Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
2019 Formula One World Championship
The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over 21 Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, teams for the World Constructors' Champion; the 2019 championship is scheduled to see the running of the 1000th World Championship race, in China. Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship. Ten teams, with two drivers each, are competing in the championship in 2019. Red Bull Racing switched to Honda engines.
In doing so, Red Bull Racing joined sister team Scuderia Toro Rosso in using Honda power after Scuderia Toro Rosso joined the Japanese manufacturer in 2018. Neither team will be recognised as Honda's official factory team under the terms of the agreement. Racing Point F1 Team completed their transition from the Racing Point Force India identity that they used after their purchase of the assets of Sahara Force India in August 2018. Sauber was renamed Alfa Romeo Racing in an extension of the sponsorship deal that began in 2018; the Sauber name will disappear from the Formula One grid, but will still be used in the Formula 2 and Formula 3 support categories. The lead up to the 2019 championship saw several driver changes. Daniel Ricciardo moved to Renault after five years with Red Bull Racing, replacing Carlos Sainz Jr.. Ricciardo's drive at Red Bull Racing has been taken by Pierre Gasly, promoted from Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team with whom he made his first Formula One start in 2017. Daniil Kvyat rejoined Toro Rosso after last racing for the team in 2017.
He was partnered with Formula 2 driver Alexander Albon. Albon subsequently became only the second Thai driver to race in Formula One after Prince Bira. Sainz, on loan to Renault in 2018, did not have his deal with Red Bull renewed and subsequently moved to McLaren to replace two-time World Drivers' Champion Fernando Alonso, who had earlier announced that he would not compete in Formula One in 2019. Sainz was partnered with 2017 European Formula 3 champion Lando Norris. Stoffel Vandoorne left McLaren after the 2018 season to race in Formula E with the Mercedes-affiliated HWA Team. Charles Leclerc left Sauber after one year with the team, joining Ferrari where he took the place of Kimi Räikkönen. Räikkönen returned to Sauber, now renamed Alfa Romeo, with whom he had started his career in 2001, he was partnered with Antonio Giovinazzi, who made two starts for the team when he replaced the injured Pascal Wehrlein in 2017. Marcus Ericsson will race in the IndyCar Series in 2019 with Schmidt Peterson Motorsports but will remain at Alfa Romeo as third driver and brand ambassador.
Reigning Formula 2 champion George Russell joined Williams. Robert Kubica made his return to Formula 1. Kubica's return comes after an eight-year absence brought on by a near-fatal rally car crash in 2011 that left him with serious arm injuries. Esteban Ocon joined Mercedes as reserve driver. Ocon will share the role of simulator driver with Stoffel Vandoorne. Ocon has been replaced at Racing Point by Lance Stroll; the following twenty-one Grands Prix are due to be run as part of the 2019 World Championship. Each race is run over a minimum number of laps; the Mexican and United States Grands Prix swapped places on the calendar so that the United States round follows the Mexican Grand Prix. Race Director and Technical Delegate Charlie Whiting died unexpectedly just days before the opening race of the season in Australia. Deputy Race Director Michael Masi was named as his temporary successor. In a bid to improve overtaking, teams agreed to a series of aerodynamic changes that affect the profile of the front and rear wings.
The front wing endplates were reshaped to alter the airflow across the car and reduce the effects of aerodynamic turbulence, winglets above the main plane of the front wing have been banned. The slot in the rear wing was widened; the agreed-upon changes were drawn from the findings of a working group set up to investigate potential changes to the technical regulations in preparation for the 2021 championship. Parts of the technical regulations governing bodywork were rewritten in a bid to promote sponsorship opportunities for teams; the agreed changes are to mandate smaller bargeboards and limit aerodynamic development of the rear wing endplates to create more space for sponsor logos. The changes were introduced as a response to falling revenues amid teams and the struggles of smaller teams to secure new sponsors; the mandated maximum fuel levels were raised from 105 kg to 110 kg so as to minimise the need for drivers to conserve fuel during a race. Driver weights are no longer considered; this change was agreed to following concerns that drivers were being forced to lose dangerous amounts of weight in order to offset the additional weight of the post-2014 generation of turbo-hybrid engines.
Drivers who weigh less than 80 kg will have to make up this weight with ballast, loc
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Massimiliano "Max" Biaggi is an Italian former Grand Prix motorcycle road racing World Champion and winner of the 2010 and 2012 World Superbike Championship. Throughout his racing career, he has won the 250cc World Championship four consecutive times, finished as runner-up in both the 500cc and MotoGP championships. In 2007 he switched to the World Superbike Championship, finishing third overall as a rookie and earned his first Superbike World Championship in 2010 becoming only the 2nd European from outside the United Kingdom after Raymond Roche to do so. Biaggi announced his retirement from racing on 7 November 2012, he has been nicknamed'il Corsaro' and'the Roman Emperor'. Biaggi was more interested in football as a child, but in 1989, after he was given a motorcycle for his seventeenth birthday, he began his racing career in the 125cc class at age eighteen. In 1990 he won the Italian Sport Production Championship. Following his success in 125cc, Biaggi moved up to the 250cc class. In 1991, Biaggi finished second behind British rider Woolsey Coulter in the European 250cc championship on an Aprilia RS250, that same year he finished twenty-seventh in the Grand Prix motorcycle 250cc world championship riding for the same manufacturer.
In 1992, Biaggi completed his first entire season in 250cc Grand Prix for Aprilia, finished the season fifth overall. In that same season he took his first victory in South Africa; the following season, Biaggi joined Honda, finished fourth in the championship standings, including a single victory in Barcelona. In 1994 he returned to Aprilia and dominated the 250cc Grand Prix class by winning three consecutive world championships in 1994, 1995 and 1996. In 1997, Biaggi again returned to Honda, riding for Erv Kanemoto's team, won his fourth consecutive title. Following that, he moved up to the 500cc class. Biaggi made an impressive start in his 500cc debut, qualifying on pole, setting the fastest lap and winning his first race in the 1998 Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix at Suzuka, riding for the Kanemoto Honda team, he was victorious at the Czech Republic Grand Prix and finished the season in second place behind Mick Doohan. Biaggi joined Yamaha to battle against the dominant Hondas, he finished fourth in 1999, third in 2000, second in 2001.
In 2002, Biaggi rode the four-stroke for the first time as development on the new motorcycle remained strong throughout the season. He won in Brno, Czech Republic and Sepang, Malaysia to clinch runner-up in the championship behind rival Valentino Rossi. In 2003, Biaggi finished third in the MotoGP championship after rejoining Honda on the Camel Pramac Pons team and won races in Pacific Grand Prix and Great Britain after Rossi penalised, it was expected that Biaggi would be one of the main candidates for the title in 2004. He won in Germany but a crash in Estoril saw his season begin to fade. At the end of the 2004 MotoGP season Biaggi finished the championship in third place, behind Sete Gibernau and series winner, Rossi. Biaggi started the 2005 MotoGP season as an official factory Honda rider, joining American racer Nicky Hayden on the Repsol Honda Team with technical director Erv Kanemoto, it was hoped that continued cooperation with Kanemoto and the full factory support from Honda would make Biaggi one of the main title contenders in 2005.
However, Biaggi finished the season in only fifth place. Biaggi lost his ride for the 2006 season, his position filled by 2005 250cc Grand Prix champion, Dani Pedrosa, he negotiated with Honda and Suzuki, was unable to land a contract with the backing of major tobacco sponsor Camel who ended up signing up to be the factory Yamaha squad's title sponsor for 2006. On January 10, 2006, Biaggi posted on his website that he would not take part in the 2006 MotoGP season. Biaggi attempted to reach an agreement to race the Superbike World Championship for Corona Alstare Suzuki in 2006, but the team could not commit to equal equipment with their existing riders, 2005 champion Troy Corser and Yukio Kagayama; as a result, he took a sabbatical, but on 14 September 2006 Biaggi announced he had signed to replace Corser in the team for 2007. Biaggi began the season by winning the first race at the Losail International Circuit in Qatar and finishing second in race two. In doing so Max Biaggi became one of only five men to win their first Superbike World Championship race, the only rider to win his first Superbike race and his first race in 500cc Grand Prix.
He finished 3rd and 4th at Phillip Island, Australia. After a hard championship Biaggi finished third, behind World Champion James Toseland and Yamaha top rider Noriyuki Haga. At the end of the season, Francis Batta, Alstare Suzuki Racing Team director, was forced to release Biaggi, due to the loss of the main sponsor Corona Extra, as they could not reach financial agreement. Furthermore, Suzuki decided to stop official Superbike development for 2008, instead focusing on the MotoGP championship. For 2008 Biaggi replaced team manager Marco Borciani as a rider at his Team Sterilgarda/Go Eleven, riding a satelitte-works Ducati 1098RS alongside Ruben Xaus, he finished seventh overall with seven podiums, three places ahead of Xaus and one ahead of factory Ducati rider Michel Fabrizio. For 2009 he joined the returning factory Aprilia team, he took a double podium in round 2 at Qatar, scored solid points before taking their first win since the return at Brno, after race leaders Fabrizio and Ben Spies collided.
He finished a close second behind Spies in race two there, finished the season 4th overall. Biaggi continued with Aprilia for 2010, taking a double victory at the team's home race at Monza to move up to second in the standings. Another double in the
Kimi-Matias Räikkönen, nicknamed "Iceman", is a Finnish racing driver driving in Formula One for Alfa Romeo Racing. He won the 2007 Formula One World Championship, in his first season at Scuderia Ferrari. After nine seasons racing in Formula One, he competed in the World Rally Championship in 2010 and 2011 returning to Formula One from 2012. Besides his title, Räikkönen finished second overall in 2003 and 2005 and third in 2008, 2012 and 2018. Prior to the 2019 season, Räikkönen has won 21 Grands Prix, making him the Finnish Formula One driver with the most race wins, he is the only driver to take a race win in V8 and the hybrid V6 engine eras. Räikkönen entered Formula One as a regular driver for Sauber-Petronas in 2001, carrying only 23 car races under his belt, he joined McLaren Mercedes in 2002, became a title contender by finishing runner-up in the championship to Michael Schumacher in 2003 and Fernando Alonso in 2005. Räikkönen's 2002, 2004 and 2006 seasons were plagued by severe unreliability from his McLaren cars.
Räikkönen's move to Ferrari in 2007 saw him crowned Formula One World Drivers' Champion, beating both McLaren drivers Lewis Hamilton and Fernando Alonso by one point. In 2008 he equalled the record for fastest laps for the second time. Räikkönen left Scuderia Ferrari and the sport after the 2009 season, only winning one race in that season due to an uncompetitive car. On his return to Formula One, Räikkönen drove for Lotus in 2012 and 2013. On 11 September 2013, Ferrari announced their re-signing of Räikkönen on a two-year contract, beginning in the 2014 season; this contract has been extended until the end of the 2018 season. Räikkönen had more than four winless years since rejoining Ferrari, until he won the 2018 United States Grand Prix, after 113 Grands Prix without a win and nine years since his last Ferrari triumph from his first stint in the team. In spite of the long winless streak, Räikkönen finished among the top four overall in the championship on multiple occasions during his second Ferrari stint.
Räikkönen finished his in total eight-year long Ferrari career with a third place overall in the 2018 championship. In September 2018 Scuderia Ferrari announced that Räikkönen would leave at the end of the 2018 season, followed shortly by a message from Sauber Alfa Romeo, the Ferrari-affiliated Formula 1 team, that Räikkönen had been signed on a two-year contract for 2019 and 2020, with Sauber's rookie Charles Leclerc swapping seats with Räikkönen, joining Ferrari in his place. In the World Rally Championship 2010 and 2011, Räikkönen drove a Citroën C4 WRC for the Citroën Junior Team. Concurrently, Räikkönen competed in NASCAR, made his debut for Kyle Busch Motorsports in the Camping World Truck Series. Forbes magazine listed Räikkönen 36th in their 2008'Celebrity 100' as the 26th highest paid celebrity and fifth highest paid sportsman; the same list in 2009 listed him as the second highest-paid athlete. Räikkönen was born in Finland, he had a long line of success in karting from the age of 10.
His first race outside Finland was in Monaco. During the race, the steering wheel broke, but he continued, informing his mechanic by frantically waving the steering wheel in the air on the home straight. Räikkönen's next Monaco race was memorable. Undeterred, he continued to race, his mechanic thought Räikkönen had retired, but he caught up with the other competitors and finished third. In 1998 he was 1st in the Nordic Championship at Varna in Norway. In 1999, Räikkönen placed second in the European Formula Super A championship for the Dutch PDB Racing Team – run by 1980 world champion Peter de Bruijn – utilising a Gillard chassis, he competed in the Formula Ford Euro Cup. By the age of twenty, he had won the British Formula Renault winter series of 1999, winning the first four races of the year. In 2000, he won seven out of ten events in the Formula Renault UK Championship. Combined, over these two series of Formula Renault, he won 13 out of 23 events – a 57% win rate. On the basis of these results, Peter Sauber gave the Finn a test with the Sauber Formula One team in September 2000 at the Mugello Circuit.
After further tests in Jerez and Barcelona, Sauber signed Räikkönen for the 2001 season. However, some critics voiced concerns over granting an F1 Super Licence to such an inexperienced driver, he was granted his licence from the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile after a performance delivery promise by his team boss, Peter Sauber, scored a championship point in his debut at the 2001 Australian Grand Prix. Räikkönen was asleep 30 minutes before the race. Räikkönen had a solid debut year, achieving four points-scoring finishes and eight finishes in the top eight. Completing the year with 9 points, Räikkönen, along with teammate Nick Heidfeld, helped Sauber to what was its best result of fourth place in the Constructors' Championship. Räikkönen, long linked to Sauber's engine supplier Ferrari, sufficiently impressed McLaren to earn a race seat in Ron Dennis's team for 2002, taking the seat left vacant by double-world champion and fellow Finn Mika Häkkinen; the decision to choose Räikkönen over his Sauber teammate, the Mercedes linked Nick Heidfeld, was influenced by Häkkinen who told Ron Dennis "If you wanna win, get the Finn."
Räikkönen scored a third-place podium finish in his first race with McLaren, the 2002 Australian Grand Prix. Although McLaren suffered many engine failure
1960 Formula One season
The 1960 Formula One season was the 14th season of the FIA's Formula One motor racing. It featured the eleventh FIA World Championship of Drivers, the third International Cup for F1 Manufacturers and numerous non-championship Formula One races; the World Championship ended on 20 November after ten races. Jack Brabham won his second consecutive title with his Cooper team defending its constructors' title; the last year of the 2.5 litre formula produced repeat victories for Jack Brabham and Cooper, saw Lotus, BRM campaigning rear-engined cars. Lance Reventlow's Scarabs, like the Aston Martins, were outclassed. Stirling Moss' Rob Walker Lotus gave Colin Chapman his first Grand Prix win at Monaco and followed it with a victory in the USA. All other Grands Prix went to Cooper, except for the Italian, boycotted by the British constructors since the Italians were using Monza's banked circuit; the points-scoring system was changed with the point for fastest lap being dropped and a point given for sixth place.
The best six scores counted towards the championship, increased from five from the previous season. It was the last World Drivers' Championship to include the Indianapolis 500, the last season which saw a victory for a front-engined car in a World Drivers' Championship race. Three drivers died in this season of Grand Prix racing. American Harry Schell in a non-championship race at Silverstone, Britons Chris Bristow & Alan Stacey, both killed at the Belgian Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps. Stirling Moss was injured in a practice accident at this event and did not compete for most of the season; the Indianapolis 500 counted towards the 1960 USAC Championship, was run for USAC Championship cars, but did not count towards the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers. The German Grand Prix was run as a Formula 2 race at the Nurburgring Sudschleife because the Formula One race supposed to be held at the AVUS Berlin circuit, was cancelled after drivers complained about the extreme danger of the Berlin-located track.
The Moroccan Grand Prix scheduled for 1 October, was cancelled for another year for monetary reasons. The teams came down to Argentina from Europe in February to start the 1960 season having competed at the last round of the 1959 championship in Sebring, Florida in the United States only 2 months previously. Stirling Moss was on pole position in Buenos Aires in his Rob Walker Cooper-Climax with Team Lotus driver Innes Ireland alongside, although he had been 1.6 seconds slower in qualifying. Completing the four-man front row were the BRMs of Hill and Jo Bonnier; the Lotus team had come out with an all-new mid-engined car, the 18, were expected to be competitive. At the start Ireland made a fantastic start and had a good lead at the end of the first lap over Bonnier, Graham Hill and Phil Hill, who had started from the second row in his Ferrari Dino 246. Moss was eighth at the end of the first lap. On the second lap Ireland spun, as he was doing this Moss was driving a blinding lap, passing the Cooper of Carlos Menditeguy, Froilan Gonzalez's Ferrari, Jack Brabham's Cooper, P Hill's Ferrari and Ireland's Lotus to run third behind G Hill and Bonnier.
Moss took the lead from Bonnier five laps later. The recovering Ireland made dramatic progress, passing Brabham and G Hill to run third on lap 18. Bonnier attacked Moss for the lead and retook it on lap 21 but 15 laps Stirling was back ahead. On lap 42 he went out with a broken suspension. Bonnier was left nearly a lap ahead of everyone. Ireland was promoted to second but both G Hill and Brabham retired and so Bruce McLaren was third. With 12 laps to go Bonnier suffered engine trouble and Ireland went into the lead only to have his gear-linkage jam and so he too slipped back leaving McLaren to win. Cliff Allison was second for Ferrari. There had been a non-championship round at the Goodwood circuit near the southern English coast, the Glover Trophy. During this time most drivers were competing in sportscar races, such as the 12 Hours of Sebring in March. Moss took pole by a second with Jack Brabham's Cooper and Chris Bristow's BRP Cooper alongside, while Jo Bonnier shared the second row with Tony Brooks's BRP Cooper.
At the start Bonnier took the lead with Brabham second and Moss third ahead of Brooks and Bristow in the BRP Coopers. Moss took Brabham on lap five and shadowed Bonnier until lap 17 when he took the lead. Further back Bristow went out with gearbox trouble. Brabham passed Bonnier on lap 20 but the Swede fought back and on lap 27 retook the position; the pattern of the race was turned upside down. Brabham passed Bonnier and Moss to take the lead while Brooks spun back down the order, leaving McLaren in fourth place battling with Phil Hill. After six laps in the lead Brabham spun into the wall at Ste Devote and Moss was back in the lead but he had to pit to replace a plug-lead and so Bonnier was back ahead until Moss caught him. Bonnier went out soon afterwards with a broken suspension and G Hill crashed; this meant that McLaren finished Brooks the only other survivor. Moss went on to win his 2nd Monaco Grand Prix from P Hill; the Indy 500, on the World Championship calendar for the final time in 1960 was the only race on the calendar not run to FIA regulations.
This race, which took place on a holiday-day Monday was won by Jim Rathmann in an Offenhauser-powered Watson chassis after a thrilling battle for the lead with Rodger Ward. Although there were disputes over prize money and several teams withdre