator, it overall provides the investor with a product, a branded name and recognition, a support system. A typical franchise agreement contains Franchise Disclosure Document Disclosures required by state laws Parties defined in the agreement Recitals, such as Ownership of System, Objectives of Parties Definitions, such asAgreement, Territory Area, Area Licensee, Authorized deductions, Gross Receipts, License Network, The System Manual, Start Date, Trade name, Transfer of license.

Licensed Rights, such asTerritory, Rights Reserved and Renewal, Minimum Performance StandardFranchisors Services, such asAdministration and Billing, Marketing, TrainingFranchisee Payments, such asInitial Franchise Fee, Training Fees, Marketing Fund, Renewal fee, Transfer feeFranchisee Obligations, such asUse of Trademarks, Financial Information, Insurance and Legal responsibilityRelationship of Parties, such asConfidentiality, Non-Compete clausesTransfer of License, such asConsent of franchisor, Termination of license, Termination by licenseeOther provisions Governing law Amendments Waivers Arbitration Severability American Association of Franchisees and Dealers Franchise consulting Franchise Disclosure Document Franchise fraud Franchise termination Franchising List of franchises The Franchise Rule U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission Terms and conditions of franchise agreement International Franchise Association American Association of Franchisees and Dealers Franchise Brokers Association FTC Franchise FAQ Page

North–South connection

The North–South connection is a railway link of national and international importance through the centre of Brussels, that connects the major railway stations in the city. It is line 0 of the Belgian rail network. With 1200 trains a day, it is the busiest railway line in Belgium and the busiest railway tunnel in the world, it is used principally for passenger trains. It is underground and raised above street level. Brussels was served by two main railway stations: Brussels South, they are located just outside opposite ends of the Pentagon – an area within the ring roads which follow the boundary of the old city walls. Shortly after opening, both stations were handling large volumes of commuter and international passengers, but through journeys required disembarking and a street-level transfer through the city's old town, a distance of over 3 kilometres; the idea of an underground railway line linking the two stations was first suggested in the 1860s as part of a proposal for the covering of the Senne.

That proposal was never implemented. The current version was planned before World War II, after a decision made in 1909, it came into service on 5 October 1952. Both stations were demolished and reconstructed to allow through services, reopening in 1952. Three new intermediate stations were constructed along the route to serve the city centre. Two of them, Brussels Chapel and Brussels Congress, were intended stops only for local commuter services and have never been used; the largest of the new stations, Brussels Central, was built to additionally serve regional and international services transiting through Brussels. The combination of a city-centre location and numerous services to diverse destinations led to Brussels Central becoming the busiest station in Belgium. Brussels North, Brussels Central and Brussels South are now the three main railways stations in the city; the stations on the line, from north to south, are: Brussels North Brussels Congress Brussels Central Brussels Chapel Brussels South The stations of Brussels North and Brussels South are linked by the premetro north-south axis, which runs through the city centre to the west of the railway line.

All regular national trains that use the line stop at North and South stations. The international Thalys, Eurostar and TGV services stop only at the international terminal of Brussels South. ICEs have an additional stop at Brussels North. Congress and Chapel stations are served only by a limited number of trains during weekday working hours; the line is used by few freight trains. To avoid further congestion, most freight traffic crossing between the north and south of Brussels is routed instead along either line 26, to the east, or along line 28, to the west; the North–South connection was selected as the main motif of a high value collectors' coin: the Belgian 50th Anniversary of the North-South connection commemorative coin, minted in 2002. The obverse front side shows a train coming out of the North–South connection tunnel, it being one of the most famous rail links in Belgium. On the coin is written the words “Noord-Zuidverbinding Jonction Nord-Midi” and the years 1952 and 2002. Demey, Thierry.

Bruxelles, chronique d’une capitale en chantier, Volume 1. Du voûtement de la Senne à la jonction Nord-Midi, Paul Legrain/C. F. C.-Editions, 1990 History of rail transport in Belgium NMBS/SNCB Rail transport in Belgium Transport in Brussels