A fascial compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia. In the human body, the limbs can each be divided into two segments – the upper limb can be divided into the arm and the forearm and the sectional compartments of both of these – the fascial compartments of the arm and the fascial compartments of the forearm contain an anterior and a posterior compartment; the lower limbs can be divided into two segments – the leg and the thigh – and these contain the fascial compartments of the leg and the fascial compartments of the thigh. If these segments are cut transversely, it is apparent; these are called fascial compartments, are formed by tough connective tissue septa. These compartments have a separate nerve and blood supply to their neighbours; the muscles in each compartment will all be supplied by the same nerve. Sometimes the segment is covered by bone profoundly, it is distinguished from pharmacokinetic compartment, a defined volume of body fluids.
Compartment syndrome is an acute medical problem following injury or surgery in which increased pressure occurs within a compartment. Fasciae and Aponeuroses - Organized by Region Department of Anatomy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips, its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates can not sustain standing erectly; the muscle is remarkably coarse in function and structure, being made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a pelvic bone, the portion of the bone including the crest of the ilium above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Three bursae are found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle: One of these, of large size, separates it from the greater trochanter.
When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabulofemoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur, its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and adductor magnus. The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed; the lower part of the muscle acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints; the gluteus maximus is involved from running to weight-lifting. A number of exercises focus on the gluteus maximus as well as other muscles of the upper leg. Hip thrusts Glute bridge Quadruped hip extensions Kettlebell swings Squats and variations like split squats, pistol squats and wide-stance lunges Deadlift Reverse hyperextension Four-way hip extensions Glute-ham raise Functional assessment can be useful in assessing injuries to the gluteus maximus and surrounding muscles.
These tests include: 30 Second Chair to Stand testThis test measures a participant's ability to stand up from a seated position as many times as possible in a thirty-second period of time. Testing the number of times a person can stand up in a thirty-second period helps assess strength, flexibility and endurance, which can help determine how far along a person is in rehabilitation, or how much work is still to be done. Passive piriformis stretch; the piriformis test measures flexibility of the gluteus maximus. This requires a trained professional and is based on the angle of external and internal rotation in relation to normal range of motion without injury or impingement. In other primates, gluteus maximus consists of ischiofemoralis, a small muscle that corresponds to the human gluteus maximus and originates from the ilium and the sacroiliac ligament, gluteus maximus proprius, a large muscle that extends from the ischial tuberosity to a more distant insertion on the femur. In adapting to bipedal gait, reorganization of the attachment of the muscle as well as the moment arm was required.
Table of muscles of the human body Coccyx This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0403 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-female-17—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/GluteusMaximus at exrx.net
Vastus intermedius muscle
The vastus intermedius arises from the front and lateral surfaces of the body of the femur in its upper two-thirds, sitting under the rectus femoris muscle and from the lower part of the lateral intermuscular septum. Its fibers end in a superficial aponeurosis, which forms the deep part of the quadriceps femoris tendon; the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius appear to be inseparably united, but when the rectus femoris has been reflected during dissection a narrow interval will be observed extending upward from the medial border of the patella between the two muscles, the separation may be continued as far as the lower part of the intertrochanteric line, however, the two muscles are continuous. Due to being the deeper middle-most of the quadriceps muscle group, the intermedius is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained, it cannot be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres sideways as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral
The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. The three muscles insert on the femur; the functions of the muscles include extension, external rotation and internal rotation of the hip joint. The gluteus maximus is the most superficial of the three gluteal muscles, it makes up a large portion of the appearance of the hips. It is a narrow and thick fleshy mass of a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the nates; the gluteus medius is a broad, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis. It lies profound to the gluteus maximus and its posterior third is covered by the gluteus maximus, its anterior two-thirds by the gluteal aponeurosis, which separates it from the superficial fascia and integument; the gluteus minimus is the smallest of the three gluteal muscles and is situated beneath the gluteus medius. The bulk of the gluteal muscle mass contributes only to shape of the buttocks; the other major contributing factor is that of the panniculus adiposus of the buttocks, well developed in this area, gives the buttock its characteristic rounded shape.
The gluteal muscle bulk and tone can be improved with exercise. However, it is predominantly the disposition of the overlying panniculus adiposus which may cause sagging in this region of the body. Exercise in general which can contribute to fat loss can lead to reduction of mass in subcutaneal fat storage locations on the body which includes the panniculus, so for leaner and more active individuals, the glutes will more predominantly contribute to the shape than someone less active with a fattier composition; the degree of body fat stored in various locations such as the panniculus is dictated by genetic and hormonal profiles. The gluteus maximus arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, the rough portion of bone including the crest above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Its action is to extend and to laterally rotate the hip, to extend the trunk; the gluteus medius muscle originates on the outer surface of the ilium between the iliac crest and the posterior gluteal line above, the anterior gluteal line below.
The fibers of the muscle converge into a strong flattened tendon that inserts on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. More the muscle's tendon inserts into an oblique ridge that runs downward and forward on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter; the gluteus minimus is fan-shaped, arising from the outer surface of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, behind, from the margin of the greater sciatic notch. The fibers converge to the deep surface of a radiated aponeurosis, this ends in a tendon, inserted into an impression on the anterior border of the greater trochanter, gives an expansion to the capsule of the hip joint; the functions of muscles includes extension, lateral rotation and medial rotation of the hip joint. The gluteus maximus supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract. Sitting for long periods can lead to the gluteal muscles atrophying through constant pressure and disuse; this may be associated with lower back pain, difficulty with some movements that require the gluteal muscles, such as rising from the seated position, climbing stairs.
Any exercise that works and/or stretches the buttocks is suitable, for example lunges, hip thrusts, climbing stairs, bicycling, squats, arabesque and various specific exercises for the bottom. Weight training exercises which are known to strengthen the gluteal muscles include the squat, leg press, any other movements involving external hip rotation and hip extension. Gluteal crease McMinn, RMH Last applied. London: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-04662-X 8b; the Muscles and Fasciæ of the Thigh Bartleby.com, Henry Gray, Anatomy of the Human Body, 1918
The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is a long, superficial muscle that runs down the length of the thigh in the anterior compartment; the sartorius muscle originates from the anterior superior iliac spine and part of the notch between the anterior superior iliac spine and anterior inferior iliac spine. It runs obliquely across the anterior part of the thigh in an inferomedial direction, it passes behind the medial condyle of the femur to end in a tendon. This tendon curves anteriorly to join the tendons of the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles in the pes anserinus, where it inserts into the superomedial surface of the tibia, its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle, the point where it crosses adductor longus marks the apex of the triangle. Deep to sartorius and its fascia is the adductor canal, through which the saphenous nerve, femoral artery and vein, nerve to vastus medialis pass. Like the other muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, sartorius is innervated by the femoral nerve.
It may originate from the outer end of the inguinal ligament, the notch of the ilium, the ilio-pectineal line or the pubis. The muscle may be split into two parts, one part may be inserted into the fascia lata, the femur, the ligament of the patella or the tendon of the semitendinosus; the tendon of insertion may end in the fascia lata, the capsule of the knee-joint, or the fascia of the leg. The muscle may be absent in some people; the sartorius muscle can move the hip joint and the knee joint, but all of its actions are weak, making it a synergist muscle. At the hip, it can flex, weakly abduct, laterally rotate the thigh. At the knee, it can flex the leg. Turning the foot to look at the sole or sitting cross-legged demonstrates all four actions of the sartorius. One of the many conditions that can disrupt the use of the sartorius is pes anserine bursitis, an inflammatory condition of the medial portion of the knee; this condition occurs in athletes from overuse and is characterized by pain and tenderness.
The pes anserinus is made up from the tendons of the gracilis and sartorius muscles. When inflammation of the bursa underlying the tendons occurs they separate from the head of the tibia. Sartorius comes from the Latin word sartor, meaning tailor, it is sometimes called the tailor's muscle; this name was chosen in reference to the cross-legged position. In French, the muscle name itself "couturier" comes from this specific position, referred to as "sitting as a tailor". There are other hypotheses as to the genesis of the name. One is that it refers to the location of the inferior portion of the muscle being the "inseam" or area of the inner thigh that tailors measure when fitting trousers. Another is that the muscle resembles a tailor's ribbon. Additionally, antique sewing machines required continuous cross body pedaling; this combination of lateral rotation and flexion of the hip and flexion of the knee gave tailors enlarged sartorius muscles. The sartorius is called the honeymoon muscle; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 470 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0407 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pembody/body15a—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Lateral rotator group
The lateral rotator group is a group of six small muscles of the hip which all externally rotate the femur in the hip joint. It consists of the following muscles: Piriformis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior, quadratus femoris and the obturator externus. All muscles in the lateral rotator group originate from the hip bone and insert on to the upper extremity of the femur; the muscles are innervated by the sacral plexus, except the obturator externus muscle, innervated by the lumbar plexus. This group does not include all muscles which aid in lateral rotation of the hip joint: rather it is a collection of ones which are known for performing this action. Other muscles that contribute to lateral rotation of the hip include: Gluteus maximus muscle Gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus muscle when the hip is extended Psoas major muscle Psoas minor muscle Sartorius muscle Hip anatomy Glutealregion at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb; the single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is thick and strong, forms a ball and socket joint at the hip, a modified hinge joint at the knee; the femur is the only bone in the thigh and serves for an attachment site for all muscles in the thigh. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body; the femur is the longest bone in the body. The femur is categorised as a long bone and comprises a diaphysis, the shaft and two epiphysis or extremities that articulate with adjacent bones in the hip and knee. In cross-section, the thigh is divided up into three separate compartments, divided by fascia, each containing muscles; these compartments use the femur as an axis, are separated by tough connective tissue membranes.
Each of these compartments has its own blood and nerve supply, contains a different group of muscles. Medial fascial compartment of thigh, adductor Posterior fascial compartment of thigh, hamstring Anterior fascial compartment of thigh, extensionAnterior compartment muscles of the thigh include sartorius, the four muscles that comprise the quadriceps muscles- rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Posterior compartment muscles of the thigh are the hamstring muscles, which include semimembranosus and biceps femoris. Medial compartment muscles are pectineus, adductor magnus, adductor longus and adductor brevis, gracilis; because the major muscles of the thigh are the largest muscles of the body, resistance exercises of them stimulate blood flow more than any other localized activity. The arterial supply is by the obturator artery; the lymphatic drainage follows the arterial supply and drains to the lumbar lymphatic trunks on the corresponding side, which in turn drains to the cisterna chyli.
The deep venous system of the thigh consists of the femoral vein, the proximal part of the popliteal vein, various smaller vessels. The venae perfortantes connect the deep and the superficial system, which consists of the saphenous veins. Thigh weakness can result in a positive Gowers' sign on physical examination; the thigh meat of some animals such as chicken and cow is consumed as a food in many parts of the world