As (Roman coin)
The as assarius was a bronze, copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. The Romans replaced the usage of Greek coins, first by bronze ingots by disks known as aes rude; the system thus named as was introduced in ca. 280 BC as a large cast bronze coin during the Roman Republic. The following fractions of the as were produced: the bes, quincunx, quadrans, sextans and semuncia, as well as multiples of the as, the dupondius, tressis. After the as had been issued as a cast coin for about seventy years, its weight had been reduced in several stages, a sextantal as was introduced. At about the same time a silver coin, the denarius, was introduced. Earlier Roman silver coins had been struck on the Greek weight standards that facilitated their use in southern Italy and across the Adriatic, but all Roman coins were now on a Roman weight standard; the denarius, or'tenner', was at first tariffed at ten asses, but in about 140 B. C. it was retariffed at sixteen asses. This is said to have been a result of financing the Punic Wars.
During the Republic, the as featured the bust of Janus on the obverse, the prow of a galley on the reverse. The as was produced on the libral and the reduced libral weight standard; the bronze coinage of the Republic switched from being cast to being struck. During certain periods, no asses were produced at all. Following the coinage reform of Augustus in 23 BC, the as was struck in reddish pure copper, the sestertius or'two-and-a-halfer' and the dupondius were produced in a golden-colored alloy of bronze known by numismatists as orichalcum; the as continued to be produced until the 3rd century AD. It was the lowest valued coin issued during the Roman Empire, with semis and quadrans being produced infrequently, not at all sometime after the reign of Marcus Aurelius; the last as seems to have been produced by Aurelian between 270 and 275 and at the beginning of the reign of Diocletian. The assarion appears in the Gospel of Matthew, where Jesus asks "Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground outside your Father's care."
The term assarion is variously translated as "penny," "halfpenny", "farthing" or "copper coin" in English translation. It appears in Luke 12:6 where the same speech is recounted, except that now Jesus asks "Are not five sparrows sold for two assarions?" The as, under its Greek name assarion, was re-established by the Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and minted in great quantities in the first half of the 14th century. It was a low-quality flat copper coin. 3–4 grams and forming the lowest denomination of contemporary Byzantine coinage, being exchanged at 1:768 to the gold hyperpyron. It appears that the designs on the assarion changed annually, hence they display great variations; the assarion was replaced in 1367 by the tournesion and the follaro. Roman currency Roman finance
Farthing (Irish coin)
The farthing was the lowest value coin of the pre-decimal Irish pound, worth a quarter of a penny, 1⁄48 of a shilling or 1⁄960 of a pound. The coin had lost much of its value through inflation long before decimalisation in 1971, during the 1960s no farthings were produced for general circulation; the coins measured 0.796875 inches in diameter and weighed 2.83495 grams. The bronze coin is made up of 3 % tin and 1.5 % zinc. It was introduced in 1928 to replace the British farthing and ceased to be legal tender on 1 August 1969; as the Irish pound was pegged to the British pound until 1979, the Irish farthing had the same dimensions and weight as the British version. The reverse design featuring a woodcock was by English artist Percy Metcalfe; the obverse featured the Irish harp. From 1928 through 1937 the date was split either side of the harp with the name Saorstát Éireann circling around. From 1938 through 1966 the inscription changed to Éire on the left of the harp and the date on the right.
Ireland is one of only four nations to issue farthing coins in the 20th century. Irish farthings, like all non-current Irish coins, may be redeemed for euros at the Central Bank of Ireland in Dublin. Due to its slight value, several must be redeemed to have any return at all. St Patrick halfpenny £sd Coinage Act, 1926 Coinage Order, 1928 Coinage Order, 1969 Irish coinage website - catalogue - farthings
Farthing (English coin)
A farthing was a coin of the Kingdom of England worth one quarter of a penny, 1⁄960 of a pound sterling. Such coins were first minted in England in silver in the 13th century, continued to be used until the Kingdom of England was merged into the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Early farthings were silver; the first copper farthings were issued during the reign of King James I, who gave a licence for minting them to John Harington, 1st Baron Harington of Exton. Licences were subsequently given out until after the Commonwealth, when the Royal Mint resumed production in 1672. In the late 17th century the English farthing was minted in tin. For farthings, minted in the 18th century and for use in Scotland as well as in England and Wales, in the 19th and 20th centuries for use in Great Britain and Ireland, see Farthing. Little is known of the medieval silver farthing; as the smallest denomination, it was hoarded – silver farthings have never been found in large hoards – and as it contained a quarter-penny's worth of silver it was extremely small, therefore lost.
Besides, farthings were not produced in anything like the quantities of the penny and halfpenny because, although they were useful to ordinary people, they were not so much used by the wealthy and powerful. Furthermore, the coins are so small, they are rare today. Until the 13th century, requirements for small change were met by "cut coinage" i.e. pennies cut into halves or quarters along the cross which formed a prominent part of the reverse of the coin. It was long considered that the first silver farthings were produced in the reign of King Edward I. However, in recent years five examples have been discovered dating from the reign of King Henry III. All are in the short-cross style of that period, produced between 1216 and 1247, are similar in design to the pennies, but only a quarter the size. Due to the lack of known examples and documentary evidence, these coins are thought to be trials rather than circulating coins; the production of farthings was authorised by the Patent Rolls of 1222, but actual examples have only been discovered.
The obverse shows a bust of the king holding a sceptre, with the inscription HENRICUS REX, while the reverse shows a small cross with three pellets in each quarter with the moneyer's inscription TERRI ON LUND – Terry of London – only two examples of Terri's and Ilger's work have been discovered, the identification of Adam is uncertain because only part of his coin has survived. Contemporary records show that over four million farthings were produced during the reign of King Edward I, but comparatively few have survived. By far the most prolific mint was London, identified on the reverse of the coin by LONDONIENSIS or CIVITAS LONDON or rarely LONDRIENSIS, but they were produced at Berwick, Lincoln and York, but most of the provincial mints' output is rare today; the weight and fineness of Edwards' farthings varies - the first three issues from the London mint weigh 6.85 grains / 0.44 grams, while the issues weigh 5.5 grains / 0.36 grams, but the value of the coins remained the same as the heavier coins had a lower fineness or silver content than the lighter coins.
Edward's farthings were of the long cross type reverse, the usual legend on the obverse was EDWARDUS REX, or E R ANGLIE, once ER ANGL DN. Only two mints and Berwick, produced farthings in the reign of King Edward II, their output is classed as "rare" and "very rare" respectively, they are similar to the coins of his father, in fact the combination of their rarity and poor condition means that there has not been much research done into the farthings of this reign, although it does seem that for much of the reign farthings of Edward I continued to be produced occasionally. Edward III's farthings, though similar to his predecessors, are easy to distinguish as the more common inscription on the obverse was EDWARDUS REX A. Three mints produced farthings in this reign: London is most prolific, Berwick is rare, only three examples are known of the output of the Reading mint. Edward III's farthings remain rare. Although the normal fineness of silver used at this time was.925, for the second coinage of 1335–1343 the London mint produced larger farthings of.833 silver.
King Richard II's are rare in any condition. They were all struck at the London mint and bear the inscription RICARD REX ANGL. Henry IV issued farthings in both the "heavy" and "light" coinages, although allowing for the prevalence of clipping it is quite difficult to distinguish between the two coinages at the size of the farthing. Both issues are rare and carry the obverse inscription HENRIC REX ANGL and the reverse inscription CIVITAS LONDON, although on the light coinage it appears as CIVITAS LOIDOI. Henry V's single issue of farthings is distinguishable from those of his fath
King James Version
The King James Version known as the King James Bible or the Authorized Version, is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed as well as published in 1611 under the sponsorship of James VI and I. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, the 27 books of the New Testament; the translation is noted for its "majesty of style", has been described as one of the most important books in English culture and a driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world. It was first printed by Robert Barker, the King's Printer, was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities: The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII, the second had been the Bishops' Bible, commissioned in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. On the European continent, the first generation of Calvinists had produced the Geneva Bible of 1560 from the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, influential in the writing of the Authorized King James Version.
In January 1604, King James convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England. James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of, reflect the episcopal structure of, the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy; the translation was done by 47 scholars. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic, the Apocrypha from Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer, the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible for Epistle and Gospel readings, as such was authorised by Act of Parliament. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England.
Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most printed book in history all such printings presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha. Today the unqualified title "King James Version" indicates this Oxford standard text; the title of the first edition of the translation, in Early Modern English, was "THE HOLY BIBLE, Conteyning the Old Teſtament, AND THE NEW: Newly Tranſlated out of the Originall tongues: & with the former Tranſlations diligently compared and reuiſed, by his Maiesties ſpeciall Comandement". The title page carries the words "Appointed to be read in Churches", F. F. Bruce suggests it was "probably authorised by order in council" but no record of the authorisation survives "because the Privy Council registers from 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19".
For many years it was common not to give the translation any specific name. In his Leviathan of 1651, Thomas Hobbes referred to it as the English Translation made in the beginning of the Reign of King James. A 1761 "Brief Account of the various Translations of the Bible into English" refers to the 1611 version as a new and more accurate Translation, despite referring to the Great Bible by its name, despite using the name "Rhemish Testament" for the Douay-Rheims Bible version. A "History of England", whose fifth edition was published in 1775, writes that new translation of the Bible, viz. that now in Use, was begun in 1607, published in 1611. King James's Bible is used as the name for the 1611 translation in Charles Butler's Horae Biblicae. Other works from the early 19th century confirm the widespread use of this name on both sides of the Atlantic: it is found both in a "Historical sketch of the English translations of the Bible" published in Massachusetts in 1815, in an English publication from 1818, which explicitly states that the 1611 version is "generally known by the name of King James's Bible".
This name was found as King James' Bible: for example in a book review from 1811. The phrase "King James's Bible" is used as far back as 1715, although in this case it is not clear whether this is a name or a description; the use of Authorized Version and used as a name, is found as early as 1814. For some time before this, descriptive phrases such as "our present, only publicly authorised version", "our Authorized version", "the authorized version" are found; the Oxford English Dictionary records a usage in 1824. In Britain, the 1611 translation is known as the "Authorized Version" today; as early as 1814, we find King James' Version, evidently a descriptive phrase, being used. "The King James Version" is found, unequivocally used as a name, in a letter from 1855. The next year King James Bible, with no possessive, appears as a name in a Scottish source. In the United States, the "1611 translation" is generally
Farthing (British coin)
The British farthing coin, from "fourthing", was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or 1⁄960 of a pound sterling. It was minted in bronze, replaced the earlier copper farthings, it was used during the reign of six monarchs: Victoria, Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, George VI and Elizabeth II, ceasing to be legal tender in 1960. It featured two different designs on its reverse during its 100 years in circulation: from 1860 until 1936, the image of Britannia. Like all British coinage, it bore the portrait of the monarch on the obverse. Before Decimal Day in 1971, there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. There were four farthings in a penny, 12 pence made a shilling, 20 shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were written in terms of shillings and pence, e.g. three shillings and six pence, pronounced "three and six" or "three and sixpence". Values of less than a shilling were written in pence, e.g. 8d, pronounced "eightpence". A price with a farthing in it would be written like this:, pronounced "nineteen and elevenpence farthing".
The purchasing power of a farthing from 1860 to its demise in 1960 ranged between 2p to 12p. The original reverse of the coin, designed by Leonard Charles Wyon, is a seated Britannia, holding a trident, with the word FARTHING above. Issues before 1895 feature a lighthouse to Britannia's left and a ship to her right. Various minor adjustments to the level of the sea depicted around Britannia, the angle of her trident were made over the years; some issues feature toothed edges. Over the years, seven different obverses were used. Edward VII, George V, George VI and Elizabeth II each had a single obverse for farthings produced during their respective reigns. Over the long reign of Queen Victoria two different obverses were used, the short reign of Edward VIII meant that no farthings bearing his likeness were issued; the farthing was first issued with the so-called "bun head", or "draped bust" of Queen Victoria on the obverse. The inscription around the bust read VICTORIA D G BRITT REG F D; this was replaced in 1895 by the "old head", or "veiled bust".
The inscription on these coins read VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Coins issued during the reign of Edward VII feature his likeness and bear the inscription EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP; those issued during the reign of George V feature his likeness and bear the inscription GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP. A farthing of King Edward VIII does exist, dated 1937, but technically it is a pattern coin, i.e. one produced for official approval, which it would have been due to receive about the time that the King abdicated. The obverse shows a left-facing portrait of the king; the pattern coin of Edward VIII and regular-issue farthings of George VI and Elizabeth II feature a redesigned reverse displaying the wren, one of Britain's smallest birds. George VI issue coins feature the inscription GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP before 1949, GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF thereafter. Unlike the penny, farthings were minted throughout the early reign of Elizabeth II, bearing the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRA BRITT OMN REGINA F D in 1953, ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D thereafter.
Pound sterling Mill British Coins – information about British coins Collection of copper & bronze pennies of Great Britain About Farthings A photographic collection of farthings Farthings Private Collection of farthings dating from 1799-1956
The quadrans or teruncius was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth one quarter of an as. The quadrans was issued from the beginning of cast bronze coins during the Roman Republic with three pellets representing three unciae as a mark of value; the obverse type, after some early variations, featured the bust of Hercules, while the reverse featured the prow of a galley. Coins with the same value were issued from other cities in Central Italy. After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production. It was produced sporadically until the time of Antoninus Pius. Unlike other coins during the Roman Empire, the quadrans bore the image of the emperor; the Greek word for the quadrans was κοδράντης, translated in the King James Version of the Bible as "farthing". In the New Testament a coin equal to one half the Attic chalcus was worth about 3/8 of a cent. In Mark's gospel, when a poor widow gave two mites or λεπτα to the Temple Treasury, the gospel writer noted that this amounted to one quadrans.
Roman currency Semis
Farthing Downs is an open space in Coulsdon in the London Borough of Croydon. Together with Eight Acres Common and New Hill to the south-east, it is owned and managed by the Corporation of London. Farthing Downs and Eight Acres Common are part of the Farthing Downs and Happy Valley Site of Special Scientific Interest. Happy Valley Park is a green space to the south owned by Croydon Council. Farthing Downs is a scheduled ancient monument. Farthing Downs is a long strip of grassland with pockets of ancient woodland, which narrows to a point at the northern end, it is the most extensive area of semi-natural downland left in Greater London. Its chalk and natural grasslands have a large variety of rare herbs, including some which are nationally scarce, such as the wildflower greater yellow-rattle; this is specially protected by legislation and Farthing Downs and Happy Valley have the major part of the British population. Archeological finds show human occupation back to the Neolithic. An Iron Age field system has been recorded at the northern end, cultivation continued in the Roman period until the second century.
Thereafter it was used as pasture for grazing. The banks of a late Iron Age/early Roman enclosure system survive with a central droveway, which still has the remains of cart ruts. There are sixteen Anglo-Saxon barrows in two barrow cemeteries in the centre and the north of the site; these were excavated in 1871 again in the 1940s by Brian Hope-Taylor. In 2005 and 2006 further excavations were undertaken by Barry Taylor of English Heritage and Amy Gray Jones of the Museum of London Archaeology Service. Barry Taylor said: Farthing Downs is one of the most impressive prehistoric settlement sites that I've worked on; the earth and chalk banks that once formed the tracks and boundaries of the Iron Age landscape are still visible on the ground today, over two thousand years after they were constructed. These remains have fascinated people for centuries and inspired the local Anglo-Saxon communities to bury their leaders along the line of these ancient earthworks. There is access from Downs Road and Ditches Lane traverses the site.
The London Loop walk goes through it. Sheep and cattle graze at Farthing down to maintain the chalk grassland; the Corporation of London reintroduced this practice due to the decline of rabbits and the damage from corn farming in the past. Without proper grazing, stronger plants dominate and the biodiversity declines. Shepherds cleared scrub and woodland for their stock to maintain the grassland; the scrub at Farthing down is now an ideal habitat for important species of birds. The natural spread of the scrub is managed to protect the grassland but not cleared due to its habitat benefits. List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London Croydon parks and open spaces London Gardens Online, Farthing Downs and New Hill The Megalithic Portal, Farthing Downs - Barrow Cemetery in England in Surrey Natural England, Farthing Downs and Happy Valley citation "Map of Farthing Downs and Happy Valley". Natural England. City of London, Farthing Downs and New Hill Old Coulsdon, Farthing Downs and New Hill map Friends of Farthing Downs Stephen Cook, Open to the elements, Helen Young, broadcast manager of the BBC Weather Centre, escapes fronts of high pressure by walking on Farthing Downs, Guardian, 8 April 2000 City of London map of Farthing Downs, Eight Acres Common and New Hill