Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil Blount DeMille was an American filmmaker. Between 1914 and 1958, he made a total of both silent and sound films, he is acknowledged as a founding father of the cinema of the United States and the most commercially successful producer-director in film history. His films were distinguished by his cinematic showmanship, he made silent films of every genre: social dramas, Westerns, morality plays, historical pageants. DeMille began his career as a stage actor in 1900, he moved to writing and directing stage productions, some with Jesse Lasky, a vaudeville producer. DeMille's first film, The Squaw Man, was the first feature film shot in Hollywood, its interracial love story made it a phenomenal hit and it "put Hollywood on the map". The continued success of his productions led to the founding of Paramount Pictures with Lasky and Adolph Zukor, his first biblical epic, The Ten Commandments, was both a financial success. In 1927, he directed The King of Kings, a biography of Jesus of Nazareth, acclaimed for its sensitivity and reached more than 800 million viewers.
The Sign of the Cross was the first sound film to integrate all aspects of cinematic technique. Cleopatra was his first film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. After more than thirty years in film production, DeMille reached the pinnacle of his career with Samson and Delilah, a biblical epic which did "an all-time record business". Along with biblical and historical narratives, he directed films oriented toward "neo-naturalism", which tried to portray the laws of man fighting the forces of nature, he went on to receive his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director for his circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth, which won both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. His last and most famous film, The Ten Commandments a Best Picture Academy Award nominee, is the seventh-highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. In addition to his Best Picture Award, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his film contributions, the Palme d'Or for Union Pacific, a DGA Award for Lifetime Achievement, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.
He was the first recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, named in his honor. There are several variants of his surname, his family's Dutch surname was spelled de Mil and became de Mille. As an adult, he adopted the spelling DeMille for professional purposes but continued to use de Mille in private life; the family name de Mille was used by his children Cecilia, John and Katherine. DeMille's brother and his daughters and Agnes, as well as DeMille's granddaughter, Cecilia de Mille Presley used the de Mille spelling. Cecil Blount DeMille was born in Ashfield, while his parents were vacationing there, grew up in Washington, North Carolina, his father, Henry Churchill de Mille, was a North Carolina-born dramatist and lay reader in the Episcopal Church, who had earlier begun a career as a playwright, writing his first play at age 15. His mother was the playwright and script writer Matilda Beatrice DeMille, whose parents were both of German Jewish heritage, she emigrated from England with her parents in 1871 when she was 18, they settled in Brooklyn.
Beatrice grew up in a middle-class English household. DeMille's mother was related to British politician Herbert Louis Samuel. DeMille's parents met as members of literary society in New York. Henry was a red-headed student. Beatrice was intelligent, educated and strong-willed, they were both born in 1853 and both loved the theater. When they married, Beatrice converted to Henry's faith. Henry worked as a playwright and faculty member during the early years of The American Academy of Dramatic Arts, established in New York City in 1884, he built a house for his family in New Jersey. The family spent time in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey, operating a private school in that town and attending Christ Episcopal Church. DeMille recalled that this church was the place where he visualized the story of his 1923 version of The Ten Commandments. Henry read to his children nightly, both from the Bible. DeMille studied read the Bible during lunch in the studio commissary, he was the first to admit that he did not attend church services but he did profess an unshakable belief in prayer.
He stated. "My ministry," said DeMille, "has been to make religious movies and to get more people to read the Bible than anyone else has."In 1893, at the age of forty, Henry de Mille contracted typhoid fever and died leaving Beatrice with three children, a house, no savings. Beatrice had "enthusiastically supported" her husband's theatrical aspirations. In his eulogy, she wrote: May your sons be as noble and good and honest as you were. May they follow in your steps. Within eight weeks of Henry's death, Beatrice opened an acting workshop in her home, the Henry C. De Mille School for Girls, she became the second female play broker on Broadway. DeMille attended Pennsylvania Military College in Pennsylvania from the age of fifteen. Both DeMille and his brother William attended and graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, which they attended on scholarship; the Academy honored DeMille with an Alumni Achievement Award. DeMille be
The Grove at Farmers Market
The Grove is a retail and entertainment complex in Los Angeles, located on parts of the historical Farmers Market. The complex fills space occupied by an orchard and nursery, which were the last remains of a dairy farm owned by A. F. Gilmore in the latter part of the 19th century; the developers began demolition of an antiques alley and other older buildings on Third Street behind CBS Television City, broke ground for the new mall in 1999. There was some controversy over increasing traffic in a busy Los Angeles neighborhood that offered several other shopping venues, including the Beverly Center; the Grove opened in 2002. The Warner Bros. tabloid television news program Extra was taped in the complex from 2010-2013 on the mall's lawn area. Since November 2015, it has served as a venue for the finales of Dancing with the Stars; the history behind the development of the A. F. Gilmore property that became The Grove was not without controversy. In 1984, A. F. Gilmore and neighboring CBS Television City hired Olympia & York California Equities Corp. to look into the possibility of creating a major business and entertainment complex that would have been twice as large as Universal City but would have required the demolition of all existing structures at both Farmers Market and CBS in the process.
That plan was not well received by the City of Los Angeles or by its neighbors and the plan was shelved. Two years A. F. Gilmore and CBS hired Urban Investment & Development Co. of Chicago to create another development plan. In 1989, A. F. Gilmore announced that it was going to build a US$300 million mall adjacent to the existing Farmers Market and that the new project would be managed by JMB/Urban Development of Chicago; the proposed mall was going to be anchored by May Company California, J. W. Robinson's along with over 100 other stores; the project was scaled down to 2 anchors. During the next decade, A. F. Gilmore announced in 1998 a further scaled down plan with Caruso Affiliated as the new development partner for a new proposal that became The Grove at Farmers Market, a $100-million project on 25 acres. Nordstrom signed on in 2001 to build a 122,000 sq ft store. By early 2001, toy retailer FAO Schwarz sign on for 25,000 sq ft. along with Banana Republic, Barnes & Noble, J. Crew, Maggiano's Italian restaurant and a 14-screen movie complex to be the initial stores in the new project.
After many delays, the retail center opened in March 2002. FAO Schwarz was one of the first retail casualties at the Grove when FAO Schwarz's parent company had to declare bankruptcy the following year; the Grove was able to replace the store with American Girl Place, which opened in April 2006. Abercrombie & Fitch closed their flagship store in 2013, it was replaced with a Nike flagship store, which opened in 2015. In 2013, Banana Republic moved into a new space at the mall, the old space was replaced with the first Topshop/Topman store in Los Angeles. In the original plan, the 14-screen movie complex was going to be built by Pacific Theatres to be its first Arc Light multiplex. At the last minute, Pacific Theatres pulled out of the project and opted to build the multiplex in Hollywood, ArcLight Hollywood, instead. Caruso decided to fund the construction of the multiplex out of the company's own pockets. After 10 months of successful operations, Caruso decided to sell the multiplex outright. Pacific gave the highest bid at US$30 million.
The 575,000-square-foot outdoor marketplace is located in Los Angeles' Fairfax District. Initial architectural design was performed in-house by David Williams of Caruso Affiliated Holdings and by KMD Architects of San Francisco. Caruso Affiliated claims to have modeled its architectural designs on indigenous Los Angeles buildings, influenced by classic historic districts, with shopping alleys, broad plazas, intimate courtyards; the design features a series of Art Deco-style false fronts, with boxy interiors similar to those found in other contemporary stores. The Grove features a large central park with an animated fountain designed by WET, its music-fountain show plays every hour, though the feature has a non-musical program in between shows. The water's choreography is reminiscent of the Fountains of Bellagio in Las Vegas—also designed by WET—but on a much smaller scale; the property has a statue, The Spirit of Los Angeles. Live shows are performed there—on the grassy area by the fountains. An internal transit system uses electric-powered trolley cars to link The Grove and the adjacent Farmers Market.
The Grove is anchored by Nordstrom and has flagship stores for British fashion chain Topshop/Topman, Barnes & Noble, Apple. Abercrombie & Fitch had its West Coast flagship at the mall, which closed in 2015, has since been replaced by Nike. Other stores in the center include Michael Kors, two-story Gap and J. Crew locations, Crate & Barrel, Nike, MAC Cosmetics, Anthropologie, Barneys New York, Kiehl's, American Girl Place; the Grove's many restaurants include chains like Maggiano's Little Italy and The Cheesecake Factory as well as smaller, local restaurants like Wood Ranch BBQ and Grill, 189 by Dominique Ansel, The Whisper Lounge, La Piazza. The Original Farmers Market, located adjacent to The Grove and owned by the A. F. Gilmore Company, features numerous non-chain restaurants that have existed there for sometimes decades; the main entertainment venue is a 14-screen movie theater complex owned by Pacific Theatres. In mid-November, the Grove Christmas Tree is displayed, lit every evening, beginning with the annual tree lighting ceremony.
The tree remains. Up to 100 feet or more, it is one o
Charles Elmer "Rip" Taylor Jr. is an American actor and comedian. He is known for his exuberance and flamboyant personality, including his wild moustache, toupee and, his habit of showering himself with confetti. Taylor was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Elizabeth, a waitress, Charles Elmer Taylor Sr. a musician. As described in his 2010 one-man show It Ain't All Confetti, Taylor had a tough childhood, which included being molested while in foster care and having to deal with bullies in school; as a young man, Taylor worked as a congressional page before serving in the Korean War while in the U. S. Army Signal Corps. Rip Taylor's career in show business began after he joined the U. S. Army, where he started performing stand-up in clubs and restaurants abroad. Although a lot of his material were jokes stolen from acts he saw in USO shows, his signature piece would be to pretend to cry as he begged the audience to laugh. From there, he was able to land a spot on The Ed Sullivan Show. According to Taylor, Sullivan would forget his name but used to say, "Get me the crying comedian."
In addition to the Ed Sullivan Show, Taylor appeared on The Jackie Gleason Show in several guest appearances during the 1963-64 season as "the crying comedian."He appeared in two 1968 episodes of The Monkees as well as having a cameo in the 1969 special 33 1/3 Revolutions per Monkee. He continued to work as a voice performer in the 1970s cartoon series Here Comes the Grump and in the second The Addams Family cartoon series. Throughout the 1970s, Taylor was a frequent celebrity guest panelist on TV game shows such as Hollywood Squares, To Tell the Truth, The Gong Show, substituted for Charles Nelson Reilly on The Match Game, he became a regular on Sid and Marty Krofft's Sigmund and the Sea Monsters, playing Sheldon, a sea-genie who lived in a conch shell. In addition, Taylor was a regular on The Brady Bunch Hour, playing a role of neighbor/performer Jack Merrill, he hosted a short-lived send-up of beauty pageants called The $1.98 Beauty Show, created by Gong Show producer/host Chuck Barris, in 1978.
Taylor appeared as a celebrity on the 1990 version of Match Game. In 1979, he was the voice of C. J. from the Hanna-Barbera TV movie Scooby Goes Hollywood. Other appearances include, he was referred to as Uncle Rip by Buddy Cole, one of the show's characters. He appeared as himself in the movie Wayne's World 2, one of the special guests invited to "WayneStock" after being visited in a dream by Jim Morrison. In 1990, he voiced the genie in DuckTales the Movie: Treasure of the Lost Lamp. Taylor appeared uncredited on a December 1994 edition of WWF Monday Night Raw to assist in a push being given to Jeff Jarrett. In 1997, Taylor appeared in a segment on the show Beyond Belief: Fiction, he played the role of Elmo Middleton in the segment "The Man in the Model T". In 1997, he appeared as himself on the sitcom Brotherly Love in the episode "Easy Come Easy Go", he portrayed Chief Undersecretary Wartle in the graphical adventure game Zork: Grand Inquisitor in 1997. In 2003, Taylor appeared as himself on Will & Grace.
In 2005, he appeared as himself on an episode of George Lopez. Taylor guest-starred as chef "Rappin' Rip" in four episodes of Life with Bonnie, he guest starred in The Suite Life of Cody episode "Loosely Ballroom" as Leo. He is in some episodes of The Emperor's New School as the voice of the Royal Record Keeper, he was in the Jetix animated series Super Robot Monkey Team Hyperforce Go!. He made a special guest appearance at the end of the 1,000th episode of G4's video game review show X-Play, he made a guest appearance on a 2012 episode of The Aquabats! Super Show!, where he played a genie reminiscent of his character on Sigmund and the Sea Monsters. Taylor is an accomplice of the Jackass crew. In 1995, he performed the intro for the Bloodhound Gang's Use Your Fingers album, in 2002, he appeared in the final scene of Jackass: The Movie, wielding a pistol that, when fired, released a sign that read "The End." He did the same thing at the ending of Jackass Number Two and Jackass 3D. In the credits of the 2005 remake of The Dukes of Hazzard, Taylor shows up in the blooper reel.
Taylor has made occasional appearances in movies in broad comedies like The Happy Hooker Goes to Washington and the R-rated Deep Throat parody Chatterbox. In Cheech and Chong's Things Are Tough All Over, he picks them up in the middle of nowhere driving a convertible full of props. Rip proceeds to drive them to Las Vegas and telling jokes the whole way and moving Chong to tears from laughter. In Amazon Women on the Moon a funeral service turns into a celebrity roast when guest Rip Taylor shows up to "honor" the deceased. In 1993, Taylor appeared in Tom and Jerry: The Movie as Captain Kiddle and in Wayne's World 2. In 1993's Indecent Proposal as Demi Moore's boss, he appears without his toupee, he was in the 1990 summer movie DuckTales the Movie: Treasure of the Lost Lamp as the voice of the Genie. Taylor's first big live show was in 1966, when he went on a tour with Judy Garland and Eleanor Powell in Las Vegas. In 1981, Taylor appeared on Broadway when he replaced Mickey Rooney in the burlesque-themed musical comedy Sugar Babies.
He was a frequent co-star with Debbie Reynolds in her live shows in Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe. Taylor performed in Atlantic City as well. In 2010, he appeared in the one-man show It
Fairfax Avenue is a street in the north central area of the city of Los Angeles, California. It runs from La Cienega Boulevard with Culver City at its southern end to Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood on its northern end. From La Cienega Boulevard to Sunset Boulevard, it separates the Westside from the central part of the city along with Venice Boulevard, La Cienega Boulevard, Hauser Boulevard, San Vicente Boulevard, South Cochran Avenue, Wilshire Boulevard, 6th Street, Cochran Avenue, 4th Street, La Brea Avenue, Fountain Avenue and Sunset Boulevard. Fairfax Avenue forms the western boundary of Hancock Park as well as Park La Brea, a 160-acre, 4,222-unit apartment complex with over 10,000 residents. Since World War II, the Fairfax District has been a Jewish neighborhood in Mid-City West. Fairfax High School, on the corner of Fairfax and Melrose Avenue, was known as the alma mater of many entertainment industry personalities. Canter's Deli has been a late night hangout in Los Angeles since the 1940s.
CBS's Television City is located on the corner of Fairfax and Beverly Boulevard,where thousands camp out to wait for a chance to watch The Price is Right. The former site of Gilmore Stadium, where the minor league baseball team, the Hollywood Stars, used to play prior to the Dodgers moving from Brooklyn. World-famous recording studio, Cherokee Studios, home to over 250 gold and platinum recorders, is just above Melrose Avenue; the Grove is off 3rd Fairfax. Due to the volume of high density attractions, Fairfax is one of the most congested streets in Los Angeles. Little Ethiopia is further south by Olympic Blvd and north by Pico Boulevard in the Pico-Robertson neighborhood in West Los Angeles. South of Olympic, Fairfax narrows to two lanes, Pico Boulevard between the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and Venice Boulevard between the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and Lafayette Square in Mid-City. At the northeast corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Fairfax is the former May Company department store building, converted to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and will be the future home of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures.
The Petersen Automotive Museum is located on the south corner. Metro Local line 217 and Metro Rapid line 780 serve Fairfax Avenue. An underground station for the Metro Purple Line at Wilshire Boulevard is under construction and is due to open in 2023. Canter's CBS Television City Farmers Market Academy Museum of Motion Pictures Petersen Automotive Museum
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
The Hollywood Stars were a Minor League Baseball team that played in the Pacific Coast League during the early- and mid-20th century. They were the arch-rivals of the Los Angeles Angels; the first incarnation of the Hollywood Stars began its existence in 1903 as the Sacramento Solons, a charter member of the Pacific Coast League. The team moved to Washington in 1904, where it won the pennant as the Tacoma Tigers. During the 1905 season, the team returned to Sacramento to finish out the season, moved to Fresno in 1906 to finish last as the Fresno Raisin Eaters left the PCL altogether; the Sacramento Solons rejoined the PCL in 1909 moved to San Francisco during the 1914 season, finishing out the season as the San Francisco Missions. The team was sold to Utah businessman Bill "Hardpan" Lane and moved to Salt Lake City for the 1915 season, they played as the Salt Lake City Bees for the next 11 seasons until Lane moved the team to Los Angeles for the 1926 season. They were known as the Hollywood Bees, but soon changed their name to the Hollywood Stars.
The original Stars, though representing Hollywood played their home games as tenants of the Los Angeles Angels at Wrigley Field in South Los Angeles. Though the Stars won pennants in 1929 and 1930, they never developed much of a fan base, playing their home games miles from the glamorous Hollywood district, they were a team to watch when the Angels were on the road. Attendance had been quite good during their inaugural year in 1926, but tapered off after that, exacerbated by the Great Depression. When, after the 1935 season, the Angels doubled the Stars' rent, Lane announced the Stars would move to San Diego for the 1936 season, to become the San Diego Padres. Los Angeles became a one-team city once more for the 1937 seasons; the second incarnation of the Hollywood Stars joined the Pacific Coast League in 1909 as the Vernon Tigers. As the Tigers, the team won two PCL pennants before moving to San Francisco for the 1926 season; the transplanted Tigers, now known as the Mission Reds or just "the Missions", foundered in San Francisco, failing to establish a rivalry with the existing San Francisco Seals.
In 1938, Missions owner Herbert Fleishaker moved his team back to Los Angeles, took the name of the departed Hollywood Stars. After one season the team was sold. In early December 1938 the team was purchased by attorney Victor Ford Collins and Robert H. Cobb, owner of the Brown Derby restaurants, they formed the Hollywood Baseball association and enlisted the financial support and enthusiasm of many stars and community leaders. Celebrities who were stockholders and part-owners of the team included Lloyd Bacon, Gary Cooper, William Powell, Barbara Stanwyck, Robert Taylor, George Raft, Charles Rogers, Raoul Walsh, Roscoe Karns, William LeBaron, Gene Autry, George Burns and Gracie Allen, Bing Crosby, Cecil B. DeMille, William Frawley, Gail Patrick and Harry Warner. "No one was permitted to invest any big money", wrote the Los Angeles Times, which described the Hollywood Stars as "a civic thing … plainly and a Chamber of Commerce activity on the part of a group of people who want their little corner of the world to be better than all other corners."The club was promoted as "the Hollywood Stars baseball team, owned by the Hollywood stars".
Moreover, the team played in the Hollywood area. In January 1939 it was announced that plans were under way to create a $200,000 ballpark seating 12,500 by May 1939. Gilmore Field was opened in the Fairfax District adjacent to Hollywood. Nicknamed the Twinks by the press, the new Hollywood Stars caught on and became a popular team, winning three pennants before 1958, they had successful affiliations with the Brooklyn Dodgers and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball. In 1955, actress Jayne Mansfield was named Miss Hollywood Star; the Stars became genuine rivals of the Angels, it was not uncommon for fights between the teams to break out during Angels-Stars games. In fact, on August 2, 1953, a brawl between the two teams lasted 30 minutes, broken up only when 50 riot police were sent to Gilmore Field by Chief of Police William Parker, at home watching the game on television when the fight started; the Columbia Broadcasting System, owner of Gilmore Field, announced plans to raze the facility to build a new headquarters—CBS Television City, as it became known—in 1952.
In October 1957, the Brooklyn Dodgers confirmed their long-rumored move to Los Angeles for the 1958 season, which forced the Stars and the Angels to relocate. The Angels, purchased by Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley prior to the 1957 season, became the Spokane Indians in 1958. Having no interest in operating the Twinks anywhere but in Los Angeles, the ownership group led by Frank J. Kanne, Jr. was compelled to sell the team, which it did, to a group based in Salt Lake City. The Stars, in a sense, "returned" to Salt Lake City in 1958. Pioneers in broadcasting, the Hollywood Stars televised a home game in 1939 as an experiment, became the first team to broadcast home games in the late 1940s. In the summer of 1951, Gail Patrick hosted Home Plate, a post-game interview show at Gilmore Field that followed KTTV broadcasts of the Hollywood Stars home games. Patrick was assisted by sportswriter Braven Dyer. Mark Scott, who became nationally known as the host of Home Run Derby, was the team's