IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK abbreviated as OPM, is a magazine based in the United Kingdom that covers PlayStation news created in Winter 2006. Although the first issue was distributed in three-month intervals, from Issue 2 onward, it became a monthly segment. From Issue 7 to Issue 84, the magazine came with a playable Blu-ray Disc. However, it additionally covers PlayStation Vita material; the magazine covers PlayStation lifestyle, as well all aspects of High Definition media in lesser detail. The Official UK PlayStation Magazine is a now-defunct magazine, launched in November 1995 to coincide with the launch of the PlayStation console, it ran for 108 issues, with the last hitting news stands in March 2004. The first issue sold 37,000 copies. Midway through its run the abbreviations in the magazine changed from PSM to OPM, it had 3 design changes in its lifetime: 1 to 51, 52 to 72, 73 to 108. The first game to be reviewed was Wipeout, which received 8/10; the last game to be reviewed was Ford Truck Mania, which garnered 7/10.
The magazine would go on to become not only the best selling PlayStation magazine in the United Kingdom, but the best selling videogames magazine in the world. By mid-1997, PSM was selling over 150,000 issues a month. In the month of February 1999, issue 42, according to ABC the magazine managed a record 453,571, beating the UK's biggest lads magazines FHM, Maxim and Loaded. Essential PlayStation was a spin-off magazine to the Official UK PlayStation Magazine, running for twelve issues from late-1996 to mid-1999. Official UK PlayStation 2 Magazine was launched in December 2000 as the sequel publication to the Official UK PlayStation Magazine priced £4.99, to coincide with the launch of the PlayStation 2 console. Each month the magazine came with a cover-mounted playable demo DVD, it ran for 100 issues, with the last going on sale in the month of July 2008. The magazine was abbreviated OPS2, it had four design changes in its lifetime: 1 to 25, 26 to 41, 42 to 89, 90 to 100. The first game to be reviewed was Tekken Tag Tournament, which received 8/10.
The last game to be reviewed was SBK-08: Superbike World Championship, which earned 7/10. The magazine would go on to become the UK's best selling PlayStation 2 magazine, peaking with 197,348 readers in 2002. In the beginning OPS2 was designed for the early adopter – encompassing hardcore gamers and previous readers crossing over from the original Official UK PlayStation Magazine; this ran from issue 1 to 25. Starting from issue 26, the magazine was set the task of attracting a more mass market, mainstream audience; this included a full redesign. From issue 34, OPS2 changed again – however this time retaining its recent redesign. In a drastic attempt to attract a more young male demographic – similar to that of the independent PlayStation magazines of the'90s – the publication decided to review readers girlfriends and their mothers, it received a mixed response from readers, failed to increase the readership. In turn, the magazine featured another redesign from issue 42. OPS2 would retain this middle ground for the next three years, neither employing an overly male nor hardcore adult gamer stance.
In the final year, as the PlayStation 2 entered a more family-friendly stage, OPS2 changed once more. Starting from issue 90 the magazine would focus on the younger gamer. In 2004, OPSM2 won the prestigious Industry Dinner Magazine of the Year Award. In 2004, OPSM2 publication won MCV's Magazine Team of the Year Award. In 1998 and 1999, OPSM won the prestigious Industry Dinner Magazine of the Year Award; the magazine's design follows the same approximate structure each issue. Recurring segments include: The Big 10, in which the ten most momentous PlayStation-related pieces of news are discussed. Agenda, which contains the game sales charts for all three major PlayStation platforms as well as a Personal column and regulars like Culture, where PlayStation super fans show off their art and tributes, it shows off the latest Sony gadgets as well as "Lust have kit". Previews and reviews sections. Blu-ray movies section in which the latest Blu-ray releases are reviewed. Contact, in which letters and emails from readers are shown and replied to, this section includes a corner dedicated to "what's on my hard drive" where people talk about what games, music and friends are on their PS3 and several wall posts from the Official PlayStation Magazine US Facebook page.
Directory, which houses a "Buyer's Guide" for games for the main platforms as well as for HDTVs. From issues #1 to #51, the magazine followed a set format every month: StartUp Update PrePlay Letters Features PlayTest Cheats Down Loading On the CD Next Month Spy Monitor Features Next Month Letters Replay (looking at reviewed titles, review A to Z, chea
A game engine is a software-development environment designed for people to build video games. Developers use game engines to construct games for consoles, mobile devices, personal computers; the core functionality provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection, scripting, artificial intelligence, streaming, memory management, localization support, scene graph, may include video support for cinematics. Implementers economize on the process of game development by reusing/adapting, in large part, the same game engine to produce different games or to aid in porting games to multiple platforms. In many cases game engines provide a suite of visual development tools in addition to reusable software components; these tools are provided in an integrated development environment to enable simplified, rapid development of games in a data-driven manner. Game engine developers attempt to "pre-invent the wheel" by developing robust software suites which include many elements a game developer may need to build a game.
Most game engine suites provide facilities that ease development, such as graphics, physics and AI functions. These game engines are sometimes called "middleware" because, as with the business sense of the term, they provide a flexible and reusable software platform which provides all the core functionality needed, right out of the box, to develop a game application while reducing costs and time-to-market — all critical factors in the competitive video game industry; as of 2001, Gamebryo, JMonkeyEngine and RenderWare were such used middleware programs. Like other types of middleware, game engines provide platform abstraction, allowing the same game to be run on various platforms including game consoles and personal computers with few, if any, changes made to the game source code. Game engines are designed with a component-based architecture that allows specific systems in the engine to be replaced or extended with more specialized game middleware components; some game engines are designed as a series of loosely connected game middleware components that can be selectively combined to create a custom engine, instead of the more common approach of extending or customizing a flexible integrated product.
However extensibility is achieved, it remains a high priority for game engines due to the wide variety of uses for which they are applied. Despite the specificity of the name, game engines are used for other kinds of interactive applications with real-time graphical needs such as marketing demos, architectural visualizations, training simulations, modeling environments; some game engines only provide real-time 3D rendering capabilities instead of the wide range of functionality needed by games. These engines rely upon the game developer to implement the rest of this functionality or assemble it from other game middleware components; these types of engines are referred to as a "graphics engine", "rendering engine", or "3D engine" instead of the more encompassing term "game engine". This terminology is inconsistently used as many full-featured 3D game engines are referred to as "3D engines". A few examples of graphics engines are: Crystal Space, Genesis3D, Irrlicht, OGRE, RealmForge, Truevision3D, Vision Engine.
Modern game or graphics engines provide a scene graph, an object-oriented representation of the 3D game world which simplifies game design and can be used for more efficient rendering of vast virtual worlds. As technology ages, the components of an engine may become outdated or insufficient for the requirements of a given project. Since the complexity of programming an new engine may result in unwanted delays, a development team may elect to update their existing engine with newer functionality or components; such a framework is composed of a multitude of different components. The actual game logic has to be implemented by some algorithms, it is distinct from sound or input work. The rendering engine generates animated 3D graphics by any of a number of methods. Instead of being programmed and compiled to be executed on the CPU or GPU directly, most rendering engines are built upon one or multiple rendering application programming interfaces, such as Direct3D, OpenGL, or Vulkan which provide a software abstraction of the graphics processing unit.
Low-level libraries such as DirectX, Simple DirectMedia Layer, OpenGL are commonly used in games as they provide hardware-independent access to other computer hardware such as input devices, network cards, sound cards. Before hardware-accelerated 3D graphics, software renderers had been used. Software rendering is still used in some modeling tools or for still-rendered images when visual accuracy is valued over real-time performance or when the computer hardware does not meet needs such as shader support. With the advent of hardware accelerated physics processing, various physics APIs such as PAL and the physics extensions of COLLADA became available to provide a software abstraction of the physics processing unit of different middleware providers and console platforms. Game engines can be written in any programming language like C++, C or Java, though each language is structurally different and may provide different levels of access to specific functions; the audio engine is the component which consists of algorithms related to the loading and output of sound through the client's speaker system.
At a minimum i
Social stigma of obesity
The social stigma of obesity or anti-fat bias has resulted in additional difficulties and disadvantages for overweight and obese people. Weight stigma is similar and has been broadly defined as bias or discriminatory behaviors targeted at individuals, because of their weight; such social stigmas can span one's entire life, as long as excess weight is present, starting from a young age and lasting into adulthood. Several studies from across the world indicate overweight and obese individuals experience higher levels of stigma relative to their thinner counterparts. In addition, they marry less experience fewer educational and career opportunities, on average earn a lesser income than normal weight individuals. Although public support regarding disability services, civil rights and anti-workplace discrimination laws for obese individuals have gained support across the years and obese individuals still experience discrimination, which may have implications to physiological and psychological health.
These issues are compounded with the significant negative physiological effects associated with obesity. Anti-fat bias refers to the prejudicial assumption of personality characteristics based on an assessment of a person as being overweight or obese, it is known as "fat shaming". Fat activists allege anti-fat bias can be found in many facets of society, blame the media for the pervasiveness of this phenomenon. Research indicates that self-reported incidents of weight-based discrimination, has increased in the last few decades. Individuals who are subjected to weight-related stigma, appear to be rated more negatively when compared with other groups, such as sexual minorities, those with mental illness. Anti-fat bias has been observed in groups hoping to become physical education instructors. In one study, a group of 344 psychology or physical education majors at a New Zealand University were compared, it was found that the prospective physical education teachers were more to display implicit anti-fat attitudes than the psychology majors.
A number of studies have found that health care providers have explicit and/or implicit biases against overweight people, it has been found that overweight patients may receive lower quality care as a result of their weight. Medical professionals who specialize in the treatment of obesity have been found to have strong negative associations toward obese individuals. In one study, preschool-aged children reported a preference for average-sized children over overweight children as friends; as a consequence of anti-fat bias, overweight individuals find themselves suffering repercussions in many facets of society, including legal and employment issues in their life. Overweight individuals find themselves facing issues caused by increased weight such as decreased lifespan, joint problems, shortness of breath. According to a 2010 review of published studies, interventions seeking to reduce prejudice and social stigma against fat and obesity are ineffective. Weight-related stigma can be characterised by the following aspects: An individual does not have to be overweight or obese, to experience weight-related stigma.
Studies have indicated. This suggests. Many groups who are subjected to stigmatisation, tend to be minorities. Overweight and obese individuals make up the majority of the population in the United States, in other parts of the world. Individuals who are overweight or obese, tend to devalue their own in-group, prefer the out-group. In order to understand weight-biased attitudes, theories have been proposed to explain the discrimination. Christian S. Crandall discusses the "Justification of Stigmatization". In his Social Ideology Perspective draws on traditional North American values of self-determination and self-discipline. Based on these values, anti-fat attitudes may derive from directing blame towards individuals who are overweight; the attribution theory suggests that attitudes towards obese individuals are dependent on how much control they are perceived to have over their weight. Throughout the literature, numerous studies have shown support for this theory. One study conducted a multinational examination of weight bias across four countries with comparable obesity rates.
The study found that attributions of behavioral causes of obesity were associated with greater weight bias. Further, these individuals were more to view obesity as being due to lack of willpower. There appears to be decreased weight bias when weight was attributed to factors that were less within the individual’s control, or when individuals are perceived as trying to lose weight. Anti-fat bias leads people to associate individuals who are overweight or obese with negative personality traits such as "lazy", "gluttonous", "stupid", "smelly", "slow", or "unmotivated"; this bias is not restricted to clinically obese individuals, but encompasses those whose body shape is in some way found unacceptable according to society's modern standards. It is a classical example of the halo effect in cultures where physical preferences favor low body fat. Fat-shaming is common in the United States though most adult Americans are overweight. Huffington Post wrote "two-thirds of American adults are obese, yet overweight and obese individuals are subject to discrimination from employers, healthcare professionals and potential romantic partners".
Anti-fat bias can be moderated by givi
PlayStation is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3, 1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation in Japan; the original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history; the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, the PlayStation Portable or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013.
Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17, 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, had sold over 4 million units by January 2013. PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a digital video recorder, integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a Sony Bravia television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2; the main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, a line of vibration-feedback gamepad having sold 28 million controllers as of June 28, 2008. The PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide, it comprises an online virtual market, the PlayStation Store, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as PlayStation Plus and a social gaming networking service called PlayStation Home, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015.
PlayStation Mobile is a software framework. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the Android operating system, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 would only target PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently.7th generation PlayStation products use the XrossMediaBar, an award-winning graphical user interface. A touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles featured support for Linux-based operating systems; the series has been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" commercials in the United States. The series has a strong line-up of first-party titles due to Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a group of fifteen first-party developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment which are dedicated to developing first-party games for the series.
In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of titles by Sony with different names for each region. In October 2018, Sony President Kenichiro Yoshida stated the necessity of the new PlayStation console. Yoshida said, it has become "necessary to have a next-generation hardware" to replace the PlayStation 4, now 5 years old. PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who had just finished managing one of the company's hardware engineering divisions at that time and would be dubbed as "The Father of the PlayStation"; the console's origins date back to 1988 where it was a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. Although Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive, that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1991. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology.
The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips; this proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi, facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a pro
Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year. The magazine was launched in October 1993 by Steve Jarratt, a long-time video games journalist who has launched several other magazines for Future; the artwork for the cover of the magazine's 100th issue was specially provided by Shigeru Miyamoto. The 200th issue was released in March 2009 with 200 different covers, each commemorating a single game. Only 200 magazines were printed with each cover, sufficient to more than satisfy Edge's circulation of 28,898. In October 2003, the then-editor of Edge, João Diniz-Sanches, left the magazine along with deputy editor David McCarthy and other staff writers. After the walkout, the editorship of Edge passed back to Tony Mott, editor prior to Diniz-Sanches; the only team member to remain was Margaret Robertson. In May 2007, Robertson stepped down as editor and was replaced by Tony Mott, taking over as editor for the third time.
Between 1995 and 2002, some of the content from the UK edition of Edge was published in the United States as Next Generation. In 2007, Future's US subsidiary, Future US began re-publishing selected recent Edge features on the Next Generation website. In July 2008, the whole site was rebranded under the Edge title, as, the senior of the two brands. In May 2014 it was reported that Future intended to close the websites of Edge and Video Games and their other videogame publications. Edge has been redesigned three times; the first redesign occurred in 1999. The first redesign altered the magazine's dimensions to be wider than the original shape; the latest design changes the magazine's physical dimensions for the second time, introduces a higher quality of paper stock than was used. Each issue includes a "Making-of" article on a particular game including an interview with one of the original developers. Issue 143 introduced the "Time Extend" series of retrospective articles. Like the "making-of" series, each focuses on a single game and, with the benefit of hindsight, gives an in-depth examination of its most interesting or innovative attributes."Codeshop" examines more technical subjects such as 3D modelling programs or physics middleware, while "Studio Profile" and "University Profile" are single-page summaries of particular developers or publishers, game-related courses at higher education institutions.
Although an overall list of contributors is printed in each issue's indicia, the magazine has not used bylines to credit individual writers to specific reviews and articles, instead only referring to the anonymous Edge as a whole. Since 2014, some contributed; the magazine's regular columnists have been credited throughout the magazine's run. The current columnists are Clint Hocking and Tadhg Kelly. In addition, several columnists appear toward the beginning of the magazine to talk about the game industry as a whole, rather than focusing on specific game design topics, they are Trigger Happy author Steven Poole, Leigh Alexander, Brian Howe, whose parody article section "You're Playing It Wrong" began with the new redesign. Previous columnists have included Paul Rose, Toshihiro Nagoshi of Sega's Amusement Vision, author Tim Guest, N'Gai Croal, game developer Jeff Minter. In addition, numerous columns were published anonymously under the pseudonym "RedEye", several Japanese writers contributed to a regular feature called "Something About Japan".
James Hutchinson's comic strip Crashlander was featured in Edge between issues 143 and 193. Edge scores games on a ten-point scale, from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10, with five as ostensibly the average rating. For much of the magazine's run, the magazine's review policy stated that the scores broadly correspond to one of the following "sentiments": 1 – disastrous 2 – appalling 3 – flawed 4 – disappointing 5 – average 6 – competent 7 – distinguished 8 – excellent 9 – astounding 10 – revolutionary However, with issue 143 the scoring system was changed to a simple list of "10 = ten, 9 = nine..." and so on, a tongue-in-cheek reference to people who read too much into review scores. It was three years before Edge gave a game a rating of ten out of ten, to date the score has been given to twenty-one games: In contrast, only two titles have received a one-out-of-ten rating, Kabuki Warriors and FlatOut 3: Chaos & Destruction. In a December 2002 retro gaming special, Edge retrospectively awarded ten-out-of-ten ratings to two titles released before the magazine's launch: Elite Exile Edge awarded a 10/10 score in one of the regular retrospective reviews in the magazine's normal run: Super Mario Bros.
In Edge's 10th anniversary issue in 2003, GoldenEye 007 was included as one of the magazine's top ten shooters, along with a note that it was "the only other game" that should have received a ten out of ten rating. The game had been awarded a nine out of ten, with the magazine stating that "a ten was considered, but rejected". Resident Evil 4, whi
GamePro was an American multiplatform video game magazine media company that published online and print content covering the video game industry, video game hardware and video game software. The magazine featured content on PC computers and mobile devices. Gamepro Media properties included their website; the company was a part subsidiary of the held International Data Group, a media and research technology group. Published in 1989, GamePro magazine provided feature articles, news and reviews on various video games, video game hardware and the entertainment video gaming industry; the magazine was published monthly with October 2011 being its last issue, after over 22 years of publication. GamePro's February 2010 issue introduced a redesigned layout and a new editorial direction focused on the people and culture of its gaming. GamePro.com was launched in 1998. Updated daily, the website’s content included feature articles, previews, reviews and videos covering video games, video game hardware and the entertainment gaming industry.
The website included user content such as forums and blogs. In January 2010, the website was redesigned to reflect the same new editorial changes being made in the print magazine; the website was based at Gamepro's headquarters in San Francisco from 1998–2002 and in Oakland, California from 2002–11. Gamepro.com had international variants that have now outlasted their parent publication in countries such as Germany, France. Gamepro was first established in late 1988 by Patrick Ferrell, his sister-in-law Leeanne McDermott, the husband-wife design team of Michael and Lynne Kavish, they worked out of their houses throughout the San Francisco Bay Area before leasing their first office in Redwood City, California at the end of 1989. Lacking the cashflow to be able to sustain growth after publishing the first issue, the founding management team sought a major publisher and in 1989 found one with IDG Peterborough, a New Hampshire-based division of the global giant IDG. Led by a merger and acquisition team comprising IDG Peterborough President Roger Murphy and two other executives, Jim McBrian and Roger Strukhoff, the magazine was acquired a few months spun off as an independent business unit of IDG, under the leadership of Ferrell as president/CEO.
The addition of John Rousseau as publisher and editor-in-chief Wes Nihei, as well as renowned artist Francis Mao, established Gamepro as a large, profitable magazine worldwide publication. Francis Mao, acting in his role as art director for the nascent GamePro, contracted game illustrator Marc Ericksen to create the premiere cover for the first addition of the magazine. Ericksen would go on to produce five of the first ten covers for GamePro creating eight in total, would continue a secondary role creating a number of the double page spreads for the popular monthly Pro Tips section. Over the years, the Gamepro offices have moved from Redwood City to San Mateo to San Francisco and lastly Oakland. In 1993, the company was renamed from Gamepro Inc. to Infotainment World in reflection of its growing and diverse publication lines. The magazine was known for its editors using comic book-like avatars and monikers when reviewing games; as of January 2004, Gamepro ceased to use the avatars due to a change in the overall design and layout of the magazine.
Meanwhile, editorial voices carried over to the community on its online sister publication, www.gamepro.com. Gamepro was most famous for its ProTips, small pieces of gameplay tips and advice depicted with game screenshot captions, it features a special corner section known as Code Vault, where secret codes are all posted. These particular features have since vanished. Code Vault was published in print format and sold as a quarterly cheats and strategy magazine on newsstands. There was a TV show called GamePro TV; the show was hosted by J. D. Brennan Howard; the show was nationally syndicated for one year moved to cable for a second year. In 1993, Patrick Ferrell sent Debra Vernon, VP of marketing, to a meeting between the games industry and the Consumer Electronics Show. Realizing an opportunity, the team at the now-entitled Infotainment World launched E3, the Electronic Entertainment Expo; the industry backed Ferrell partnered with the IDSA to produce the event. It was one of the biggest trade show launches in history.
Early in its lifespan, the magazine included comic book pages about the adventures of a superhero named Gamepro, a video game player from the real world brought into a dimension where video games were real to save it from creatures called the Evil Darklings. In 2003, Joyride Studios produced limited-edition action figures of some of the Gamepro editorial characters. Gamepro appeared in several international editions, including France, Spain, Italy, Australia and Greece; some of these publications share the North American content, while some others share only the name and logo but do feature different content. Early in 2006, IDG Entertainment began to change internally and shift operational focus from a "Print to Online" to "Online to Print" publishing mentality; the first steps. Enter: George Jones, industry veteran. In February 2006, Gamepro's online video channel, Games.net, launched a series of video-game related shows. The extensive online programming is geared towards an more mature audience.
In August 2006, the Gamepro onli