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FastTrack is a peer-to-peer protocol, used by the Kazaa, Grokster, iMesh and Morpheus file sharing programs. FastTrack was the most popular file sharing network in 2003, used for the exchange of music mp3 files; the network had 2.4 million concurrent users in 2003. It is estimated; the FastTrack protocol and Kazaa were created and developed by Estonian programmers of BlueMoon Interactive headed by Jaan Tallinn, the same team that created Skype. After selling it to Niklas Zennström from Sweden and Janus Friis from Denmark, it was introduced in March 2001 by their Dutch company Consumer Empowerment, it appeared during the end of the first generation of P2P networks – Napster shut down in July of that year. There are three FastTrack-based networks, they use mutually incompatible versions of the protocol; the most popular clients on each are Kazaa, iMesh. For more information about the various lawsuits surrounding Kazaa and Sharman Networks, see Kazaa. FastTrack uses supernodes to improve scalability.

To allow downloading from multiple sources, FastTrack employs the UUHash hashing algorithm. While UUHash allows large files to be checksummed in a short time on slow weak computers, it allows for massive corruption of a file to go unnoticed. Many people, as well as the RIAA, have exploited this vulnerability to spread corrupt and fake files on the network; the FastTrack protocol was not documented by its creators. The first clients were all closed source software. However, initialization data for the encryption algorithms is sent in the clear and no public key encryption is used, so reverse engineering was made comparatively easy. In 2003, open source programmers succeeded in reverse-engineering the portion of the protocol dealing with client-supernode communication, but the supernode-supernode communication protocol remains unknown; the following programs are or have been FastTrack clients: Kazaa and variants KCeasy Grokster iMesh Morpheus, until 2002 Apollon - KDE-Based giFT-FastTrack – a giFT plugin MLDonkey, a free multi-platform multi-network file sharing client Kad network Overnet Open Music Model Comparison of file sharing applications giFT-FastTrack home page Documentation of the known parts of the FastTrack protocol, from giFT-FastTrack Boardwatch, July 17, 2003 FTWall - A firewalling technique for blocking the fast-track protocol.

Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models. Ghosemajumder, Shuman. MIT Sloan School of Management, 2002. Music Downloads: Pirates- or Customers?. Silverthorne, Sean. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2004

1872 in Norway

Events in the year 1872 in Norway. Monarch: Charles IV Oscar II 18 September – King Oscar II accedes to the throne of Sweden-Norway. 7 October – The railway line Drammenbanen between Oslo and Drammen is opened. Oslo Vestbanestasjon opens. 7 January – Olaf Sæther, rifle shooter and Olympic gold medallist 9 January – Ivar Lykke and Prime Minister of Norway 6 March – Johan Bojer and dramatist 7 April – Hendrik Christian Andersen, sculptor and urban planner in America 29 April – Eyvind Alnæs, pianist and choir director 7 May – Peder Østlund, speed skater 28 May – Otto Bahr Halvorsen and twice Prime Minister of Norway 9 June – Olaf Bryn, politician 10 June – Harald Natvig, rifle shooter and Olympic gold medallist 5 July – Sten Abel and Olympic silver medallist 16 July – Roald Amundsen, polar explorer, led the first Antarctic expedition to reach the South Pole 3 August – Haakon VII, King of Norway 19 September – Ragnvald Hvoslef, politician 25 September – Anna Sethne, educator. 8 October – Kristine Bonnevie and Norway's first female professor 14 October – Ole Østervold and Olympic gold medallist 17 November – Edvard Engelsaas, speed skater and world champion Andreas Baalsrud, engineer Ingolf Elster Christensen, politician Oskar Fredriksen, speed skater Einar Halvorsen, speed skater Gustav Henriksen, businessperson Hjalmar Holand, historian Olav Kavli and cheese scientist Anders Venger and Minister Hans Westfal-Larsen, ship-owner

Paper Bag (song)

"Paper Bag" is a song by American singer-songwriter Fiona Apple, released as the third single from her second studio album, When the Pawn.... The song earned Apple a Grammy Award nomination for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance for the 43rd Grammy Awards. Apple wrote "Paper Bag" following an experience; the event took place in Los Angeles following recording sessions for her previous studio album, Tidal. Allmusic's Matthew Greenwald described "Paper Bag" as having a "loose ragtime" melody and rhythm pattern, with an "up and down" chord pattern creating a "funky, looping feel"; the Record noted the "infectious" song includes "Beatlesesque horns". The Boston Globe classified it as a "piano ditty" that "owes to Kurt Weill and Paul McCartney," while The Buffalo News noted that it "provides a more contemporary hip hop sound" than other songs on her album. Matthew Greenwald of Allmusic wrote that "Paper Bag" was one of the more accessible, "inspiring" tracks from the album. Greenwald appreciated Don Sweeney's horn arrangement, which he called "joyous".

In 2012, Bob Gendron of the Chicago Tribune opined, "A midst a backdrop of brushed drums,'Paper Bag' highlighted an ugly tempestuousness at odds with its breezy cabaret melody." In the "Rolling Stone Special Nineties Edition," the song was ranked as the 29th best song of the'90s. The song is considered a "fan favorite", it earned Apple a Grammy Award nomination for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance for the 43rd Grammy Awards. Paul Thomas Anderson directed the music video for "Paper Bag", which features a blue-and-red palette. Anderson and Apple were in a romantic relationship at the time. "Paper Bag" was featured in the 2006 film The Last Kiss and the 2011 film Bridesmaids

Flora Payne

Flora Payne Whitney was an American socialite and philanthropist from Cleveland, Ohio who moved to New York City and married into the Whitney family. She was the daughter of Henry B. Payne, a U. S. Senator, the wife of William Collins Whitney, the U. S. Secretary of the Navy. Flora Payne was born in Cleveland, Ohio on January 25, 1842, she was the eldest daughter of Mary Payne and U. S. Senator Henry B. Payne of Ohio Among her siblings was Nathan P. Payne, who became the mayor of Cleveland, Oliver Hazard Payne, who did not marry and served as treasurer of the Standard Oil Company, she received an excellent education ``. Her love of music was instinctive and she developed talent in that direction of a high order." In 1892, Flora and her husband were included in Ward McAllister's "Four Hundred", purported to be an index of New York's best families led by Mrs. Astor, as published in The New York Times. Conveniently, 400 was the number of people. Few women "in her station in life have enjoyed to so complete an extent the cordial, friendly esteem of all classes of people.

By her gentle, womanly graces she endeared herself to every one who enjoyed the privilege of her acquaintance. She bore the responsibilities of social leadership with appropriate dignity, yet with a tactfulness, exquisite."While her husband was serving as the Secretary of the Navy, she became close friends with President Cleveland's wife, the former Frances Folsom. When Flora's "little girl was born" in 1887, "it was the gracious lady of the White House who suggested the name of Dorothy, bestowed upon the babe." After they left Washington, the Whitney's split their time between New York City, Lenox and Newport, Rhode Island. On October 13, 1869, she was married William Collins Whitney, a friend and Yale classmate of her brother Oliver. Whitney's parents were Brigadier General James Scollay Whitney and Laurinda Whitney, a descendant of Plymouth governor William Bradford. William's older brother was industrialist Henry Melville Whitney, president of the Metropolitan Steamship Company, founder of the Dominion Coal Company and Dominion Iron and Steel Company.

His sister, Laurinda Collins "Lily" Whitney married Charles T. Barney, who became the president of the Knickerbocker Trust Company. Another sister, Susan Collins Whitney, married prominent attorney Henry F. Dimock. Together, the Whitneys had five children who lived beyond infancy: Harry Payne Whitney, who married Gertrude Vanderbilt in 1896. Pauline Payne Whitney, who married Almeric Hugh Paget 1st Baron Queenborough, in 1895. William Payne Whitney, who married Helen Julia Hay in 1902. Oliver Whitney, who died aged 5. Dorothy Payne Whitney, who first married Willard Dickerman Straight and married Leonard Knight Elmhirst after Straight's death. After a three week illness, Flora died on February 5, 1893, at age fifty-two, at her home in New York City. Upon her death, The New York Times wrote that "the grief of her death occasions is felt far beyond the circle of her personal friendships and acquaintance, beyond the communities in which her social prominence in girlhood and married life had been attained."

After a funeral at St. Bartholomew's Church at Madison Avenue and 44th Street, she was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York; the pallbearers at her funeral were former Grover Cleveland, Cornelius Vanderbilt, former Gov. George Peabody Wetmore, E. Randolph Robinson, Hamilton McKown Twombly, George H. Bend, George G. Haven, Thomas F. Cushing, Buchanan Winthrop, Edward A. Wickes. Flora's estate, valued at $3,000,000, was left to her husband through a will executed five days before her death. Two years William Whitney married Edith Sibyl Randolph, the widow of Capt. Arthur Randolph, he acquired for her a residence at Fifth Avenue and 68th Street in New York City, commissioned McKim, Mead & White to do a $3.5 million renovation of the house. Whitney, who at the time of his death was one of the largest landowners in the eastern United States, died on February 2, 1904, was interred at Woodlawn. Flora Payne at Find a Grave


The Žemaitukas is a historic horse breed from Lithuania. It may be classified as a pony, due to its short stature. Known from the 6–7th centuries, it was used as a war horse by the Lithuanians during the Northern Crusades and is hailed in Lithuania as part of the state's historic heritage, its origin is uncertain, but it is related to indigenous forest horse breeds and the Konik, a Polish breed, which were both descended from the Tarpan. The breed contributed to the foundation of the Trakehner. Once popular, the breed was brought to the brink of extinction by changing agricultural demands and World War II; as of 2010, the total population is estimated at 400 individuals. Known in written sources since the 6–7th centuries, the Žemaitukas became famous as an excellent war horse during the Northern Crusades. During the centuries, the breed was influenced by Tatar, light Polish, other horses. Once widespread, the breed went extinct three times. In the 19th century, new agricultural machinery required stronger horses.

Therefore the horses were crossed with the Trakehners and draft horses threatening survival of pure breed Žemaitukas. The breed was saved by the Ogiński family, who established Žemaitukas breeding societies in Raseiniai, Plungė, Rietavas between 1881 and 1890; the Ogińskis popularized the breed and exhibited it at the Paris International Agricultural Show in 1900 where the horses won two gold and one silver medals. At the end of World War II, the Germans took all Žemaitukas horses from the Gruzdžiai stud farm. A single stud was found in 1958 in Užventis; the stud was transferred to the Vilnius State Stud Farm, where a new generation of Žemaitukas horses was bred. A new challenge was presented by the dissolution of the Soviet Union and rapid de-collectivization in 1990. Horses, that belonged to the kolkhozes, were distributed to private owners who showed little interest in the survival of the breed. In 1994, only 30 adult individuals remained. However, the Vilnius State Stud Farm remains the major breading center.

As of 2010, it had 98 Žemaitukas horses. Arabian blood was added during the 19th century, giving the horse an Arab-type head, including the characteristic dish-shaped Arabian profile; the infusion of Arabian blood created two subtypes of the Žemaitukas: those with Arabian ancestry were considered suitable for riding, while the other, more related to the indigenous horses, was better adapted to farm work. After World War II, the distinction was muted. With limited crossbreeding with North Swedish Horse, a deliberate effort was made to increase the size and bulk of the animals so that they could be used for both riding and draft work; the ponies are said to be hardy, possessing excellent stamina, disease resistant, displaying a willing temperament. It is now a multi-purpose breed; the horses are a dun color and display the primeval dorsal stripe, but they may be brown, black, or palomino. The Žemaitukas stands 1.28–1.42 m high, placing it among the taller pony breeds. As with other domestic animals around the world, studies have been carried out on this horse's genetic heritage, since it may possess unique characteristics.

Maternal DNA sequencing indicated that one of its haplotypes is similar to an old haplotype present in horse breeds of the North East European area. In 2004 study, scientists discovered allele T, common among the Žemaitukas and observed only a few times among all other tested horse breeds; the FAO Mission Conference for Central and Eastern European countries recognized the Žemaitukas as an internationally watched breed, included it into the FAO World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. Konik

Africa, Ohio

Africa is an unincorporated community located in Orange Township of southern Delaware County, United States, by Alum Creek. Africa is named after the Underground Railroad and is thought to be the only town in the world named after the Underground Railroad, its first church is thought to have been a Methodist church, established on the east side of Alum Creek in 1828. In 1843, the slavery question separated its congregation; the antislavery portion organized the Wesleyan Church on the east side of Alum Creek. The first services were held in a cabin on the Alum Creek flats near the Patterson residence. In 1876, members of the congregation built a church, located in present-day Africa. A historic marker in the area recounts the history of how the community was divided by the slavery question and of how Africa received its name: Samuel Patterson arrived in East Orange in 1824 and, within a few years, began to hide runaway slaves in his home, he invited anti-slavery speakers to the pulpit of the East Orange Methodist Church, which brought Patterson and his neighbors into conflict with the bishop.

Following their consciences, they built a new church. A pro-slavery neighbor mocked them by calling their community Africa, so East Orange was renamed; the village has disappeared but several homes owned by Patterson and his neighbors still stand in this vicinity. The reverse side of the marker adds the following information: In 1859 slaves from a North Carolina plantation owned by the Alston family were sent north; the plantation's mistress had disapproved of slavery and made arrangements for the slaves to travel to Ohio and freedom. These slaves moved to the community of Africa, lived in log homes, were employed by the anti-slavery farmers and joined the Wesleyan Methodist Church. After the Civil War the freed slaves left Africa and settled in the communities of Delaware and Westerville, Van Wert and Paulding counties; the Patterson family built their original double log cabin in the 1820s. Sometime near the year and 1840, family members built a mansion on the east side of Alum Creek; this and additional homes built by the Pattersons still stand, these buildings were important Underground Railroad stations.

This particular Underground Railroad route assumed national importance because of its relationship to two famous songwriters. A station north of the Patterson farm was in the home of Dan Emmett. In 1842, Emmett and three other men formed the Virginia Minstrels. Emmett wrote "Old Dan Tucker," "Dixie," "Turkey in the Straw," and "The Blue Tail Fly." "Dixie" became popular and, as the Civil War began troops of both North and the South armies marched to this tune, but by the end of 1861, Dixie had become a Southern song. Emmett was not a Southern sympathizer and was not pleased when the Confederacy adopted his tune as its unofficial "National Anthem." The Virginia Minstrels are today considered the nation's first true minstrel troop. The minstrel show represented America's first indigenous musical theater. Around the turn of the 20th century, this form evolved into vaudeville and into Broadway productions; the station to the south of the Patterson place was in Ohio. Here Benjamin Hanby, an Otterbein College student, heard the story a sick slave had told about his sweetheart, Nelly Gray, sold down the river.

He wanted to get to Canada and earn money to buy Nelly's freedom. Hanby began to write a song. A Kentucky slave auction stirred him to compose more stanzas and he added a chorus; this song became the well-known "Darling Nelly Gray." The song recounts the tale of Nelly, who white men bound in chains and took to Georgia, working her in the cotton as she died. Hanby wrote the Christmas carol "Up on the House Top," and the Christian hymn "Who Is He In Yonder Stall?" As a result of his thematic emphasis, Hanby has been dubbed the "Uncle Tom's Cabin" of song. Songs such as these and writings, such as those of Ohioan Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, sensitized northerners to the conditions of slavery and helped to initiate the anti-slavery movement. Hanby's home is now a historic landmark standing adjacent to the Otterbein University campus. Hanby's grave is in the nearby Otterbein Cemetery in Ohio. Alum Creek State Park is an adjacent recreation area in this region of central Ohio, the park receives over three million visitors annually.

Because the town of Africa is located next to this park and located within sight of the Alum Creek Dam, many visitors will recognize the town and the road, but may not be aware of the area's historic significance. Africa, Ohio was "saluted" on the country music television show "Hee Haw" in 1973. At that time it had a population of 16. Africa is adjacent to the Alum Creek State Park, an Ohio recreation area, on Africa Road, which follows the Underground Railroad route that escaping slaves took before the American Civil War. Africa began as Orange Station, some early accounts described the area as the "East Orange Post Office." Orange Station at one time had a post office, a general store, a saloon. Buckingham, Ray, E. Delaware County Then and Now. History Book, Inc. 1976 History of Delaware County and Ohio. Chicago: O. L. Baskin & Co. 1880 Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993 Lytle, A. R. History of Delaware County Ohio.

Delaware, 1908 Memorial Record of the Counties of Delaware and Morrow, Ohio. Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1895