Abul Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar was the Mughal emperor between 1713 and 1719, after murdering Jahandar Shah. Noted as a ruler he was easily swayed by his advisers, he lacked the ability, knowledge. He was the son of Azim-ush-Shan—the second son of emperor Bahadur Shah I—and Sahiba Nizwan and his reign witnessed the primacy of the Sayyid Brothers who became the effective powers of the land, behind the façade of Mughal rule. His constant plotting eventually led the Sayyid Brothers to officially depose him, Muhammad Farrukhsiyar was born on 11 September 1683 at the city of Aurangabad in the Deccan region. He was the son of Azim-ush-Shan. In 1696, he accompanied his father in his campaign to Bengal, in 1707, the then Mughal emperor Aurangzeb recalled his son Azim-ush-Shan from Bengal, instructing Farrukhsiyar to take charge of the province. Initially, he spent his years in the city of Dhaka and during the reign of Bahadur Shah I. In 1712, Azim-ush-Shan anticipated Bahadur Shah Is death and a struggle for accession, as he was marching past Azimabad when he heard of the Mughal emperors death. Consequently on 21rst March, Farrukhsiyar proclaimed his fathers accession to the throne, issued coinage in his fathers name, on 6 April, Farrukhsiyar heard of his fathers defeat. The prince becoming distressed contemplated suicide, but was dissuaded by his friends from Bengal, in 1712, Jahandar Shah ascended the throne of the Mughal empire by defeating his father Azim-ush-Shan. However, he wanted to avenge for his fathers death and he was joined by Hussain Ali Khan the subahdar of Bengal. They were also joined by Abdullah Khan, his brother who was the subahdar of Allahabad, as they reached Allahabad from Azimabad, Jahandar Shahs military general Syed Abdul Ghaffar Khan Gardezi with 12,000 troops clashed with Abdullah Khan. Abdullah Khan retreated to the Allahabad Fort, however, with the news of Gardezis death, his army fled. After he came to know of his defeat, Jahandar Shah sent another general Khwaja Ahsan Khan, on reaching Khajwah, they came to know that Farrukhsiyar was accompanied by Hussain Ali Khan and Abdullah Khan. With Abdullah Khan in command of the vanguard, Farrukhsiyar started the attack, after an artillery fight for a whole night, Aazuddin and Khwaja Ahsan Khan fled. The camp consequently fell to Farrukhsiyar, on 10 January 1713, the forces of Farrukhsiyar and Jahandar Shah met at Samugarh. Jahandar Shah was defeated and imprisoned and on the next day, on 12 February, Farrukhsiyar marched to the Mughal capital of Delhi and captured Red Fort and the citadel. The head of Jahandar Shah was put at the end of a bamboo and carried by an executioner on an elephant
Image: The Emperor Farrukhsiyar on his balcony 1715 1719, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris
Farrukhsiyar receiving Hussain Ali Khan, ca. 1715
Farrukhsiyar on horseback with attendants
Maharaja Ajit Singh, seen here with his six sons, had his daughter marry Farrukhsiyar in December 1715.