Fasti Triumphales

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A portion of the Fasti Triumphales.

The Acta Triumphorum or Triumphalia, better known as the Fasti Triumphales, or Triumphal Fasti,[i] is a calendar of Roman magistrates honoured with a celebratory procession known as a triumphus, or triumph, in recognition of an important military victory, from the earliest period down to 19 BC. Together with the related Fasti Capitolini and other, similar inscriptions found at Rome and elsewhere, they form part of a chronology referred to by various names, including the Fasti Annales or Historici, Fasti Consulares, or Consular Fasti, and frequently just the fasti.[1]

The Triumphales were originally engraved on marble tablets, which decorated one of the structures in the Roman forum, they were discovered in a fragmentary state as the portion of the forum where they were located was being cleared to provide building material for St. Peter's Basilica in 1546. Recognized by scholars as an important source of information on Roman history, they were taken to the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the nearby Capitoline Hill, and reconstructed; as part of the collection of the Capitoline Museums, the Fasti Triumphales are one of the most important sources for Roman chronology.[2][3]

History[edit]

The Fasti Triumphales were probably engraved in 18 BC, in order to adorn the Arch of Augustus, which had recently been constructed in the forum, they were contemporary with the Fasti Capitolini, or Capitoline Fasti, a list of the chief magistrates at Rome from at least the beginning of the Republic down to the same period as the Triumphales. Alternately, they may have built into the wall of the Regia, an ancient building that was reconstructed in 36 BC, which was the official residence of the Pontifex Maximus, and the site where the Annales Maximi, official records of Roman history from at least the fifth century BC down to the second, were stored; the Fasti Capitolini were most likely on the west and south sides of the Regia, and the Triumphales may have occupied part of the south wall.[1][4]

Both lists were discovered by the scholars Onofrio Panvinio and Pirro Ligorio, as they observed the demolition of ancient structures in the forum by a local company of quarrymen working to obtain building material for St. Peter's Basilica; some of the stone would be reused in the structure, while other portions would be used to make cement. Recognizing the value of the inscriptions, the two ordered the sinking of new trenches, in hopes of recovering additional fragments. In all, they rescued thirty pieces of the Fasti Capitolini, and twenty-six of the Triumphales, which they brought to the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the instructions of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese; the lists were then reconstructed by Ligorio and Michelangelo.[2][3]

With additional excavations, the number of fragments of the Triumphales has grown to thirty-eight; the known portions of the fasti were published in the first volume of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum in 1863, and together with the Capitolini, they form part of the collection of the Capitoline Museums, where they are displayed in the Sala dei Fasti, the Salon of the Fasti.[5][6][3]

Contents[edit]

The Triumphal Fasti list all of the magistrates who celebrated a triumph from the legendary founding of the city by Romulus down to 19 BC; the earliest entries record triumphs by the Roman kings. The Fasti also include entries for magistrates who received an ovation, or "lesser triumph", they were evidently carved on four pilasters, each eleven feet tall. The first covered the years down to 302 BC, the second to 222, the third to 129, and the last to the end.[7]

Each entry gives the full name of the magistrate who triumphed, beginning with his praenomen (normally abbreviated), nomen gentilicium, filiation, and cognomina (if any). Following these names are the magistracy or promagistracy held, the names of the defeated enemies or conquered territories, and the date that the triumph was celebrated. Roman numerals indicate those individuals who held the magistracy in question multiple times, or who received multiple triumphs;[ii] each entry also has the year of the triumph indicated in the right margin.[iii] The years given in the Triumphales are one year earlier than those of the Varronian chronology.

There are several gaps in the Fasti Triumphales; the first occurs following the second triumph attributed to Romulus, and presumably would have included further triumphs attributed to Romulus, or to Tullus Hostilius, the third King of Rome. Major gaps occur from 437 to 369 BC, from 291 to 282, 222 to 197, 187 to 178, 81 to 62, and 54 to 45; the missing sections include three of the triumphs of Camillus, the entire period of the Second Punic War, and all but the last triumph celebrated by Caesar. Shorter gaps occur from 502 to 496, 494 to 486, 329 to 326, 263 to 260, 191 to 189, 104 to 98, and 34 to 29 BC.[6]

Transcripion[edit]

Andrea Andreani, Triumphus Caesaris (The Triumph of Caesar), plate 9 (1598/99).

The following table lists the entries from the surviving portions of the Fasti Triumphales; the columns on the left give the years according to the Varronian chronology, which begins one year earlier than the years given in the Triumphales.[iv] The years AUC from the original inscription are given in the column on the right.[v][7]

Reading the fasti[edit]

Portions of names and text in square brackets have been interpolated. Periods (full stops) have been supplied for abbreviations. An m-dash is used for missing or unknown filiations or other abbreviated praenomina. Other missing text is indicated with an ellipsis in brackets, [...]. This table uses modern conventions for distinguishing between I and J, and between U and V. Otherwise, the names and notes are given as spelled in the fasti. Archaic Roman spellings, such as Aimilius for Aemilius, have been preserved. A guide to reading Roman dates and a list of the peoples and places referred to in the Fasti follow the table.

Magistracies[edit]

Praenomina[edit]

The following praenomina appear in the Fasti Triumphales. All but a few were regularly abbreviated. A few uncommon praenomina found in the Fasti Capitolini do not appear in the Fasti Triumphales.

  • A. = Aulus
  • Agrippa (not abbreviated)
  • Ancus (not abbreviated)
  • Ap. = Appius
  • C. = Gaius
  • Cn. = Gnaeus
  • K. = Kaeso or Caeso
  • L. = Lucius
  • M. = Marcus
  • M'. = Manius
  • N. = Numerius
  • P. = Publius
  • Q. = Quintus
  • Ser. = Servius
  • Sex. = Sextus
  • Sp. = Spurius
  • T. = Titus
  • Ti. = Tiberius
  • Volusus (not abbreviated)

First tablet[edit]

Year
BC
Year
AUC
Entry Annum
753 1 Romulus Martis f. rex de Caenensibus K. Mar[t.] ann. [I]
753 1 [Ro]m[ulus] Marti[s f.] rex II [de Antemnatibus ...] a[nn. I]
[Ancus Marcius — f. — n. rex de Sabi]neis et [Veientibus ...]
59– 15– L. [T]arquinius Damarati f. Priscus rex de Latineis K. Quinct. an. CLV[...]
588 166 L. Tarquinius Damarati f. Priscus rex de Etrusceis [K. A]pr. an. CLXV
585 169 L. Tarquinius Damarati f. Priscus rex III de Sabineis Idib. Sext. ann. CLXVIII
571 183 Ser. Tullius rex de Etruscis vi. K. Dec. anno CXXCII
567 187 Ser. Tullius rex II de Etrusc. viii. K. Jun. a. CXXCVI
56– 18– Ser. Tullius rex III de Etrusceis iiii. Non. [...] ann. CXXC[...]
L. Tarq[uinius Prisci f.] Dama[rati n. Superbus rex de Volsceis ...] [ann. ...]
L. Tarqui[nius Prisci f. Damarati n.] Super[bus rex II de Sabineis ...] [a. ...]
509 245 P. Valer[ius Volusi f. — n. Poplicola] cos. d[e Veientib. et Tarquiniensib. K. Mart.] [a. CCXLIV]
505 249 M. Valer[ius Volusi f. — n. Volusus] cos. [de Sabineis ...] [a. CCXLVIII]
505 249 P. Postu[mius Q. f. — n. Tubertus] cos. [de Sabineis ...] [ann. CCXLVIII]
504 250 P. Valeriu[s Volusi f. — n.] Poblicol[a II cos. IIII de Sa]bine[is] et Veient[ibus ... Non]as Mai. [ann. CCXLIX]
503 251 P. Postumiu[s Q. f. — n. Tubert]us cos. II o[vans de Sabinei]s iii. Non. Apr. ann. CCL
503 251 Agrippa M[enenius C. f. — n. Lan]atus cos. de [Sabineis prid]ie Non. Apr. ann. CCL
502 252 Sp. Cassiu[s — f. — n. Vicellinu]s cos. d[e Sabineis] ann. CCLI
496 258 A. Postu[mius P. f. — n. Albus] Regil[lensis dict. de Latineis ...] [ann. CCLVII]
494 260 M'. Vale[rius Volusi f. — n. Maxim.] dic[t. de Sabineis et Medullineis] [ann. CCLIX]
486 268 [Sp. Cassius — f. — n. Vicellinus II cos. III de Volsceis Herniceis ...] K. Jun. [ann CCLXVII]
475 279 [P. Valerius P. f. Volusi n. Poplic]ola [cos. de Veientibus Sabi]neisque K. Mai. an. CCLXXIIX
474 280 [A. Manlius Cn. f. P. n. Vulso co]s. [ovans de Veientibus I]dibus Mart. ann. CCLXXIX
468 286 [T. Quinctius L. f. L. n. Capitolin. Barba]tus [cos. II de Volsceis Antiatibus ...] a. CCXX[CV]
462 292 [L. Lucretius T. f. T. n. Tricipitinus cos. de Aequeis et Vo]ls[ceis ...] [ann. CCXCI]
462 292 [T. Veturius T. f. — n.] Gemin[us Cicurin cos. ovans de Aequ]eis et [Volsceis ...] [an. CCXCI]
459 295 [Q. Fabius M. f. K. n. Vibulanus cos. III de Ae]queis e[t Volsceis ... No]n. Mai. [an. CCXCIV]
459 295 [L. Cornelius Ser. f. P. n.] M[alugines. Uriti]nus cos. de Volsceis [A]ntiatib. iv. Id. Mai. an. CCXCIV
458 296 [L. Quin]ctius L. f. L. n. Cincin[n]atus [dict.] de Aequeis Idibus Septembr. an. CCXCV
449 305 [L. Valer]ius P. f. P. n. Poplicola Potit. [cos.] de Aequeis Idibus Sextil. an. CCCIV
449 305 [M. Hora]tius M. f. L. n. Barbatus [cos. de] Sabin[eis] VII K. Septembr. ann. CCCIV
443 311 [M. Gega]nius M. [f. — n. Mace]rinus [cos. II] de V[olsceis N]onis Sep. ann. CCCX
437 317 [M. Valerius M. f. M. n. Lactuca Maxi]mus [cos. de ...]us Idib. Sex[t.] an. CCCXVI
369 385 [M. Furius L. f. Sp. n. Camillus IV dict. V de Galleis ...] Nov. [ann. CCCXXCVI]
361 393 [T. Quinctius — f. — n. Pennus Capitol. Crispinus dict de Galleis ...]nalibus a. CCCXCII
361 393 [C. Sulpicius M. f. Q. n. Peticus cos. II de Herniceis ... Ma]rt. an. CCCXCII
360 394 [C. Poetelius C. f. Q. n. Libo Visolus] cos. de Galleis et Tiburtibus iv. K. [S]ext. an. CCCXCIII
360 394 M. Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus cos. ovans de Herniceis Nonis Sept. an. CCCXCIII
358 396 C. Sulpicius M. f. Q. n. Peticus II dict. de Galleis Nonis Mai. ann. CCCXCV
358 396 C. Plautius P. f. P. n. Proculus cos. de Herniceis Idibus Mai. ann. CCCXCV
357 397 C. Marcius L. f. C. n. Rutilus cos. de Privernatibus K. Jun. ann. CCCXCVI
356 398 C. Marcius L. f. C. n. Rutilus dict. de Tusceis pridie Non. Mai. an. CCCXCVII
354 400 M. Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus II [cos. I]II de Tiburtibus III Non. Jun. ann. CCCXCIX
350 404 [M. Popi]llius M. f. C. n. Laenas cos. III [de G]alleis Quirinalibus an. CDIII
346 408 [M. Va]lerius M. f. M. n. Corvus cos. II [de] Antiatibus Volsceis Satricaneisq. K. Febr. ann. CDVII
343 411 [M. Vale]rius M. f. M. n. Corvus II [cos.] III de Samnitibus x. K. Oct. ann. CDX
340 414 [T.] Manlius L. f. A. n. Imperiossus Torquat. cos. III de Latineis Campaneis Sidicineis [A]urunceis xv. K. Junias a. CDXIII
339 415 [Q. P]ublilius Q. f. Q. n. Philo cos. de Latineis Idibus Januar. anno CDXIV
338 416 L. Furius Sp. f. M. n. Camillus cos. de Pedaneis et Tiburtibus iiii. K. Oct. ann. CDXV
338 416 C. Maenius P. f. P. n. cos. de Antiatibus Lavinieis Veliterneis pridie K. Oct. an. CDXV
335 419 M. Valerius M. f. M. n. Corvus III cos. IV de Caleneis Idibus Mart. an. CDXIIX
329 425 [L.] Aimilius L. f. L. n. Mamercin. Privernas cos. II de Privernatib. K. Mart. ann. CDXXIV
329 425 C. Plautius P. f. P. n. Decianus cos. de Privernatibus K. Mart. an. CDXXIV
326 428 Q. Publilius Q. f. Q. n. Philo II primus pro cos. de Samnitibus Palaeopolitaneis K. Mai. ann. CDXXVII
324 430 L. Papirius Sp. f. L. n. Cursor dict. de Samnitibus iii. Non. Mart. ann. CDXXIX
322 432 Q. Fabius M. f. N. n. Maximus Rullian. cos. de Samnitibus et Apuleis xii. K. Mart. an. CDXXXI
319 435 L. Papirius Sp. f. L. n. Cursor II cos. III de Samnitibus x. K. Septembr. an. CDXXXIV
314 440 C. Sulpicius Ser. f. Q. n. Longus cos. III de Samnitibus K. Quint. anno CDXXXIX
312 442 M. Valerius M. f. M. n. Maximus cos. de Samnitibus Soraneisq. Idib. Sext. ann. CDXXXXI
311 443 C. Junius C. f. C. n. Bubulcus Brutus cos. III de Samnitibus Nonis Sext. an. CDXLII
311 443 Q. Aemilius Q. f. L. n. Barbula cos. II de Etrusceis Idibus Sext. ann. CDXLII
309 445 L. Papirius Sp. f. L. n. Cursor III dict. II de Samnitibus Idibus Oct. ann. CDXLIV
309 445 Q. Fabius M. f. N. n. Maximus Rullianus II pro cos. de Etrusceis Idibus Nov. an. CDXLIV
306 448 Q. Marcius Q. f. Q. n. Tremulus cos. de Anagneis Herniceisq. pridie K. Quint. an. CDXLVII
305 449 M. Fulvius L. f. L. n. Curvus Paetinus cos. de Samnitibus iii. Non. Oct. ann. CDXLIIX
304 450 P. Sempronius P. f. C. n. Sophus cos. de Aequeis vii. K. Oct. ann. CDXLIX
304 450 P. Sulpicius Ser. f. P. n. Saverrio cos. de Samnitibus iiii. K. Nov. an. CDXLIX
302 452 C. Junius C. f. C. n. Bubulcus Brutus II dict. de Aequeis iii. K. Sext. an. CDLI

Second tablet[edit]

Year
BC
Year
AUC
Entry Annum
301 453 M. Valer[i]us M. f. M. n. Cor[vus] dict. II [de] Etrusceis et [Ma]rseis x. K. De[cem]br. an. CDLII
299 455 M. Fulvius Cn. f. Cn. n. Paetinus cos. de Samnitibus Nequinatibusque vii. K. Oct. ann. CD[LIV]
298 456 Cn. Fulvius Cn. f. Cn. n. Maxim. Centumalus cos. de Samnitibus Etrusceisque Idibus Nov. an. CDLV
295 459 Q. Fabius M. f. N. n. Maximus Rullianus III cos. V de Samnitibus et Etrusceis Galleis prid. Non. Sept. an. CDLIIX
294 460 L. Postumius L. f. Sp. n. Megell. cos. II de Samnitib. et Etruscis vi. K. Apr. an. CDLIX
294 460 M. Atilius M. f. M. n. Regulus cos. de Volsonibus et Samnitib. v. K. Apr. a. CDLIX
293 461 Sp. Carvilius C. f. C. n. Maximus cos. de Samnitibus Idibus Jan. a. CDLX
293 461 [L. Papiriu]s L. f. Sp. n. Cursor [cos. de Sam]nitibus Idibus Febr. an. CDLX
291 463 [Q. Fabius Q. f. M. n. M]aximus [Gurges pro cos. de Samnitibus ...] K. Sext. an. CDLXII
282 472 [C. Fabricius C. f. C. n. Luscinus cos. de Samnitibus Lucaneis Brutti]eisque iii. Non. Mart. an. CDLXXI
281 473 [Q. Mar]cius Q. f. Q. n. Philippus [cos. d]e Etrusceis K. Apr. an. CDLXXII
280 474 [Ti. Coru]ncanius Ti. f. Ti. n. cos. [de V]ulsiniensibus et Vulcientib. K. Febr. an. CDLXXIII
280 474 [L. Ai]milius Q. f. Q. n. Barbula pro cos. de Tarentineis Samnitibus et Sallentineis vi. Idus Quint. an. CDLXXIII
278 476 C. Fabricius C. f. C. n. Luscinus II cos. II de Lucaneis Bruttieis Tarentin. Samnitibus Idibus Decembr. an. CDLXXV
277 477 C. Junius C. f. C. n. Brutus Bubulc. cos. II de Lucaneis et Bruttieis Non. Jan. an. CDLXXVI
276 478 Q. Fabius Q. f. M. n. Maximus Gurges II de Samnitibus Lucaneis Bruttieis Quirinalibus an. CDLXXVII
275 479 M'. Curius M'. f. M'. n. Dentatus IV [cos. II de Sa]mnitib. et rege Pyrrho [... F]ebr. a. CDLXXIIX
275 479 [L. Cornelius] Ti. f. Ser. n. Lentulus [Caudin. c]os. de Samnitibus et [Lucaneis] K. Mart. a. CDLXXXIX
273 481 [C. Claudius M.] f. C. n. Canina [cos. II de Luca]neis Samnitibus [Bruttieisque] Quirinalibus an. CDXXXC
272 482 [Sp. Carvilius C. f. C. n. Ma]ximus II [cos. II de Samnitib. Lucaneis Bruttieis] Tarentin[eis]que Non[is ...] an. CD[XXCI]
272 482 L. Papiruius L. f. [Sp. n.] Cursor I[I] cos. II de Ta[ren]tineis L[ucaneis Samnitib.] Bruttieis[que] I[...] an. CDXXCI
270 484 [Cn.] Cornel[ius P. f. Cn. n. Blasio cos.] de Regi[neis ...] [an. CDXXCIII]
268 486 [P. Semp]ronius P. f. P. [n. Sophus cos.] de Peicentibus [...] [an. CDXXCV]
268 486 Ap. Claudius Ap. f. C. [n. Russus] cos. de Peicen[tibus ...] an. CDXXCV
267 487 M. Atilius M. f. L. n. Re[gu]lus cos. de Sallentineis viii. [K. Febr.] a[n. CDXXCVI]
267 487 L. Julius L. f. L. n. Libo cos. de Sallentineis viii. K. Febr. an. C[DXXCVI]
266 488 D. Junius D. f. D. n. Pera cos. de Sassinatibus v. K. Octobr. an. CDXXCVII
266 488 N. Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor cos. de Sassinatibus iii. Non. Oct. an. CDXXCVII
266 488 N. Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor II cos. de Sallentineis Messapieisque K. Febr. an. CDXXCVII
266 488 D. Junius D. f. D. n. Pera II cos. de Sallentineis Messapieisq. Non. Febr. an. CDXXCVII
264 490 M. Fulvius Q. f. M. n. Flaccus cos. de Vulsiniensibus K. Nov. an. CDXXCIX
263 491 M'. Valerius M. f. M. n. Maxim. Messalla cos. de Poeneis et rege Siculor. Hierone xvi. K. April. an. CDXC
260 494 C. Duilius M. f. M. n. cos. primus navalem de Sicul. et classe Poenica egit K. Interkalar. an. CDXCIII
259 495 L. Cornelius L. f. Cn. n. Scipio cos. de Poenis et Sardin. Corsica v. Id. Mart. an. CDXCIV
258 496 C. Aquillius M. f. C. n. Florus pro cos. de Poeneis iiii. Non. Oct. an. CDXCV
258 496 C. Sulpicius Q. f. Q. n. Paterculus cos. de Poeneis et Sardeis iii. N[on. Oct.] an. CDX[CV]
257 497 A. Atilius A. f. C. n. Caiatinus pr. ex Sicilia de Poeneis xiiii. K. F[ebr.] an. [CDXCVI]
257 497 C. Atilius M. f. M. n. Regulus cos. de Poeneis navalem egit viii. [...] a. [CDXCVI]
256 498 L. Manlius A. f. P. n. Vulso Long. cos. de Poeneis navalem egit viii. [...] an. [CDXCVII]
254 500 Ser. Fulvius M. f. M. n. Paetinus Nobilior pro cos. de Cossurensibus et Poeneis navalem egit xiii. K. Febr. a. CDX[CIX]
254 500 M. Aimilius M. f. L. n. Paullus pro cos. de Cossurensibus et Poenis navalem egit xii. K. Febr. an. CDXCIX
253 501 Cn. Cornelius L. f. Cn. n. Scipio Asina pro cos. de Poeneis x. K. April. an. D
253 501 C. Sempronius Ti. f. Ti. n. Blaesus cos. de Poeneis K. April. an. D
252 502 C. Aurelius L. f. C. n. Cotta cos. de Poeneis et Siculeis Idibus April. an. DI
250 504 L. Caecilius L. f. C. n. Metellus pro cos. de Poeneis vii. Idus Septemb. a. DII[I]
241 513 C. Lutatius C. f. C. n. Catulus pro cos. de Poeneis ex Sicilia navale. egit iiii. Nonas Octobr. a. DXII
241 513 Q. Valerius Q. f. P. n. Falto pro pr. ex Sicilia navalem egit prid. Non. Oct. a. DXII
241 513 Q. Lutatius C. f. C. n. Cerco cos. de Falisceis K. Mart. an. DXII
241 513 A. Manlius T. f. T. n. Torquatus Atticus cos. II de Falisceis iv. Non. Ma[rt.] ann. DXII
236 518 P. Cornelius L. f. Ti. n. Lentulus Caudinus cos. de Ligurib. Idib. Inter[k.] an. DXV[II]
235 519 T. Manlius T. f. T. n. Torquatus cos. de Sardeis vi. Idus Mart. an. DXV[III]
234 520 Sp. Carvilius Sp. f. C. n. Maximus cos. de Sardeis K. April. an. D[XIX]
233 521 Q. Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Verrucossus cos. de Liguribus K. Febr. anno DXX
233 521 M'. Pomponius M'. f. M'. n. Matho cos. de Sardeis Idibus Mart. ann. DX[X]
231 523 C. Papirius C. f. L. n. Maso cos. de Corseis primus in monte Albano iii. Non. Mart. ann. DXXII
228 526 Cn. Fulvius Cn. f. Cn. n. Centumalus pro cos. ex Illurieis naval. egit x. K. Quint. a. DXXV
225 529 L. Aimilius Q. f. Cn. n. Papus cos. de Galleis iii. Nonas Mart. an. DXXIIX
223 531 C. Flaminius C. f. L. n. cos. de Galleis vi. id. Mart. anno DXXX
223 531 P. Furius Sp. f. M. n. Philus cos. de Galleis et Liguribus iiii. Idus Mar[t.] anno DXXX
222 532 M. Claudius M. f. M. n. Marcellus an. cos. de Galleis Insubribus et Germ[an.] K. Mart. isque spolia opima rettu[lit] duce hostium Virdomaro ad Clastid[ium interfecto] an. DXX[XI]

Third tablet[edit]

Year
BC
Year
AUC
Entry Annum
197 557 Q. Minucius C. f. C. n. Rufus cos. de G[alleis Liguribusque in monte] Alban[o ...] ann. DLVI
196 558 [M.] Claudiu[s M. f. M. n.] Marcellus [cos.] de Gal[leis Ins]ubrib. iv. Non. M[art.] a. DLV[II]
196 558 [Cn. Co]rneli[us — f. —] n. Blasio [quo]i qu[od Hispan. cit]eri[or. extra o]rdinem [obtinuerat permissum est] ovans [de Celtibereis ...] a. [DLVII]
195 559 M. Helv[ius — f. — n. pro cos. ovans de Celtibereis ...] [anno DLIIX]
195 559 Q. M[inucius Q. f. L. n. Thermus] pr[o cos. ex Hispan. ulterior. ...] [an. DLIIX]
194 560 M. Por[cius M. f. Cato pro cos.] ex Hi[spania citeriore ...] [an. DLIX]
194 560 [T.] Quinc[tius T. f. L. n. Flamininus] pro cos. [ex Macedonia et rege] Philippo [per trid. ...] [an. DLIX]
191 563 M. Fulvius M. [f. Ser. n. Nobilior] pro cos. ov[ans ex Hispania ulteriore] xv. K. Jan. [an. DLXII]
191 563 [P. Co]rne[lius Cn. f. L. n. Scipio Nasica cos. de Galleis Boieis ...] [an. DLXII]
189 565 [L. Aimilius M. f. — n. Regillus pro] pr. ex Asia de [reg. Antiocho naval.] egit K. Febr. [an. DLXIV]
189 565 L. Cornelius P. f. L. n. S[cipio Asiaticus] pro cos. ex Asia de r[ege Antiocho pr. K. Mart.] [an. DLXIV]
188 566 [Q.] Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Labe[o pr. ex] Asia de rege Antioch[o navalem egit N]on. Febr. [an. DLXV]
187 567 [M. Fu]lvius M. f. Ser. n. Nobil[ior II pro cos. de] Aetoleis et Ceph[allenia x. K. Jan. [an. DLXVI]
187 567 [Cn. Manlius Cn.] f. L. n. Vul[so pro cos. ex Asia de Galleis iii. Non. Mart.] [an. DLXVI]
178 576 [Ti. Sempronius P. f. T]i. n. Grac[chus pro cos. de Celti]bereis Hispaneisq. iii. Non. F[ebr.] a. DLX[XV]
178 576 [L. Postumius A. f.] A. n. Albinus pro [cos. ex] Lu[sita]nia Hispaniaq. pr. Non. Fe[br.] an. DLXXV
177 577 [C. C]laudius [Ap. f. P.] n. Pulcher cos. de Histre[is et] Liguribus K. Interk. ann. DLXX[VI]
175 579 [T]i. Sempron[ius P. f.] Ti. n. Gracchus II pro co[s. ex Sa]rdinia Termi[nalib.] a. DLX[XIIX]
175 579 [M.] Titin[ius — f.] M. n. Curvus pr[o cos. ex Hispania citeriore ...] [an. DLXXIIX]
175 579 [M. Aimiliu]s M. f. [M.] n. Lepidups cos. II de Lig]uribus iii. Id[us Mart.] [a. DLXXIIX]
175 579 [P. Muci]us Q. f. P. n. [Sc]aevula [cos. de Li]guribus iiii. Id[us Mart.] [ann. DLXXIIX]
174 580 [Ap. Claudius C. f. Ap.] n. Cento pro [cos.] ovan[s ex His]pania [Ce]ltiberia [K. Mart.] a. [DLXXIX]
172 582 [C. Ci]cer[eius — f. qui s]crib. [fuera]t pro pr. ex Corsica in monte Albano K. Oct. an. D[XXCI]
167 587 L. Aimilius L. f. M. n. Paullus II pro cos. ex Macedon. et rege Perse per triduum IIII II[I] pridie K. Decem. a. DXXC[VI]
167 587 [Cn. Oc]tavius Cn. f. Cn. n. pro pr. [ex] Macedon. et rege Perse naval. egit K. Dec. an. DXXCV[I]
167 587 [L. Ani]cius L. f. M. n. Gallus pro pr. de rege [Gen]fio et Illurie[is] Quirinalibus a. DXXCVI
166 588 [M. Cla]udius M. f. M. n. Marcellus cos. [de G]alleis Contrub[r]ieis et Liguribus [Elea]tibusque [K.] Interk. a. DXXCVII
166 588 [C. Sulpici]us C. f. C. n. G[alus] cos. [de Ligur]ibus Ta[...]rneis x. K. Mart. ann. DLXXXVII
158 596 [M. Fulvius] M. f. M. n. Nobilior pro cos. [de Liguri]bus Eleatibus xii. K. Sept. a. DX[CV]
155 599 [M. Claudius M. f.] M. n. Marcellus II cos. II [de ...]us et Apua[neis ...] a. DX[CIIX]
155 599 [P. Cornelius] P. f. Cn. [n. Scipio Nasica cos. II d]e De[lmateis ...] [a. DXCIIX]
129 625 C. Sem[p]ronius C. f. C. n. Tuditan. cos. de Iapudibus K. Oct. a. DCXXIV

Fourth tablet[edit]

Year
BC
Year
AUC
Entry Annum
126 628 M'. Aquillius M'. f. M'. n. pro cos. ex A[si]a iii. Idus Novembr. an. DCXXVII
123 631 M. Fu[lvi]us M. f. Q. n. Flaccus pro [cos. de Li]guribus Vocontieis Salluveisq. vi. [...] an. DCXXX
122 632 C. Sextius C. f. C. n. Calvin. pro co[s.] de Ligurib. Vocontieis Salluveisq. [...] [an. DCXXXI]
122 632 L. Aurelius L. f. L. n. Orestes pro cos. ex Sardinia vi. Idus Dec. an. DC[XXXI]
121 633 Q. Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Metellus Baliaric. pro cos. de Baliarib. pr. N[on. ...] a. DCX[XXII]
120 634 Q. Fabius Q. Aemiliani f. Q. n. Maximus pro cos. de Allobro[gibus] et rege Arvernorum Betuito x. K. [...] an. DC[XXXIII]
120 634 Cn. Domitius Cn. f. Cn. n. Ahenobarb. pro cos. de Galleis Arv[e]rneis xvi. K. [...] a. D[CXXXIII]
117 637 L. Caecilius L. f. Q. n. Mete[ll]us Delmatic. pro cos. de De[lma]teis iii. No[n. ...] ann. DCX[XXVI]
117 637 Q. Marcius Q. f. Q. n. Rex pro cos. de Liguribus Stoeneis iii. Non. De[c.] an. DCX[XXVI]
115 639 M. Aemilius M. f. L. n. Scaurus cos. de Galleis Karneis v. [... De]c. [an.] DCXXXIIX
111 643 M. Caecilius Q. f. Q. n. Mete[llus pro] cos. ex Sardini[a Idib. Quin]til. [a]n. DCXLII
111 643 [C. Caeci]lius Q. f. Q. n. [Metellus Caprar. pro cos. ex Thraecia Idi]b. Quint. a. DCXLII
110 644 [M. Livius C. f. M. Aimiliani n.] Drusus [pro cos. de Scordist]eis Macedonibusq. K. Mai. a. DCXLIII
107 647 [Q. Servilius Cn. f. Cn. n.] Caepio pro [cos. ex Hispania ul]teriore v. K. Nov. a. DCXLVI
106 648 [Q. Caecilius L. f. Q. n. Metel]l. Numidic. [pro cos. de Numideis et] rege Jugurtha [...] a. DCXLVII
106 648 [M. Minucius Q. f. — n. Rufus pro] cos. [de Scordisteis et Thraecibus ...] K. Sext. a. DCXLVII
104 650 [C. Marius C. f. C. n. cos. II de Numideis et rege Jugurtha K. Jan.] [anno D]CXLIX
98 656 L. Cornelius P. f. L. n. Dolabell. pro cos. ex Hispania ulterior. de Lusitan. v. K. Feb. a. DCLV
93 661 T. Didius T. f. Sex. n. II pro cos. ex Hispania de Celtibereis iiii. Idus Jun. a. DCLX
93 661 P. Licinius M. f. P. n. Crassus pro cos. de Lusitaneis pridie Idus Jun. an. DCLX
89 665 Cn. Pompeius Sex. f. Cn. n. Strabo cos. de Asculaneis Picentibus vi. K. Jan. a. DCLXIV
88 666 [P. Serv]ilius C. f. M. n. Vatia pro pr. [de ...] xii. K. Novem. an. DCLXV
81 673 [L. Cornelius L. f. P. n. Sull]a Felix dict. [de rege Mithridate I]V iii. K. Febr. a. DCLXXII
81 673 [L. Licinius L. f. — n. Murena pro pr. [de rege Mithridate ...] [an.] DCLXXII
62 692 [Q. Caecilius C. f. Q. n. Metellus Creticus pro cos. ex Creta insula ...] K. Jun. [a]n. DC[XCI]
61 693 [Cn. Pompeius Cn. f. Sex. n. Magnus III] pro cos. [ex Asia Ponto Armenia Paphla]gonia Cappadoc. [Cilicia Syria Scytheis Judaeeis Alb]ania pirateis [per biduum III pridie K. O]ct. a. DCXCII
54 700 [C. Pomptinus — f. — n. ... pro pr. de Allobrogibus iv. Non. Nov.] a. DCXCIX
45 709 Q. Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus cos. ex Hispania iii. Idus Octo. an. DCCI[IX]
44 710 C. Julius C. f. C. n. Caesar VI dict. IIII ovans ex monte Albano vii. K. Febr. a. DC[CIX]
43 711 L. Munatius L. f. L. n. Plancus pro cos. ex Gallia iiii. K. Jan. an. [DCCX]
43 711 M. Aimilius M. f. Q. n. Lepidus IIIvir r. p. [c.] pro cos. ex Hispania pridie K. [Jan.] [a. DCCX]
42 712 P. Vatinius P. f. pro cos. de Illurico pr. [K. Sex.] a. DCCXI]
41 713 L. Antonius M. f. M. n. cos. ex Alpibus [K. Jan.] [a. DCCXII]
40 714 Imp. Caesar divi f. C. f. IIIvir r. p. c. ov[ans] quod pacem cum M. Antonio fecit [...] [an. DCCXIII]
40 714 M. Antonius M. f. M. n. IIIvir r. p. c. ovan[s] quod pacem cum Imp. Caesar feci[t ...] [an. DCCXIII]
39 715 L. Marcius L. f. C. n. Censorinus cos. ex Macedonia K. Jan. a. [DCCXIV]
39 715 C. Asinius Cn. f. Pollio pro cos. ex Parthineis viii. K. Novem. an. [DCCXIV]
38 716 P. Ventidius P. f. pro cos. ex Tauro monte et Partheis v. K. Decem. an. DCCX[V]
36 718 Cn. Domitius M. f. M. n. Calvinus pro cos. ex Hispania xvi. K. Sexil. an. DCCXVII
36 718 Imp. Caesar divi f. C. f. II IIIvir r. p. c. II ovans ex Sicilia Idibus Novembr. a. DCCXVII
34 720 T. Statilius T. f. Taurus pro cos. ex Africa pridie K. Jul. ann. DCCXIX
34 720 C. Sosius C. f. T. n. pro cos. ex Judaea iii. Non. Septembr. an. DCCXIX
34 720 C. Norbanus C. f. Flaccus pro cos. ex Hispania Id[us Oc]tobr. an. DCCXIX
29 725 [C. Carrinas C. f. — n. pro cos. ex Gallia] prid. I[dus Jul.] [an. DCCXXV]
29 725 L. Autronius P. f. L. n. Paetus pro cos. ex Africa xvii. K. Septemb[r.] an. DCC[XXV]
28 726 M. Licinius M. f. M. n. Crassus pro cos. ex Thraecia et Geteis iv. Non. Jul. a. DCCXXVI
28 726 M. Valerius M. f. M. n. Messalla Corvinus pro cos. ex Gallia vii. K. Oct. a. DCCXXVI
26 728 Sex. Appuleius Sex. f. Sex. n. pro cos. ex Hispania vii. K. Febr. a. DCCXXVII
21 733 L. Sempronius L. f. L. n. Atratinus pro cos. ex Africa iiii. Idus Oct. a. DCCXXXII
19 735 L. Cornelius P. f. Balbus pro cos. ex Africa vi. K. April. a. DCCXXXIV

Dates[edit]

The Romans dated events counting back from certain days in each month: the Kalends, marking the beginning of each month; the Ides, occurring on the fifteenth of March, May, Quintilis (July), and October, and the thirteenth of all other months; and the Nones, occurring on the seventh day of March, May, Quintilis, and October, and the fifth of all other months. Perhaps because these dates were remnants of the old lunar calendar, the Romans counted inclusively, so that the first day of the month was reckoned the first day before the Kalends; the last day of the previous month was ante diem ii. Kalendas, or pridie Kalendas, and the day before that was ante diem iii. Kalendas.

As a highly inflected language, Latin uses different cases depending on whether an event occurs on or from a day (ablative: Kalendis, Nonis, Idibus), or before a day (accusative: Kalendas, Nonas, Idus), but in each case the day and the month are treated as plural. A few triumphs occurred in Interkalaris, or Mercedonius, an intercalary month used prior to Caesar's calendar reforms in 46 BC; some of the dates in the Fasti Triumphales refer to specific religious festivals; for instance several triumphs were held Quirinalibus, "on the Quirinalia", and at least one was held on the Terminalia. The following table gives the inflected forms of the months used in the fasti:

Thus, a date abbreviated "iii. Non. Oct." represents ante diem tertium Nonas Octobres, i.e. the third day before the Nones of October, or October 5, while "Idib. Dec." represents Idibus Decembribus, occurring precisely on the Ides of December, or December 13, and "pridie K. Quint." would be pridie Kalendas Quintiles, or the last day of June. After the death of Caesar, the month of Quintilis officially became Julius (accusative plural Julias, ablative Juliis), and in 8 BC, Sextilis became Augustus (accusative plural Augustas, ablative Augustis), but the latter month does not appear in the Triumphal Fasti, which end in 19 BC.

Peoples and places[edit]

All of the people and places mentioned in the Fasti Triumphales occur in the ablative case: de Samnitibus means, roughly, "(he triumphed) over the Samnites"; pro cos. ex Hispania means "proconsul of (literally out of or from) Spain". In this list, the first form is the one appearing in the fasti, and the second is the nominative, or uninflected form; the suffix -que, usually abbreviated -q., means "and", combining the preceding words with the one to which it is attached; de Veientibus Sabineisque means "over the Veientes and the Sabines".

Peoples[edit]

Places[edit]

Persons[edit]

Things[edit]

  • classe Poenica = classis Poenica, the Carthaginian navy
  • pacem = pax, peace
  • pirateis = piratae, pirates

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ As with the names of many Roman artifacts and institutions, the capitalization of Fasti Triumphales varies from source to source; sometimes both words are capitalized, sometimes the first word, and sometimes neither. In this article, Fasti Triumphales and its alternatives are treated as proper names, while "fasti" by itself is taken as a common noun.
  2. ^ These notations are usually referred to as iterations.
  3. ^ Because the rest of the entry is written around the year, transcriptions of the Triumphales may give the impression that the year occurs in random locations in each entry.
  4. ^ The Triumphales and Capitolini both use the era of Cato, who placed the founding of the city one year later than Varro.
  5. ^ Note that Roman numerals were used more flexibly by the Romans than is typical today, and not always consistently: in the Fasti Triumphales, CDXXXXI, 441, occurs immediately before CDXLII, 442. "Double subtractives" such as CXXCVI, 186, and CDXIIX, 418, are regularly encountered.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2nd Ed., pp. 429, 430 ("Fasti").
  2. ^ a b Lanciani, New Tales of Old Rome, pp. 68–72.
  3. ^ a b c Sandys, Latin Epigraphy, p. 167.
  4. ^ Sandys, Latin Epigraphy, pp. 167–172.
  5. ^ CIL, I. p. 341.
  6. ^ a b AE 1889, 70; 1893, 80; 1904, 113, 196; 1930, 60; 1940, 61.
  7. ^ a b Sandys, Latin Epigraphy, p. 170.

Bibliography[edit]