Sorgenfri Palace is a royal residence of the Danish monarch, located in Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality, on the east side of Lyngby Kongevej, in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen. The surrounding neighbourhood is called Sorgenfri after it. Only the cellar and foundations survive of the first Sorgenfri House, built in 1705 to design by François Dieussart; the current house was built in 1756 by Lauritz de Thurah and adapted and extended by Peter Meyn in the 1790s. Lauritz de Thurah has designed buildings which flank the driveway closer to the road. Sprgenfri Palace is surrounded by a large park, bounded by Mølleåen to the east, it was adapted to the English Romantic style in the late 1790s and early 1899s and contains several small buildings. Christian X used it as a summer residence and it has been part of it let out to relatives of the royal family; the park is open to the public. Sorgenfri Palace is located at the site of a medieval settlement, Mølletorp, owned by the Bishopric of Roskilde but confiscated by the crown during the Reformation in the 1530s.
In 1686, it was replaced by a country house by High Court Justice Michael Vibe. Count Carl von Ahlefeldt acquired the estate in 1702, he commissioned the architect François Dieussart to build a new summer residence at the site and renamed it Sorgenfri. The building, a half-timbered, three-winged complex in Baroque style, was completed in 1705; the central wing contained a banquet hall with double high cailings. Passage between the two residential side wings was therefore only possible at the ground floor. King Christian VI acquired the estate in 1730, his son, Crown Prince Frederick, the King Frederick V, used it as summer residence from 1742. The building was refurbished by Lauritz de Thurah who constructed new stables and a new wing for the gentlemen of the Court. After his ascend to the throne in 1747, Frederick V gave the property to his aunt, Sophie Caroline, Dowager Princess of East Frisia, she demolished it and charged Lauritzde Thurah with the construction of a new house on the foundations of the old one.
Sophie Caroline died in 1764. In 1766, Sorgenfri was ceded to the 12-year-old Prince Frederick, the half-brother of Christian VII of Denmark. In 1769, he sold the property to Jean Henri Desmercières; the next owner was the merchant and shipowner Henrik Bolten, whose trading house was based in the Boltens Gård in Copenhagen. He went bankrupt in the late 1780s and Sorgenfri was reacquired by Prince Frederick in 1789, he charged Peter Meyn with expanding the house. When Crown Prince Frederik died in 1805, Sorgenfri was passed on to his son, the King Christian VIII, who used it as a summer residence. After his death in 1848, Dowager Queen Caroline Amalie spent all her summers at the estate until her death in 1881. Frederik VII had ceded Sorgenfri to the state in 1856 and after 1881 it was left empty for years. In 1898, it was ceded to Prince Christian King Christian X as summer residence. King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine continued to live at Sorgenfri in the summer time and the king was seen riding in the neighborhood.
Prince Knud married Princess Caroline-Mathilde in 1933. During the Second World War, the royal family, was staying at the Palace. On 29 August 1943, the Germans launched Operation Safari, where under the command of Lieutenant General Eduard Ritter von Schleich, they attacked the palace, resulting in a firefight and the death of seven Germans. Prince Knud and Princess Caroline-Mathilde continued to live in Kavalerfløjen until Christian X's death in 1947 and moved into the main building; the main building was once again left empty with Princess Caroline-Mathilde's death in 1995. From 1991, Count Christian of Rosenborg, a first cousin of Margrethe II, Countess Anne Dorte lived in a detached wing of the palace called Damebygningen until they died in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Sorgenfri Palace is designed in the Neoclassical style; the roof is topped by a cupola dating from the renovation in 1791–94. The palace is located in a 40 hectares garden, made in Baroque style in 1706. Prince Frederick had this changed to an English landscape garden style between 1791 and 1794.
The line of lime trees in front of the palace is still a trace of the baroque style garden. Architect Nicolai Abildgaard was responsible for the garden pavilions The Swiss House and The Norwegian House; the Mølleåen river runs through the park on the east side. A memorial bench for poet Viggo Stuckenberg and a memorial stone for women's rights activist Gyrithe Lemche are located in the park; the park covers a large area on both sides of Lyngby Kongevej. It contains several listed buildings. Woodland and a garden surround the castle. A French-style garden with symmetry, topiary shrubs and ornamental vases was created in the 18th century. Crown Prince Frederik adapted it in the English style with winding paths and romantic garden furniture such as a well, a grotto and gazebos; the latter, the Norwegian House and the Swiss House, were designed by Nicolai Abildgaard
The Østre Landsret is one of Denmark's two High Courts, along with the Vestre Landsret. Both High Courts function as a civil and criminal appellate court for cases from the subordinate courts and furthermore as a court of first instance in significant civil cases with issues of principle; the Østre Landsret sits in Copenhagen but has chambers in some Eastern towns and cities, such as Odense, used only for criminal cases. It has jurisdiction over all County Courts in Zealand, Lolland and Bornholm as well as the Faroe Islands. A municipal court decision can always be appealed to a High Court - if the disputed claim exceeds DKK 10.000. First instance civil cases may only be brought before the High Court if the disputed claim exceeds DKK 1.000.000. The Østre Landsret has 58 judges. Like the Vestre Landsret, it is split into each consisting of three High Court judges. Though the President of the High Court appoints a presiding judge for each chamber, all decisions are reached by a simple majority, in all types of cases.
Østre Landsret was established in 1919. Courts of Denmark http://www.domstol.dk/OESTRELANDSRET/EHC/Pages/default.aspx The High Court of Eastern Denmark
Lillerød is a Danish town, seat of the Allerød Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden. Its population 1 January 2015 was of 16,248. Lillerød is located in the northern side of the Zealand island, 40 km north from Copenhagen and not too far from Helsingør. Martin Andersen a Danish professional football midfielder Andreas Christensen a Danish professional footballer who plays as a centre back for Premier League club Chelsea F. C. and the Denmark national football team. Allerød station Mungo Park, a theatre in Lillerød Media related to Lillerød at Wikimedia Commons
French formal garden
The French formal garden called the jardin à la française, is a style of garden based on symmetry and the principle of imposing order on nature. Its epitome is considered to be the Gardens of Versailles designed during the 17th century by the landscape architect André Le Nôtre for Louis XIV and copied by other European courts; the Garden à la française evolved from the French Renaissance garden, a style, inspired by the Italian Renaissance garden at the beginning of the 16th century. The Italian Renaissance garden, typified by the Boboli Gardens in Florence and the Villa Medici in Fiesole, was characterized by planting beds, or parterres, created in geometric shapes, laid out symmetrical patterns; the gardens were designed to represent harmony and order, the ideals of the Renaissance, to recall the virtues of Ancient Rome. Following his campaign in Italy in 1495, where he saw the gardens and castles of Naples, King Charles VIII brought Italian craftsmen and garden designers, such as Pacello da Mercogliano, from Naples and ordered the construction of Italian-style gardens at his residence at the Château d'Amboise and at château Gaillard another private's king résidence in Amboise.
His successor Henry II, who had traveled to Italy and had met Leonardo da Vinci, created an Italian nearby at the Château de Blois. Beginning in 1528, King Francis I of France created new gardens at the Château de Fontainebleau, which featured fountains, parterres, a forest of pine trees brought from Provence and the first artificial grotto in France; the Château de Chenonceau had two gardens in the new style, one created for Diane de Poitiers in 1551, a second for Catherine de' Medici in 1560. In 1536 the architect Philibert de l'Orme, upon his return from Rome, created the gardens of the Château d'Anet following the Italian rules of proportion; the prepared harmony of Anet, with its parterres and surfaces of water integrated with sections of greenery, became one of the earliest and most influential examples of the classic French garden. While the gardens of the French Renaissance were much different in their spirit and appearance than those of the Middle Ages, they were still not integrated with the architecture of the châteaux, were enclosed by walls.
The different parts of the gardens were not harmoniously joined together, they were placed on difficult sites chosen for terrain easy to defend, rather than for beauty. All this was to change in the middle of the 17th century with the development of the first real Garden à la française; the first important garden à la française was the Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, created by Nicolas Fouquet, the superintendent of Finances to Louis XIV, beginning in 1656. Fouquet commissioned Louis Le Vau to design the chateau, Charles Le Brun to design statues for the garden, André Le Nôtre to create the gardens. For the first time, that garden and the chateau were integrated. A grand perspective of 1500 meters extended from the foot of the chateau to the statue of the Hercules of Farnese. "The symmetry attained at Vaux achieved a degee of perfection and unity equalled in the art of classic gardens. The chateau is at the center of this strict spatial organization which symbolizes power and success." The Gardens of Versailles, created by André Le Nôtre between 1662 and 1700, were the greatest achievement of the Garden à la francaise.
They were the largest gardens in Europe – with an area of 15,000 hectares, were laid out on an east–west axis followed the course of the sun: the sun rose over the Court of Honor, lit the Marble Court, crossed the Chateau and lit the bedroom of the King, set at the end of the Grand Canal, reflected in the mirrors of the Hall of Mirrors. In contrast with the grand perspectives, reaching to the horizon, the garden was full of surprises – fountains, small gardens filled with statuary, which provided a more human scale and intimate spaces; the central symbol of the Garden was the sun. "The views and perspectives, to and from the palace, continued to infinity. The king ruled over nature, recreating in the garden not only his domination of his territories, but over the court and his subjects." Andre Le Nôtre died in 1700, but his pupils and his ideas continued to dominate the design of gardens in France through the reign of Louis XV. His nephew Degots created the garden at Bagnolet for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans and at Champs, another relative, Jean-Charles Garnier d'Isle, created gardens for Madame de Pompadour at Crécy in 1746 and Bellevue in 1748–50.
The major inspiration for gardens continued to be architecture, rather than nature – the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel designed elements of the gardens at Versailles and Compiègne. Nonetheless, a few variations in the strict geometry of the garden à la française began to appear. Elaborate parterres of broderies, with their curves and counter-curves, were replaced by parterres of grass bordered with flowerbeds, which were easier to maintain. Circles became ovals, called rotules, with alleys radiating outward in the shape of an'x', irregular octagon shapes appeared. Gardens began to follow the natural landscape, rather than mo
Hans Svane was a Danish statesman and ecclesiastic, born at Horsens, where his father, Hans Riber, was burgomaster. His mother Anne was a daughter of the historian Hans Svaning, whose name, subsequently altered to Svane, he adopted. At Copenhagen Svane devoted himself to the study of Oriental languages, between 1628 and 1635 completed his education abroad, at Franeker in Friesland, Wittenberg and Paris. After seven years' residence abroad Svaning returned to occupy the chair of Oriental languages at the university of Copenhagen. In 1646, finding promotion slow, he turned to theology and was "created" Dr theol. by his old patron Jesper Brochmand, now bishop of Sjælland, whom he succeeded in the metropolitan see of Denmark on January 26, 1655. As a theologian he belonged to the orthodox Lutheran school, his scholarship, despite the erudition of his commentary to the prophet Daniel in two huge folio volumes, is questionable. But in Latin and Danish he won distinction as a speaker, his funeral orations in both languages were admired by his contemporaries.
At the famous risdag of 1660 he displayed debating talent of a high order and played an important political role. It was Svaning who, at the opening of the rigsdag, proposed that only members of the council of state should be entitled to fiefs and that all other estates should be leased to the highest bidder whatever his social station. At a hint from the king he laboured to get the royal charter abolished and the elective monarchy transformed into an hereditary monarchy; the clerical deputies followed him in a serried band, as the burgesses followed Nansen, the bishop's palace was one of the meeting-places for the camarilla, privy to the absolutist designs of Frederick III. Throughout the session Svane was chairman of "the Conjoined Estates" in their attacks upon the nobility, his watchword being: "Equal rights for all and a free hand for the king." It was on his motion that the Commons agreed "to offer his majesty the crown as an hereditary crown," to which proposition the nobility acceded, under severe pressure, two days later.
When, on the 13th, the three estates assembled at the castle, it was Svane's speech, as president of the estate of the clergy, which gave the solemnity its ultra-royalist character. He, quashed the timid attempt of the more liberal minded of the deputies to obtain a promise from the king of some sort of a constitution. In fact, excepting the king and queen, nobody contributed so powerfully to the introduction of absolutism into Denmark as the bishop of Copenhagen, he was raised to the dignity of archbishop, a title which no other Danish prelate has since borne, as president of the academic consistory of the university he took precedence of the rector magnificus. He was created a royal councillor, an assessor of the supreme court and a member of the states kollegiet or council of state, his elevation seems to have turned his head. The university suffered the most from his extravagant pretensions. A bishop, at the same time a privy councillor, a minister of state and a judge of the supreme court could have but little time for spiritual duties.
Yet Svane was not altogether neglectful of them. Noteworthy is his plan for the erection of a consistorial college for managing all the temporal affairs of the church, including education and poor relief, anticipating to some extent the modern ministries of education and public worship, not adopted. Moreover, the privileges which he obtained for the clergy did much to increase the welfare and independence of the Danish Church in difficult times, while his representations to the king that Danish theology was not to be promoted by placing Germans over the heads of native professors bore good fruit. See Detlev Gotthard Zwergius, Sjellandske clerisie; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Svane, Hans". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 175
Moltke is a noble family resident in Germany and Scandinavia from Mecklenburg. Members of the family have been noted as statesmen and high military officers in Denmark and Germany; the family is descended from Fridericus Meltiko, a knight of Mecklenburg who lived in the mid 13th century. Adam Gottlob Moltke, Danish courtier and diplomat Caspar Herman Gottlob Moltke, Danish general Joachim Godske Moltke, Prime Minister of Denmark, son of Adam Gottlob Moltke Adam Wilhelm Moltke, Danish Prime Minister, son of Joachim Godske Moltke Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Chief of the Prussian, German, General Staff Kuno von Moltke, German general Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, Chief of the German General Staff Hans-Adolf von Moltke, German diplomat Erik Moltke, Danish art historian Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, German jurist, head of the anti-Nazi Kreisau Circle, executed for treason for hosting a group planning to create a democracy after the fall of the Third Reich Gebhardt von Moltke, German diplomat James von Moltke, German banker, current Chief Financial Officer of Deutsche Bank.
Ernst Heinrich Kneschke: Neues allgemeines deutsches Adels-Lexicon. Friedrich Voigt, Leipzig 1859 Olaf Jessen: Die Moltkes. Biographie einer Familie. C. H. Beck, München 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-604997 Ernst Münch: "Die Moltkes im Ringen um ihr Stammgut Toitenwinkel bei Rostock". In: Herrschaft. Machtentfaltung über adligen und fürstlichen Grundbesitz in der Frühen Neuzeit. Böhlau Verlag, Köln Weimar 2003, S. 3–26 Jochen Thies: Die Moltkes: Von Königgrätz nach Kreisau. Eine deutsche Familiengeschichte. Piper Verlag, München 2010, ISBN 978-3-492-05380-8 Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Adelslexikon Band IX, Band 116 der Gesamtreihe, C. A. Starke Verlag, Limburg 1998, ISSN 0435-2408
Maase (noble family)
Maase or von der Maase is a Danish noble family, descended from the German-Danish theologian and landowner Hector Gottfried Masius whose children were ennobled by letters patent in 1712. Hector Gottfried Masius was born in Mecklenburg and came to Copenhagen where he served as court preacher and professor, he achieved great wealth through his marriages to Birgitte Magdalene Engberg and acquired a number of large estates on the southern part of Zealand. His children were ennobled by letters patent with the name von der Maase in 1712. Major Frederik Masius von der Maase, a son of Hector Gottfried Masius by his second wife, married Conradine Sophie Rostgaard, the daughter Frederik Rostgaard and granddaughter of Hans Rostgaard, thereby founding a branch of the von der Maase family that uses the name Rostgaard von der Maase. Frederik Masius von der Maase owned Tybjerggård og Førslevgård and acquired Stamhuset Kragerup with Krogerup Manor as well as most of the island of Anholt through his marriage.
Members of the family have owned a number of large estates and manor houses. These include Ravnstrup, Gunderslevholm, Førslev, Lundbygård and Farumgård. Members of the family have owned most of the island of Anholt since the 1820s. Frederik von der Maase, officer and chamberlain Frederik Anthon Adam von der Maase and landowner Frederik Herman Rostgaard von der Maase, courtier Frederik Christian Rostgaard von der Maase Jens Christian Rostgaard von der Maase, lawyer Hans von der Maase and professor Damily tree