Fars Province

Fars Province known as Pars and Persis, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran. With an area of 122,400 km², it is located in Iran's southwest, in Region 2, its administrative center is Shiraz; as of 2011, Fars had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers, 32.1% villagers, 0.3% nomad tribes. Fars is the historical homeland of the Persian people, it was the homeland of the Achaemenid and Sasanian Persian dynasties of Iran, who reigned on the throne by the time of the ancient Persian Empires. The ruins of the Achaemenid capitals Pasargadae and Persepolis, among others, demonstrate the ancient history of the region. Due to the historical importance of this region, the entire country has been referred to as Persia in the West; the Persian word Fârs is the Arabized form of the earlier form Pârs, in turn derived from Pârsâ, the Old Persian name for the Persis region. The names Parsa and Persia originate from this region; the ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty, established in the mid 6th century BC, at its peak stretching from Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in its far east.

The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars. The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, incorporating most of their vast empire. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established; however it never extended its power in Fars beyond the main trade routes, by the reign of Antiochus I or later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins. The Seleucid Empire was subsequently defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC, but by 205 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state. Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Parthian Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur; the subsequent events are due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur.

The sources tell us. At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah. After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I extended the territory of his Sassanid Persian Empire, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene. Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224, their armies clashed at Hormizdegan. Ardashir was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, starting the equally long rule of the Sassanian Empire, over an larger territory, once again making Persia a leading power in the known world, only this time along with its arch-rival and successor to Persia's earlier opponents; the Sassanids ruled for 425 years. Afterwards, the Persians started to convert to Islam, this making it much easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam. Persis passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments.

The ruins of Bishapur and Firouzabad are all reminders of this. Arab invaders brought about a decline of Zoroastrian rule and made Islam ascendant from the 7th century. Fars province is located in the south of Iran, it neighbours Bushehr Province to the west, Hormozgān Province to the south and Yazd provinces to the east, Isfahan province to the north and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province to the northwest. According to the latest divisions, the province contains the following counties: Abadeh, Jahrom, Rostam, Darab, Bavanat, Larestan and Karzin, Lamerd, Fasa, Zarrin Dasht, Shiraz, Sepidan, Pasargad, Khonj, Gerash, Mohr. There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with rainy mild winters, hot dry summers; the third region located in the south and southeast, has cold winters with hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7 °C and 29.2 °C.

The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year. Many kinds of ducks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade; the main native animals of the province are gazelle, mountain wild goat, ram and many kinds of birds. In the past, like in Khuzestan Plain, the Persian lion had occurred here. The


The Aphididae are a large insect family in the aphid superfamily, of the order Hemiptera. Several thousand species are placed in this family, many of which are well known for being serious plant pests, they are the family of insects containing most plant virus vectors with the green peach aphid being one of the most prevalent and indiscriminate carriers. Aphids originated in the late Cretaceous about 100 million years ago, but the Aphidinae which comprises about half of the 4700 described species and genera of aphids alive today come from their most recent radiation which occurred in the late Tertiary less than 10 Mya. Members of the Aphididae are soft-bodied, pear-shaped insects called aphids, as are other members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. Most of them have a pair of little tubes, called cornicles, projecting dorsally from the posterior of their abdomens; the cornicles have been variously interpreted in the past, either as organs of excretion, or for the production of honeydew, but in fact their only confirmed function to date is that they produce fatty alarm pheromones when the insects are attacked by predators.

When wings are present they occur only on particular morphs called "alates", wingless morphs are said to be "apterous". The forewing of the alate in the Aphididae has four to six veins attached to a major vein-like structure, interpreted as the combined stems of all the other major wing veins; that structure ends in a solid spot on the anterior margin of the forewing. The rear wings have a similar scheme, but simpler in structure, with no stigma The rear wing however, does bear a hamulus, a small hook that, when in flight, engages the claval fold of the forewing, keeping the wing beats in synchrony. All aphids have small eyes, sucking mouthparts in the form of a long, segmented rostrum, long antennae; these insects are so small, that winds can transport them for long distances. They are green, but might be red or brown, as well, they move quite and cannot jump or hop. Aphids excrete a sugary liquid called honeydew, because the plant sap from which they feed contains excess carbohydrates relative to its low protein content.

To satisfy their protein needs, they absorb large amounts of sap and excrete the excess carbohydrates. Honeydew is used as food by ants and many other insects. There are an large number of aphid genera which are dealt with under each subfamily. For which see taxobox. Wooly aphids - Subfamily: Eriosomatinae Media related to Aphididae at Wikimedia CommonsOn the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site: Aphis gossypii, melon or cotton aphid Aphis nerii, oleander aphid Cerataphis brasiliensis, palm aphid Hyadaphis coriandri, corianderaphid Longistigma caryae, giant bark aphid Myzus persicae, green peach aphid Sarucallis kahawaluokalani, crapemyrtle aphid Schizaphis graminum, greenbug Shivaphis celti, an Asian woolly hackberry aphid Sipha flava, yellow sugarcane aphid Toxoptera citricida, brown citrus aphid

Fish and Tin and Copper

Fish and Tin and Copper is a traditional folk song/ballad associated with Cornwall, dealing with the legend of the devil visiting Cornwall and being frightened away, fearing that he'd be made into a Cornish pasty filling. It used to be said that the devil never came to Cornwall: he once reached Torpoint and noticed that various kinds of pie were customary; the title comes from the three primary industries of Cornwall, Fish and Copper. The reference to "Tre and Pol and Pen" comes from a famous reference to Tre Pol and Pen, "By Tre and Pen shall ye know all Cornishmen", a version of, recorded by Richard Carew in his Survey of Cornwall, published in 1602. Many Cornish surnames and place names still retain these words as prefixes. One famous version of the song was recorded by Brenda Wootton. In March 1998, the Cornish Traditional Dance Competition held a selection for a new dance to celebrate 20 years of Lowender Peran; the winning dance, choreographed by Jenny White for the Bolingey Troyl Band and Dancers, was set to the song Fish and Tin and Copper.

The group had performed it as a demonstration dance at the opening ceremony of Lowender Peran in 1997. The chorus of the song inspired the use of traditional steps and patterns to represent these Cornish industries, including steps from the Newlyn Fisherman's Reel, followed by a chain the turning of wheels and cogs of the mines