Oranienburger Straße is a street in central Berlin, the capital of Germany. It is located in the borough of Mitte, north of the River Spree, runs south-east from Friedrichstraße to Hackescher Markt; the street is popular with tourists and Berliners for its nightlife with numerous restaurants and bars. A centre of Jewish life in Berlin, the street contains the restored New Synagogue. Another tourist landmark was an alternative art center and night club. Oranienburger Straße is known for prominent street prostitution, legal in Germany. There are two lesser known streets named "Oranienburger Straße" in Berlin, in Reinickendorf and in Lichtenrade; the name is derived from the nearby town of Oranienburg. In the 19th and early 20th centuries this was the main Jewish area of Berlin. There are a number of memorials to the former Jewish residents of the area, including sites of former Jewish schools, old people's homes and cemeteries. All these institutions were closed during the Nazi regime, the great majority of the area's Jewish residents were deported to their deaths in extermination camps in occupied Poland.
The most notable building on Oranienburger Straße is the New Synagogue, which at the time of its opening in 1866 was the largest synagogue in Berlin. The synagogue was saved from destruction by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in 1938 by the actions of Otto Bellgardt, a local police officer covered up by his superior Wilhelm Krützfeld, it was destroyed by Allied bombing in 1943, most of the ruins were demolished in 1958 by the German Democratic Republic authorities. The restored front section of the synagogue was reopened in 1995 as a Jewish community centre housing a synagogue and a museum; the Englische Kirche zu St. Georg was erected in 1885 under the patronage of the Princess Royal Victoria, Crown Princess of Prussia and to the German Empire. There had been Anglican worship in Berlin since at least 1830, from 1855 the Anglican congregation used a gatehouse of Monbijou Palace as the English Chapel; this chapel grew soon too small for the services of the congregation attended by Crown Princess Victoria.
In 1883 Crown Prince Frederick William and Victoria thus conveyanced a site of the park of Monbijou Palace close to Monbijoustraße and the Domkandidatenstift. Julius Carl Raschdorff, the architect of Berlin's built Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church, was commissioned to develop the plans for a church in close collaboration with Crown Princess Victoria, he was sent out for a study tour to England; the cornerstone was laid on Queen Victoria's birthday. The construction was financed through donations to the crown principal couple on the occasion of their silver wedding allowing for the payment of a minister; the church was built from Silesian granite and glacial erratics, covered with a patterned slate roof cladding. British relatives of the princess donated the stained-glass windows; the church, seating 300 church-goers, was inaugurated on 19 November 1885, Princess Victoria's birthday. The Kings of Prussia German Emperors, held the patronage over the church. On their visits to Berlin Queen Victoria and King George V visited the church in 1888 and 1913, respectively.
During World War I it was the only Anglican Church in Germany allowed to remain open, because William II was its patron. After the war the congregation could develop again and ministered – among others – a large British-born artisan population as well as American, Indian, Chinese and Russian Christians. In 1921 Charles Andrew Schönberger came to Germany and opened a branch of the Anglican Hebrew Christian Testimony to Israel in Berlin, right opposite to St. George's on Oranienburger Straße 20/21, they won a number of proselytes among the Jews of Berlin for the Anglican congregation. When the Nazi persecution of Jews and Jewish-born Christians discriminated, turned the more and more unbearable, the Hebrew Christian Testimony to Israel relinquished its premises on Oranienburger Straße 20/21 to Heinrich Grüber's help organisation, the Bureau Grüber, on 7 December 1938; the Bureau Grüber cooperated in its efforts with Bishop George Bell, who had gained his sister-in-law Laura Livingstone to run the Berlin office of the International Church Relief Commission for German Refugees.
A plaque at the new building on Oranienburger Straße 20/21 commemorates these joint Anglican and Confessing Church efforts. St. George's was closed at the outbreak of the Second World War, was hit by allied bombing in 1943 and 1944; the ruin of the church, since 1945 in the Soviet Sector of Berlin, was pulled down by the German Democratic Republic after 1949. In 1950 the congregation built the new St. George's Church in the Neu-Westend neighbourhood in the British Sector. In 1987 the original church silver, donated by Crown Princess Victoria, was discovered in a city cellar and since this time has been used in the weekly worship. Oranienburger Straße is home to one of Berlin's few ghost legends: The ghost wall. According to the legend, one can sometimes see the spirits of two children dash into the street and disappear near Oranienburger Straße 41; the identity of the children is unknown, as is the time period in which they originate, but legend has it that the child spirits will do small favors in exchange for pennies.
The procedure is to stick a penny in the crumbling mortar of the old wall near Oranienbur
Jewish emancipation was the external process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were subject, the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights, it included efforts within the community to integrate into their societies as citizens. It occurred between the late 18th century and the early 20th century. Jewish emancipation followed the Age of the concurrent Jewish enlightenment. Various nations repealed or superseded previous discriminatory laws applied against Jews where they resided. Before the emancipation, most Jews were isolated in residential areas from the rest of the society. Many became active politically and culturally within wider European civil society as Jews gained full citizenship, they emigrated to countries offering better social and economic opportunities, such as the Russian Empire and France. Some European Jews turned to Socialism, others to Jewish zionism. Jews were subject to a wide range of restrictions throughout most of European history.
Since the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215, Christian Europeans required Jews and Muslims to wear special clothing, such as the Judenhut and the yellow badge for Jews, to distinguish them from Christians. The practice of their religions was restricted, they had to swear special oaths. Jews were not allowed to vote, where vote existed, some countries formally prohibited their entry, such as Norway and Spain after the expulsion in the late 15th century. In contrast, in 1264, the Polish Prince Boleslaw the Pious issued the "Statute of Kalisz" – The General Charter of Jewish Liberties in Poland, an unprecedented document in medieval history of Europe that allows Jews personal freedom, legal autonomy and separate tribunal for criminal matters as well as safeguards against forced baptism and blood libel; the Charter was ratified again by subsequent Polish Kings: Casimir the Great of Poland in 1334, Casimir IV of Poland in 1453, Sigismund I the Old of Poland in 1539. After massive expulsions of Jews from Western Europe, they found a refuge in the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
During the Jagiellon Era Poland became the home to Europe's largest Jewish population, as royal edicts warranting Jewish safety and religious freedom from the 13th century contrasted with bouts of persecution in Western Europe following the Black Death of 1348–1349, blamed by some in the West on Jews themselves. Large parts of Poland suffered little from the outbreak, while the Jewish immigration brought valuable manpower and skills to the rising state; the greatest increase in Jewish numbers occurred in the 18th century, when Jews came to make up 7% of the Polish population. Jewish involvement in gentile society began during the Age of Enlightenment. Haskalah, the Jewish movement supporting the adoption of enlightenment values, advocated an expansion of Jewish rights within European society. Haskalah followers advocated "coming out of the ghetto", not just physically but mentally and spiritually. On September 28, 1791, revolutionary France became the second country of the world, after Poland 500 years earlier, to emancipate its Jewish population.
The 40,000 Jews living in France at the time were the first to confront the opportunities and challenges offered by emancipation. The civic equality that the French Jews attained became a model for other European Jews. Newfound opportunities began to be provided to the Jewish people, they pushed toward equality in other parts of the world. In 1796 and 1834, the Netherlands granted the Jews equal rights with gentiles. Napoleon freed the Jews in areas. Greece granted equal rights to Jews in 1830. But, it was not until the revolutions of the mid-19th century that Jewish political movements would begin to persuade governments in Great Britain and Eastern Europe to grant equal rights to Jews; the early stages of Jewish emancipation movements were part of the general progressive efforts to achieve freedom and rights for minorities. While this was a movement, it was a pursuit for equal rights. Thus, the emancipation movement would be a long process; the question of equal rights for Jews was tied to demands for constitutions and civil rights in various nations.
Jewish statesmen and intellectuals, such as Heinrich Heine, Johann Jacoby, Gabriel Riesser, Berr Isaac Berr, Lionel Nathan Rothschild, worked with the general movement toward liberty and political freedom, rather than for Jews specifically. In 1781, the Prussian civil servant Christian Wilhelm Dohm published the famous script Über die bürgerliche Emanzipation der Juden. Dohm disproves the antisemitic pleads for equal rights for Jews. Till this day, it is called the Bible of Jewish emancipation. In the face of persistent anti-Jewish incidents and blood libels, such as the Damascus affair of 1840, the failure of many states to emancipate the Jews, Jewish organizations formed to push for the emancipation and protection of their people; the Board of Deputies of British Jews under Moses Montefiore, the Central Consistory in Paris, the Alliance Israelite Universelle all began working to assure the freedom of Jews. Jewish emancipation, implemented under Napoleonic rule in French occupied and annexed states, suffered a setback in many member states of the German Confederation following the decisions of the Congress of Vienna.
In the final revision of the Congress on the rights of the Jews, the emissary of the
Willy Brandt was a German statesman, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in western Europe through the EEC and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe, he was the first Social Democrat chancellor since 1930. Fleeing to Norway and Sweden during the Nazi regime and working as a left-wing journalist, he took the name Willy Brandt as a pseudonym to avoid detection by Nazi agents, formally adopted the name in 1948. Brandt was considered one of the leaders of the right wing of the SPD, earned initial fame as Governing Mayor of West Berlin, he served as Foreign Minister and as Vice Chancellor in Kurt Georg Kiesinger's cabinet, became chancellor in 1969. As chancellor, he maintained West Germany's close alignment with the United States and focused on strengthening European integration in western Europe, while launching the new policy of Ostpolitik aimed at improving relations with Eastern Europe.
Brandt was controversial on both the right wing, for his Ostpolitik, on the left wing, for his support of American policies, including the Vietnam War, right-wing authoritarian regimes. The Brandt Report became a recognised measure for describing the general North-South divide in world economics and politics between an affluent North and a poor South. Brandt was known for his fierce anti-communist policies at the domestic level, culminating in the Radikalenerlass in 1972. Brandt resigned as chancellor in 1974, after Günter Guillaume, one of his closest aides, was exposed as an agent of the Stasi, the East German secret service. Willy Brandt was born Herbert Ernst Carl Frahm in the Free City of Lübeck on 18 December 1913, his mother was Martha Frahm a single parent. His father was an accountant from Hamburg named John Heinrich Möller; as his mother worked six days a week, he was brought up by his mother's stepfather, Ludwig Frahm, his second wife, Dora. He joined the "Socialist Youth" in 1929 and the Social Democratic Party in 1930.
He left the SPD to join the more left wing Socialist Workers Party, allied to the POUM in Spain and the Independent Labour Party in Britain. After passing his Abitur in 1932 at Johanneum zu Lübeck, he became an apprentice at the shipbroker and ship's agent F. H. Bertling. In 1933, using his connections with the port and its ships, he left Germany for Norway to escape Nazi persecution, it was at this time. In 1934, he took part in the founding of the International Bureau of Revolutionary Youth Organizations, was elected to its secretariat. Brandt was in Germany from September to December 1936, disguised as a Norwegian student named Gunnar Gaasland; the real Gunnar Gaasland was married to Gertrud Meyer from Lübeck in a marriage of convenience to protect her from deportation. Meyer had joined Brandt in Norway in July 1933. In 1937, during the Civil War, Brandt worked in Spain as a journalist. In 1938, the German government revoked his citizenship. In 1940, he was arrested in Norway by occupying German forces, but was not identified as he wore a Norwegian uniform.
On his release, he escaped to neutral Sweden. In August 1940, he became a Norwegian citizen, receiving his passport from the Norwegian legation in Stockholm, where he lived until the end of the war. Willy Brandt lectured in Sweden on 1 December 1940 at Bommersvik College about problems experienced by the social democrats in Nazi Germany and the occupied countries at the start of the Second World War. In exile in Norway and Sweden Brandt learned Swedish. Brandt spoke Norwegian fluently, retained a close relationship with Norway. In late 1946, Brandt returned to Berlin. In 1948, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany and became a German citizen again, formally adopting the pseudonym Willy Brandt as his legal name. Brandt was elected to the West German Bundestag in the 1949 West German federal election as a SPD delegate from West Berlin, serving there until 1957. Concurrently, he was elected as an SPD representative to the Abgeordnetenhaus of West Berlin in the 1950 West Berlin state election, served there through 1971.
In the 1969 West German federal election he was again elected to the Bundestag, but as a delegate from North Rhine-Westphalia, remained in the Bundestag as a delegate from that state until his death in 1992. In 1950, while a member of the Bundestag and the editor-in-chief of the Berliner Stadtblatt, received a secret payment of about 170,000 Deutsche Mark from the U. S. government. He denied any contribution to the topic. From 3 October 1957 to 1966, Willy Brandt served as Governing Mayor of Berlin, during a period of increasing tension in East-West relations that led to the construction of the Berlin Wall. In Brandt's first year as mayor of Berlin, he served as the president of the Bundesrat in Bonn. Brandt was an outspoken critic of Soviet repression of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising and of Nikita Khrushchev's 1958 proposal that Berlin receive the status of a "free city", he was supported by the influential publisher Axel Springer. As mayor of West Berlin, Brandt accomplished much in the way of urban development.
Kurt Tucholsky was a German-Jewish journalist and writer. He wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel. Born in Berlin-Moabit, he moved to Paris in 1924 and to Sweden in 1929. Tucholsky was one of the most important journalists of the Weimar Republic; as a politically engaged journalist and temporary co-editor of the weekly magazine Die Weltbühne he proved himself to be a social critic in the tradition of Heinrich Heine. He was a satirist, an author of satirical political revues, a songwriter and a poet, he saw himself as a left-wing democrat and pacifist and warned against anti-democratic tendencies – above all in politics, the military and justice – and the threat of National Socialism. His fears were confirmed when the Nazis came to power in January 1933. In May of that year he was among the authors whose works were banned as "un-German", burned. Kurt Tucholsky's parents' house, where he was born on 9 January 1890, was at 13 Lübecker Straße in Berlin-Moabit.
However, he spent his early childhood in Stettin, where his father had been transferred for work reasons. The Jewish bank cashier Alex Tucholsky had married his cousin Doris Tucholski in 1887 and had three children with her: Kurt, their oldest son and Ellen. Tucholsky's relationship with his mother was strained throughout his life. Alex Tucholsky left a considerable fortune to his wife and children, which enabled his oldest son to go to university without any financial worries. In 1899, upon his family's return to Berlin, Kurt Tucholsky attended the French Grammar School. In 1903 he transferred to the Königliche Wilhelms-Gymnasium. After taking his Abitur examinations in 1909, he began studying law in Berlin in October of the same year spent his second semester in Geneva at the start of 1910; when he was at university, Tucholsky's main interest was literature. Thus he travelled to Prague in September 1911 with his friend Kurt Szafranski in order to surprise his favorite author, Max Brod, with a visit and a model landscape that he had made himself.
Brod introduced Tucholsky to his friend and fellow author Franz Kafka, who afterwards wrote in his diary about Tucholsky:... a wholly consistent person of 21. From the controlled and powerful swing of his walking stick which gives a youthful lift to his shoulders to the deliberate delight in and contempt for his own literary works. Wants to be a criminal defence lawyer... Yet, despite his doctorate, Tucholsky never went on to a legal career: his inclination towards literature and journalism was stronger. While he was still at school, Tucholsky had written his first articles as a journalist. In 1907 the weekly satirical magazine Ulk published the short text Märchen, in which the 17-year-old Tucholsky made fun of Kaiser Wilhelm II's cultural tastes. At university he worked more intensively as a journalist, among other things working for the social democratic party organ Vorwärts, he involved himself in the SPD's election campaign in 1911. With Rheinsberg – ein Bilderbuch für Verliebte in 1912, Tucholsky published a tale in which he adopted a fresh and playful tone and which made him known to a wider audience for the first time.
In order to support the sales of the book and Szafranski, who had illustrated the tale, opened a "Book Bar" on Kurfürstendamm in Berlin: anyone who bought a copy of his book received a free glass of schnapps. In January 1913 Tucholsky began an enduring and productive new phase of his journalistic career when he published his first article in the weekly theatre magazine Die Schaubühne; the owner of the magazine, the publicist Siegfried Jacobsohn, became Tucholsky's friend and mentor, offering him both encouragement and criticism, sometimes co-writing articles with him, inviting him to assume some editorial responsibility for Die Schaubühne. Tucholsky reflected on the significance of his relationship with Jacobsohn in a "Vita" that he wrote in Sweden two years before his death: "Tucholsky owes to the publisher of the paper, Siegfried Jacobsohn, who died in the year 1926, everything he has become." The beginning of Tucholsky's journalistic career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I – for over two years, no articles by Tucholsky were published.
He finished his studies at the University of Jena in Thuringia where he received his doctorate in law cum laude with a work on mortgage law at the beginning of 1915. By April of that year he had been conscripted and sent to the Eastern Front. There he experienced positional warfare and served as a munitions soldier and as company writer. From November 1916 onwards he published the field newspaper Der Flieger. In the administration of the Artillery and Pilot Academy in Alt-Autz in Courland he got to know Mary Gerold, to become his wife. Tucholsky saw the posts as writer and field-newspaper editor as good opportunities to avoid serving in the trenches. Looking back he wrote: For thr
Kristallnacht or Reichskristallnacht referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or Pogromnacht, Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and civilians. The German authorities looked on without intervening; the name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores and synagogues were smashed. Estimates of the number of fatalities caused by the pogrom have varied. Early reports estimated. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources by historians such as Sir Richard Evans puts the number much higher; when deaths from post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are included, the death toll climbs into the hundreds. Additionally, 30,000 Jewish men were incarcerated in concentration camps. Jewish homes and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers; the rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany and the Sudentenland, over 7,000 Jewish businesses were either destroyed or damaged.
The British historian Martin Gilbert wrote that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so reported as it was happening, the accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world. The British newspaper The Times wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."The attacks were retaliation for the assassination of the Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old German-born Polish Jew living in Paris. Kristallnacht was followed by additional economic and political persecution of Jews, it is viewed by historians as part of Nazi Germany's broader racial policy, the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust. In the 1920s, most German Jews were integrated into German society as German citizens, they served in the German army and navy and contributed to every field of German business and culture.
Conditions for the Jews began to change after the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933, the Enabling Act assumption of power by Hitler after the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933. From its inception, Hitler's régime moved to introduce anti-Jewish policies. Nazi propaganda singled out the 500,000 Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, as an enemy within who were responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World War and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and Wall Street Crash Great Depression. Beginning in 1933, the German government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws restricting the rights of German Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to gain education, including the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service of 7 April 1933, which forbade Jews to work in the civil service; the subsequent 1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped German Jews of their citizenship and forbade Jews to marry non-Jewish Germans.
These laws resulted in the exclusion of Jews from German political life. Many sought asylum abroad; the international Évian Conference on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of Jewish and Gypsy immigration to other countries. By the time the conference took place, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and Austria, annexed by Germany in March 1938; as the number of Jews and Gypsies wanting to leave increased, the restrictions against them grew, with many countries tightening their rules for admission. By 1938, Germany "had entered a new radical phase in anti-Semitic activity"; some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation. In a 1997 interview, the German historian Hans Mommsen claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of the Gauleiters of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and businesses. Mommsen stated: The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact that Franz Xaver Schwarz, the party treasurer, kept the local and regional organizations of the party short of money.
In the fall of 1938, the increased pressure on Jewish property nourished the party's ambition since Hjalmar Schacht had been ousted as Reich minister for economics. This, was only one aspect of the origin of the November 1938 pogrom; the Polish government threatened to extradite all Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side. The immediate reaction by the Gestapo was to push the Polish Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers; the loss of prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort of compensation. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's attempt against t
The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot
The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot is located in Tel Aviv, Israel, at the center of the Tel Aviv University campus in Ramat Aviv. The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot is a global institution that tells the ongoing story of the Jewish people, intended for people of all faiths. Through its educational programming, the institution works to connect Jewish people to their roots and strengthen their personal and collective Jewish identity; the museum presents a pluralistic narrative of Jewish culture, faith and deed as seen through the lens of Jewish history and current experience today. The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, the museum launched a large-scale renewal in 2016, adding a new wing with rotating temporary exhibitions, the Alfred H. Moses and Family Synagogue Hall featuring synagogue scale models, Heroes - Trailblazers of the Jewish People, a children's interactive exhibition. Museum renovations will culminate with the opening of a new permanent core exhibition in early 2020.
It is a center for Jewish discourse, engagement and research, encompassing a pluralistic and comprehensive worldview. In 1959, the World Jewish Congress decided to build a museum that would serve both as an educational and cultural center for world Jewry; the institute in Israel was named in honor of Dr. Nahum Goldmann and president of the World Jewish Congress. Abba Kovner, one of the founders of Beit Hatfutsot, proposed the original concept of the museum's permanent core exhibition, it was based on a thematic principle, representing Jewish history and continuity, according to six themes, or "gates" that portray central aspects of Jewish life: family, faith, culture and return. Among the founders of the museum, Jeshajahu Weinberg served as the museum's first director from 1978 to 1984 and Dr. Meyer Weisgal was its first President. Beit Hatfutsot opened on May 15, 1978. From the start, it was regarded as one of the most technologically advanced museums of its time, its exhibitions were based on reconstructions and sets, using modern audiovisual and state-of-the-art computer technology to explore topics and themes throughout the museum.
This methodology provided. Its designers broke with the universally accepted tradition that museums exist first in order to acquire, care for and display objects from the past. Government budget cuts and a decline in Israeli tourism triggered a budget crisis at the museum. A number of public representatives devoted themselves to saving the museum, among them Shlomo Lahat, former mayor of Tel Aviv, Ariel Sharon, former prime minister. In 2005, the Israeli Knesset passed the "Beit Hatfutsot Law" that defines Beit Hatfutsot as "the National Center for Jewish Communities in Israel and around the world". A recovery plan was enacted with two partners: the Israeli Government and donor Leonid Nevzlin, with a grant from the Claims Conference; the Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot allows visitors to learn more about the Jewish experience through a number of access points. Onsite, the museum offers a permanent exhibition, children's gallery, rotating schedule of temporary exhibitions and related programs and workshops.
The museum's databases house searchable archives of photos, music and family names, all related to the Jews and Jewish history. Compiled over four decades, these databases are now digitized and available both onsite and online; the museum offers formal and informal educational activities for teachers and students, at the museum and/or for use in classrooms around the world. The thematic center of the Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot is its exhibitions; the two permanent installations in the new wing include The Alfred H. Moses and Family Synagogue Hall and the Heroes children's gallery. There are three temporary, rotating exhibition galleries in the new wing; the exhibitions all focus on issues of Jewish pluralism. The Synagogue Hall features the exhibition Hallelujah! Assemble, Study – Synagogues Past and Present; this exhibition presents 21 scale synaogue models representing various communities and Jewish ritual relating to the synagogue: social gatherings, study and prayer, as well as weddings, Bar/Bat Mitzvahs, charity, etc.
Alongside each model is an original ritual artifact, either from the synagogue or its respective community. This is an interactive exhibition experience designed for children ages their families. Visitors will meet different types of Jewish heroes from throughout history including scientists, leaders, cultural figures and more – men and women with unique talents; this exhibition looks at the origins of Jewish humor and the contributions of Jews to the rise of this global industry. Programming for the general public includes programs related to the exhibitions and lectures featuring specialists in Jewish history and culture, film screenings and more; the Koret International School for Jewish Peoplehood Studies develops the discipline of Jewish Peoplehood studies and disseminates formal educational curricula and teaching guides for use in Israel and abroad. The school creates workshops geared towards educational groups visiting Israel on short and long-term programs; the Oster Visual Documentation Center houses collections of ~500,000 photos of Jewish life, as well as over 1,000 films.
This collection includes rare documentary films and amateur video footage dating back to the 1920s, as well as contemporary films produced in Israel and abroad. The
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts. An early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free "Romanesque" manner was Henry Hobson Richardson. In the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. Romanesque Revival is sometimes referred to as the "Norman style" or "Lombard style" in works published during the 19th century after variations of historic Romanesque that were developed by the Normans and Lombards, respectively. Like its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was used for churches, for synagogues such as the New Synagogue of Strasbourg built in 1898, the Congregation Emanu-El of New York built in 1929.
The style was quite popular for university campuses in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States and Canada. See also: Romanesque Revival architecture in the United KingdomThe development of the Norman revival style took place over a long time in the British Isles starting with Inigo Jones's refenestration of the White Tower of the Tower of London in 1637–38 and work at Windsor Castle by Hugh May for Charles II, but this was little more than restoration work. In the 18th century, the use of round arched windows was thought of as being Saxon rather than Norman, examples of buildings with round arched windows include Shirburn Castle in Oxfordshire, Wentworth in Yorkshire, Enmore Castle in Somerset. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl's castle at Inverary, started in 1744, castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Oxenfoord and Seton Palace, 1792. In England James Wyatt used round arched windows at Sandleford Priory, Berkshire, in 1780–89 and the Duke of Norfolk started to rebuild Arundel Castle, while Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire was built by Robert Smirke between 1812 and 1820.
At this point, the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817, Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation, it was now realised that'round-arch architecture' was Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon. The start of an "archaeologically correct" Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper, his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837; the style did not catch on for domestic buildings, though many country houses and mock castles were built in the Castle Gothic or Castellated style during the Victorian period, a mixed Gothic style. However, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, who developed Romanesque Revival church architecture.
Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47, St Agatha’s Llanymynech, 1845, he copied the tower of St. Salvator's Cathedral, Bruges. Other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, the porch to Langedwyn Church, he was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, saving on the expense of stonework. Penson’s last church in the Romanesque Revival style was Rhosllannerchrugog, Wrexham 1852The Romanesque adopted by Penson contrasts with the Italianate Romanesque of other architects such as Thomas Henry Wyatt, who designed Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas Church, in this style at Wilton, built between 1841 and 1844 for the Dowager Countess of Pembroke and her son, Lord Herbert of Lea. During the 19th century, the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations. Whereas high churches and Anglo-Catholic, which were influenced by the Oxford Movement, were built in Gothic Revival architecture, low churches and broad churches of the period were built in the Romanesque Revival style.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches and chapels. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, who designed the Mint Lane Baptist Chapel in Lincoln in a debased Italianate Romanesque revival style in 1870. After about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canada's provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto and the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria, are Romanesque Revival in style. University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style; the building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the final d