The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
WNYW, channel 5, is the flagship station of the Fox television network, licensed to New York City and serving the New York metropolitan area. WNYW is owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation, operates as part of a duopoly with WWOR-TV; the station maintains studio facilities at the Fox Television Center in the Lenox Hill neighborhood on Manhattan's Upper East Side, its transmitter is located at the Empire State Building. The station is available on satellite to DirecTV subscribers in the few areas of the Eastern United States that do not have an over-the-air Fox affiliate. WNYW is available on cable providers in the Caribbean; the station traces its history to 1938, when television set and equipment manufacturer Allen B. DuMont founded experimental station W2XVT in New Jersey. On May 2, 1944, the station received its commercial license – the third in New York City – on VHF channel 4 as WABD, its callsign named after DuMont's initials, it was one of the few television stations that continued to broadcast during World War II, making it the fourth-oldest continuously broadcasting commercial station in the United States.
The station broadcast from the DuMont Building at 515 Madison Avenue with a transmission tower atop the building. On December 17, 1945, WABD moved to channel 5. WNBT took over Channel 4, moving from Channel 1, which the FCC was deallocating from the VHF TV broadcast band. Soon after channel 5 received its commercial license, DuMont Laboratories began a series of experimental coaxial cable hookups between WABD and W3XWT, a DuMont-owned experimental station in Washington, D. C.. These hookups were the beginning of the DuMont Television Network, the world's first licensed commercial television network. DuMont began regular network service in 1946 with WABD as the flagship station. On June 14, 1954, WABD and DuMont moved into the $5 million DuMont Tele-Centre at 205 East 67th Street in Manhattan's Lenox Hill neighborhood, inside the shell of the space occupied by Jacob Ruppert's Central Opera House. By February 1955, DuMont realized it could not continue in network television, decided to shut down the network's operations and operate WABD and its Washington, D.
C. station WTTG as independent stations, having sold WDTV in Pittsburgh to the locally-based Westinghouse Electric Corporation. WABD thus became the New York market's fourth independent station, alongside WOR-TV, WPIX and Newark-licensed WATV. After DuMont wound down network operations in August 1955, DuMont Laboratories spun off WABD and WTTG into a new firm, the DuMont Broadcasting Corporation. Channel 5 gained sister stations in 1957, when DuMont purchased WNEW in April of that year, the construction permit for WHFI, which went on the air as WNEW-FM when it began operations in August 1958. In May 1958, DuMont Broadcasting changed its name to the Metropolitan Broadcasting Corporation in an effort to distinguish itself from its former corporate parent. Four months on September 7, 1958, WABD's call letters were changed to WNEW-TV to match its radio sisters; the final major corporate transaction involving the station during 1958 occurred in December, when Washington-based investor John Kluge acquired Paramount Pictures' controlling interest in Metropolitan Broadcasting and appointed himself as the company's chairman.
Metropolitan Broadcasting began expanding its holdings across the United States, would change its corporate name to Metromedia in 1961. However, the Metropolitan Broadcasting name was retained for Metromedia's TV and radio station properties until 1967. In the early 1960s, WNEW-TV produced children's shows such as Romper Room, The Sandy Becker Show and The Sonny Fox Show, known as Wonderama. Bob McAllister took over hosting Wonderama in 1967 and by 1970, Wonderama was syndicated to the other Metromedia stations. WNEW-TV originated The Jerry Lewis MDA Labor Day Telethon in 1966, broadcast the program annually until 1986, when it moved to WWOR-TV, where it aired through 2012. In the 1970s, local programming included a weekly public affairs show hosted by Gabe Pressman, Midday Live, a daily talk/information show hosted by Lee Leonard, by Bill Boggs; the station carried movies, off-network sitcoms and drama series and a primetime newscast at 10 p.m. By the 1970s, channel 5 was one of the strongest independent stations in the country.
Despite WOR-TV's and WPIX's eventual statuses as national superstations, WNEW-TV was the highest-rated independent in New York. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s, channel 5 was available as a regional superstation in large portions of the Northeastern United States, including most of upstate New York, portions of eastern Pennsylvania and southern New England. On May 4, 1985, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, which had bought a controlling interest in the 20th Century Fox film studio, announced its purchase of Metromedia's six independent television stations, including WNEW-TV. Upon taking control in nearly one year on March 7, 1986 channel 5's call sign was changed to the present WNYW. Along with the other former
A game show is a type of radio, television, or stage show in which contestants, individually or as teams, play a game which involves answering questions or solving puzzles for money or prizes. Alternatively, a gameshow can be a demonstrative program about a game. In the former, contestants may be invited from a pool of public applicants. Game shows reward players with prizes such as cash and goods and services provided by the show's sponsor prize suppliers. Game shows began to appear on television in the late 1930s; the first television game show, Spelling Bee, as well as the first radio game show, Information Please, were both broadcast in 1938. Q. a radio quiz show that began in 1939. Truth or Consequences was the first game, its first episode aired in 1941 as an experimental broadcast. Over the course of the 1950s, as television began to pervade the popular culture, game shows became a fixture. Daytime game shows would be played for lower stakes to target stay-at-home housewives. Higher-stakes programs would air in primetime.
During the late 1950s, high-stakes games such as Twenty-One and The $64,000 Question began a rapid rise in popularity. However, the rise of quiz shows proved to be short-lived. In 1959, many of the higher stakes game shows were discovered to be rigged and ratings declines led to most of the primetime games being canceled. An early variant of the game show, the panel game, survived. On shows like What's My Line?, I've Got A Secret, To Tell the Truth, panels of celebrities would interview a guest in an effort to determine some fact about them. Panel games had success in primetime until the late 1960s, when they were collectively dropped from television because of their perceived low budget nature. Panel games made a comeback in American daytime television in the 1970s through comedy-driven shows such as Match Game and Hollywood Squares. In the UK, commercial demographic pressures were not as prominent, restrictions on game shows made in the wake of the scandals limited the style of games that could be played and the amount of money that could be awarded.
Panel have continued to thrive. The focus on quick-witted comedians has resulted in strong ratings, combined with low costs of production, have only spurred growth in the UK panel show phenomenon. Game shows remained a fixture of US daytime television through the 1960s after the quiz show scandals. Lower-stakes games made a slight comeback in daytime in the early 1960s. Let's Make a Deal began in 1963 and the 1960s marked the debut of Hollywood Squares, The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game. Though CBS gave up on daytime game shows in 1968, the other networks did not follow suit. Color television was introduced to the game show genre in the late 1960s on all three networks; the 1970s saw a renaissance of the game show as new games and massive upgrades to existing games made debuts on the major networks. The New Price Is Right, an update of the 1950s-era game show The Price Is Right, debuted in 1972 and marked CBS's return to the game show format in its effort to draw wealthier, suburban viewers; the Match Game became "Big Money" Match Game 73, which proved popular enough to prompt a spin-off, Family Feud, on ABC in 1976.
The $10,000 Pyramid and its numerous higher-stakes derivatives debuted in 1973, while the 1970s saw the return of disgraced producer and host Jack Barry, who debuted The Joker's Wild and a clean version of the rigged Tic-Tac-Dough in the 1970s. Wheel of Fortune debuted on NBC in 1975; the Prime Time Access Rule, which took effect in 1971, barred networks from broadcasting in the 7–8 p.m. time slot preceding prime time, opening up time slots for syndicated programming. Most of the syndicated programs were "nighttime" adaptations of network daytime game shows; these game shows aired once a week, but by the late 1970s and early 1980s most of the games had transitioned to five days a week. Game shows were the lowest priority of television networks and were rotated out every thirteen weeks if unsuccessful. Most tapes were destroyed until the early 1980s. Over the course of the late 1980s and early 1990s, as fewer new hits were produced, game shows lost their permanent place in the daytime lineup. ABC transitioned out of the daytime game show format in the mid-1980s.
NBC's game block lasted until 1991, but the network attempted to bring them back in 1993 before cancelling its game show block again in 1994. CBS phased out most of its game shows, except for The Price Is Right, by 1993. To the benefit of the genre, the moves of Wheel of Fortune and a modernized revival of Jeopardy! to syndication in 1983 and 1984 was and remains successful. Cable television allowed for the debut of game shows such as Supermarket Sweep, Trivial Pursuit and Family Challenge, Double Dare, it opened up a underdeveloped ma
Robert Alda was an American theatrical and film actor, a singer, a dancer. He was father of Antony Alda. Alda was featured in a number of Broadway productions before moving to Italy during the early 1960s, he appeared in many European films over the next two decades returning to the U. S. for film appearances such as The Girl Who Knew Too Much. Alda, an American of Italian descent, was born as "Alphonso Giuseppe Giovanni Roberto D'Abruzzo" in New York, New York, the son of Frances and Antonio D'Abruzzo, a barber born in Sant'Agata de' Goti, Campania, Italy, he graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New York in 1930. He began his performing career as a singer and dancer in vaudeville after winning a talent contest, moved on to burlesque. Alda is known for portraying George Gershwin in the biopic Rhapsody in Blue as well as the talent agent in the Douglas Sirk classic Imitation of Life, he was successful on Broadway, starring in Guys and Dolls, for which he won a Tony Award, in What Makes Sammy Run?.
He was the host of the short-lived DuMont TV version of the game show What's Your Bid?. Alda's first wife, mother of actor Alan Alda, Joan Browne, was a homemaker and former beauty pageant winner. Alda was married to his second wife, Flora Marino, an Italian actress whom he met in Rome, until his death. Alda made two guest appearances with his son Alan on M*A*S*H, in the episodes "The Consultant" and "Lend a Hand"; the latter episode featured Antony Alda, his younger son by his second wife. Alda appeared in an episode of The Feather and Father Gang in 1977. Alda died on May 1986, aged 72, after a long illness following a stroke; the Front Page My Daughter, Your Son What Makes Sammy Run? Harbor Lights Guys and Dolls Robert Alda at the Internet Broadway Database Robert Alda on IMDb Robert Alda at AllMovie Robert Alda at Find a Grave
Anita Gillette is an American actress. She is notable for her extensive Broadway credits, her many appearances as a celebrity guest on television game shows, her guest-starring and recurring roles in American television series and for her roles in feature films. Gillette was born Anita Luebben in Baltimore, the daughter of Juanita and John Alfred Luebben. Raised in suburban Rossville, she graduated from Kenwood High School. Gillette studied at the Peabody Conservatory and made her Broadway debut in Gypsy in 1959. Additional Broadway credits include Carnival!, All American, Mr. President, Jimmy and Dolls, Don't Drink the Water, They're Playing Our Song, Brighton Beach Memoirs, Chapter Two, for which she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play, she received a 1960 Theatre World Award for her performance in Russell Patterson's Sketchbook. In 2012, she played Rose Fitzgerald in Christmas with the Fitzgeralds, written and starring Edward Burns. Gillette's first television appearance was on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1963.
She joined the cast of The Edge of Night in 1967. Gillette's biggest exposure on a national scale came as a celebrity guest on various New York City-based game shows those produced by Goodson-Todman and Bob Stewart, she served as a semi-regular on the syndicated What's My Line?, Match Game and on the various Pyramid series, among others. Gillette's roles in the 1970s included the short-lived series Me and the Chimp with Ted Bessell and Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice with a then-unknown Robert Urich and a young Jodie Foster, she appeared in Norman Lear's All That Glitters, TV movies such as A Matter of Wife... And Death and It Happened at Lakewood Manor; the 1980s marked Gillette's transition from Broadway and television into that of a character film actress. Prior to this transition, she had sizeable television roles as Nancy Baxter on the national run of The Baxters, Quincy's second wife Dr. W. Emily Hanover on the last season of Quincy M. E. and a role on Search for Tomorrow at the end of that series' long run, as well as the early David Chase series Almost Grown.
After the end of Search for Tomorrow in late 1986, appearing with Robert Reed and Bert Convy on Super Password, Gillette transitioned to film with a variety of notable roles such as that of Mona in 1987's Moonstruck. Many of these roles have had her as an on-screen mother to characters played by notable actors such as Jack Black's mother in Bob Roberts, Jennifer Aniston's mother in She's The One, Bill Murray's mother in Larger Than Life, the mother of Bobby Cannavale's love interest in The Guru, Mary-Louise Parker's mother in Boys on the Side, her return to television in 2000s short-lived Normal, Ohio had her playing the mother of John Goodman's character. In the 1990s, Gillette starred in two Hallmark Hall of Fame movies, The Summer of Ben Tyler with James Woods and A Christmas Memory with Patty Duke. In 2004, she appeared as Miss Mitzi, the lonely alcoholic owner of a struggling dance studio in Shall We Dance?, opposite Richard Gere, Jennifer Lopez and Susan Sarandon. She completed filming Hiding Victoria, has made several appearances as Grandma Betty on Fox's The War at Home.
Gillette has kept a busy schedule, with frequent TV and movies roles. Recurring characters included Joan Gamble in the TV series Ohio, she has made several guest starring roles in such shows as: Blue Bloods, Chicago Med, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, Modern Family, Public Morals and Shake it Up. Anita Gillette on IMDb Anita Gillette at the Internet Broadway Database Anita Gillette at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Color television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be displayed in color on the television set. It is an improvement on the earliest television technology, monochrome or black and white television, in which the image is displayed in shades of gray. Television broadcasting stations and networks in most parts of the world upgraded from black and white to color transmission in the 1970s and 1980s; the invention of color television standards is an important part of the history of television, it is described in the technology of television article. Transmission of color images using mechanical scanners had been conceived as early as the 1880s. A practical demonstration of mechanically-scanned color television was given by John Logie Baird in 1928, but the limitations of a mechanical system were apparent then. Development of electronic scanning and display made an all-electronic system possible. Early monochrome transmission standards were developed prior to the Second World War, but civilian electronics developments were frozen during much of the war.
In August 1944, Baird gave the world's first demonstration of a practical electronic color television display. In the United States, commercially competing color standards were developed resulting in the NTSC standard for color that retained compatibility with the prior monochrome system. Although the NTSC color standard was proclaimed in 1953 and limited programming became available, it was not until the early 1970s that color television in North America outsold black and white or monochrome units. Color broadcasting in Europe was not standardized on the SECAM formats until the 1960s. Broadcasters began to switch from analog color television technology to digital television around 2006; this changeover is now complete in many countries, but analog television is still the standard elsewhere. The human eye's detection system, in the retina, consists of two types of light detectors: rod cells that capture light and shapes/figures, the cone cells that detect color. A typical retina contains 120 million rods and 4.5 million to 6 million cones, which are divided among three groups that are sensitive to red and blue light.
This means that the eye has far more resolution in "luminance", than in color. However, post-processing of the optic nerve and other portions of the human visual system combine the information from the rods and cones to re-create what appears to be a high-resolution color image; the eye has limited bandwidth to the rest of the visual system, estimated at just under 8 Mbit/s. This manifests itself in a number of ways, but the most important in terms of producing moving images is the way that a series of still images displayed in quick succession will appear to be continuous smooth motion; this illusion starts to work at about 16 frame/s, common motion pictures use 24 frame/s. Television, using power from the electrical grid, tunes its rate in order to avoid interference with the alternating current being supplied – in North America, some Central and South American countries, Korea, part of Japan, the Philippines, a few other countries, this is 60 video fields per second to match the 60 Hz power, while in most other countries it is 50 fields per second to match the 50 Hz power.
In its most basic form, a color broadcast can be created by broadcasting three monochrome images, one each in the three colors of red and blue. When displayed together or in rapid succession, these images will blend together to produce a full-color image as seen by the viewer. One of the great technical challenges of introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve bandwidth three times that of the existing black-and-white standards, not use an excessive amount of radio spectrum. In the United States, after considerable research, the National Television Systems Committee approved an all-electronic system developed by RCA which encoded the color information separately from the brightness information and reduced the resolution of the color information in order to conserve bandwidth; the brightness image remained compatible with existing black-and-white television sets at reduced resolution, while color televisions could decode the extra information in the signal and produce a limited-resolution color display.
The higher resolution black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the eye to produce a high-resolution color image. The NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement. Experiments in television systems using radio broadcasts date to the 19th century, but it was not until the 20th century that advances in electronics and light detectors made development practical. A key problem was the need to convert a 2D image into a "1D" radio signal. Early systems used a device known as a "Nipkow disk", a spinning disk with a series of holes punched in it that caused a spot to scan across and down the image. A single photodetector behind the disk captured the image brightness at any given spot, converted into a radio signal and broadcast. A similar disk was used at the receiver side, with a light source behind the disk instead of a detector. A number of such systems were being used experimentally in the 1920s; the best-known was John Logie Baird's, used for regular public broadcasting in Britain for several years.
Indeed, Baird's system was demonstrated to members of the Royal Institution in London in 1926 in what is recognized as the first demonstration of a true, working television system. In spite of these early successes, all mechanical television systems sh