Sahih Muslim is one of the Kutub al-Sittah in Sunni Islam. It is acclaimed by Sunni Muslims as well as Zaidi Shia Muslims, it is considered the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj known as Imam Muslim. Sahih Muslim, together with Sahih al-Bukhari is termed as Sahihayn; the collector of the Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, was born into a Persian family in 204 AH in Nishapur and died in 261 AH in the city of his birth. He traveled to gather his collection of ahadith, including to areas now in Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria; each report in his collection was checked and the veracity of the chain of reporters was painstakingly established. Sunni Muslims consider it the second most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih Muslim is divided into 43 books. However, it is important to realize that Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj never claimed to collect all authentic traditions as his goal was to collect only traditions that all Muslims should agree on about accuracy.
According to Munthiri, there are a total of 2,200 hadiths in Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad Amin, there are 1,400 authentic hadiths that are reported in other books the six major hadith collections. Many Muslims regard this collection as the second most authentic of the six major hadith collections, containing only sahih hadith, an honor it shares only with Sahih al-Bukhari, both being referred to as the Two Sahihs. Shia Muslims dismiss some of its contents as fabrications or untrustworthy due to the questionable reliability of some narrators. Despite the book's high stature, the consensus of scholars on that it is the second most valid categorized book of Hadith, after Sahih al-Bukhari, it is agreed upon that this does not mean that every element in it is true, in comparison to other Hadith books, but means that the book as a whole is valid; such as the preference of Sahih al-Bukhari to Sahih Muslim, which does not mean that every Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than every Hadith in Sahih Muslim, but that the total of what is contained Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than the total of what is contained in Sahih Muslim, the validity of a certain Hadith form the two books of Hadith, over Hadith from other Sahih books, can not be inferred except after the correctness of that particular Hadith is shown.
Amin Ahsan Islahi, the noted Islamic scholar, has summarized some unique features of Sahih Muslim: Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Sahabah which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed such a strict criterion. Scientific arrangement of themes and chapters; the author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed this method. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj informs us. For example, he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān, he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain. Siyanah Sahih Muslim by Ibn al-Salah, of which only the beginning segment remains Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim by Al-Nawawi.
Fath al-Mulhim by Shabbir Ahmad Usmani. Takmilat Fath al-Mulhim by Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Summarized Sahih Muslim by Abd-al-Hamid Siddiqui; the text is used in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Sharh Sahih Muslim by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi Tafsir al-gharib ma fi al-Sahihayn by Al-HumaydīTranslations of commentaries of Sahih Muslims are available in numerous languages including English, Bangla and Bosnian. Kutub al-Sittah Sahih al-Bukhari Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik http://sunnah.com/muslim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66a9EKs0cu0 Life of Imam Muslim by Navaid Aziz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsMxmp3GSjY English translation with Arabic text English translation English translation with Arabic text pdf books English Translation of the Introduction to Sahih Muslim English translation with Arabic text English translation from Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
In Sunni Islam, the ulama, are the guardians and interpreters of religious knowledge, of Islamic doctrine and law. By longstanding tradition, ulama are educated in religious institutions; the Quran and Sunnah, are the sources of traditional Islamic law. Students did not associate themselves with a specific educational institution, but rather sought to join renowned teachers. By tradition, a scholar who had completed his studies was approved by his teacher. At the teacher's individual discretion, the student was given the permission for teaching and for the issuing of legal opinions; the official approval was known as the ijazat at-tadris wa'l-ifta. Through time, this practice established a chain of teachers and pupils who became teachers in their own time; the traditional place of higher education was the madrasa. The institution came up in Khurasan during the 10th century AD, spread to other parts of the Islamic world from the late 11th century onwards; the most famous early madrasas are the Sunni Niẓāmiyya, founded by the Seljuk vizir Nizam al-Mulk in Iran and Iraq in the 11th century.
The Mustansiriya, established by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mustansir in Baghdad in 1234 AD, was the first to be founded by a caliph, the first known to host teachers of all four major madhhab known at that time. From the time of the Persian Ilkhanate and the Timurid dynasty onwards, madrasas became part of an architectural complex which included a mosque, a Sufi ṭarīqa, other buildings of socio-cultural function, like baths or a hospital. Madrasas were places of learning, they provided boarding and salaries to a limited number of teachers, boarding for a number of students out of the revenue from religious endowments, allocated to a specific institution by the donor. In times, the deeds of endowment were issued in elaborate Islamic calligraphy, as is the case for Ottoman endowment books; the donor could specify the subjects to be taught, the qualification of the teachers, or which madhhab the teaching should follow. However, the donor was free to specify in detail the curriculum, as was shown by Ahmed and Filipovic for the Ottoman imperial madrasas founded by Suleiman the Magnificent.
As Berkey has described in detail for the education in medieval Cairo, unlike medieval Western universities, in general madrasas had no distinct curriculum, did not issue diplomas. The educational activities of the madrasas focused on the law, but included what Zaman called "Sharia sciences" as well as the rational sciences like philosophy, mathematics or medicine; the inclusion of these sciences sometimes reflect the personal interests of their donors, but indicate that scholars studied various different sciences. Early on in Islamic history, a line of thought developed around the idea of mysticism, striving for the perfection of worship. Originating out of Syria and Iraq rather than the Hijaz, the idea of Sufism was related to devotional practices of eastern Christian monasticism, although monastic life in Islam is discouraged by the Quran. During the first Islamic century, Ḥasan al-Baṣrī was one of the first Muslim scholars to describe, according to Albert Hourani "the sense of the distance and nearness of God... in the language of love".
During the 7th century, the ritual of Dhikr evolved as a "way of freeing the soul from the distractions of the world". Important early scholars who further elaborated on mysticism were Harith al-Muhasibi and Junayd al-Baghdadi; the early Muslim conquests brought about Arab Muslim rule over large parts of the Hellenistic world. During the time of the Umayyad Caliphate, at latest, the scholars of the emerging Islamic society had become familiar with the classical philosophical and scientific traditions of the world they had conquered; the collection of classical works and their translation into the Arabian language initiated a period, known today as the Islamic Golden Age. According to Hourani, the works of the classical scholars of antiquity were met with considerable intellectual curiosity by Islamic scholars. Hourani quotes al-Kindi, "the father of Islamic philosophy", as follows: "We should not be ashamed to acknowledge truth from whatever source it comes to us if it is brought to us by former generations and foreign peoples.
For him who seeks the truth there is nothing of higher value than truth itself." The works of Aristotle, in particular his Nicomachean Ethics, had a profound influence on the Islamic scholars of the Golden Age like Al-Farabi, Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri and Ibn Sīnā. In general, the Islamic philosophers saw no contradiction between philosophy and the religion of Islam. However, according to Hourani, al-Farabi wrote that philosophy in its pure form was reserved for an intellectual elite, that ordinary people should rely for guidance on the sharia; the distinction between a scholarly elite and the less educated masses "was to become a commonplace of Islamic thought". As exemplified by the works of al-Razi, during times, philosophy "was carried on as a private activity by medical men, pursued with discretion, met with suspicion"; the founder of Islamic philosophical ethics is Ibn Miskawayh He combined Aristotelian and Islamic ethics, explicitly mentioning the Nicomachean Ethics and its interpretati
History of Indian law
Law in India evolved from customary practices and religious prescription to the modern well codified acts and laws based on a constitution. Though the recorded history of law starts only in the Vedic period, it is believed that ancient India had some sort of legal system in place during the Bronze Age and the Indus Valley civilization; the various stages of evolution of Indian law is classified as that during the Vedic period, the Islamic period, the British period and post independence. In comparison with modern law, the classical Hindu law was a peculiar legal system as it followed a unique arrangement of law and polity with a unique scheme of values. Ancient India represented a distinct tradition of law, had a independent school of legal theory and practice; the main aim of the law in the Vedic period was to preserve "dharma" which means righteousness and duty. Dharma consists of religious duties, it not only includes laws and court procedures, but a wide range of human activities like ritual purification, personal hygiene regimes, modes of dress.
Dharma provided the principal guidance by. The sources of law during this period were Sruti and acharas. Sruti consist of the 4 Vedas namely Rigveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda; these Vedas chiefly dealt with religious duties and customs. The second source is called Smriti, which means'as remembered' and refers to tradition, they are the humanly authored written texts. Some of the most prominent Smriti are Dharmashastras; these texts were used for legal judgments and opinion. They dealt with the subject matter of dharma and were guidebooks on dharma with rules of conduct and rites. Dharmasutra discuss the rules for duties for all the ashrama: the student-hood, the house holdership, the retirement or forest dwelling, renunciation, they provide the rites and duties of kings and court proceedings. Other issues that are Dharmasutras cover include rules about one's diet and punishments, daily sacrifices, funeral practices. Dharmashastra contains three topics; the first is the âchâra, which provides rules on daily rituals, life-cycle rites, as well as specific duties and proper conduct that each of the four castes or varnas have to follow.
The daily rituals include practices about daily sacrifices, the kind of food to eat and how to obtain them, who can give and who can accept religious gifts. The life-cycle rites are the rituals that are conducted on important events in one's life like birth and tying of the sacred thread. Acharas provide rules for duties for all the ashrama. Ashrama are the four stages of life that include: Brahmacharya, Grahastha and Sanyasa; the second topic enumerated in the Dharmashastra is the'vyavâhara'. Vyavahara are legal procedures, they include the'rajadharma' or the duties and obligations of a king to organize court and examine witnesses and enforce punishment and pursue justice. The third category is called the'prâyaschitta', which lays down rules for punishments and penances for violating the laws of dharma, they are understood to remove the sin of committing something, forbidden. During the Vedic period the legal procedures including that of filing case were called vyavahara; the equivalent of modern plaint was called "purvapaksha", that of written statement as "uttar".
The trial was called "kriya" and verdict as "nirnaya". The profession of lawyers or advocates were unknown during this period. Trial by jury and trial by ordeal were the two types of trials. According to J. Rama Jois the ancient Indian and constitutional system had established a duty based society, it postulated that everybody from the king to the lowest of society is bound to fulfil his/her duty towards the society. This was same for the whole of India, notwithstanding the existence of larger and smaller kingdoms and the supremacy of Dharma over the kings as declared in the authoritative texts was respected in letter and spirits/ Thus there were no absolute monarchies; the Dharmasastras asked the kings to look upon the people as God and serve them with love and reverence. The doctrine of "king can do no wrong" was not accepted and the king himself was subjected to law. In ancient India, Naman was regarded as the fountain of justice has to act as the lord of Dharma and was entrusted with the supreme authority of the administration of justice and his foremost duty was to protect the rights of his subject.
The King's Court was the highest court. The King's Court was the highest court of appeal as well as an original court in cases of vital importance to the state. In the King's Court the King was advised by learned people like Learned Brahmins, the ministers, the Chief Justice etc; as mentioned by Brihaspati, there were four kinds of tribunals, stationary, movable courts held under the royal signet in the absence of the King, commissions under the King's presidency. So there was hierarchy of courts. In villages, the village councils dealt with simple criminal cases. At a higher level in towns and districts the courts were presided over by government officers under the authority of the King to administer justice. In order to deal with problems among members of artisanal class, traders etc. trade guilds
A qadi is the magistrate or judge of a Shariʿa court, who exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, supervision and auditing of public works. The term "qadi" was in use from the time of Muhammad and remained the term used for judges throughout Islamic history and the period of the caliphates. While the muftis and fuqaha played the role in elucidation of the principles of jurisprudence and the laws, the qadi remained the key person ensuring the establishment of justice on the basis of these laws and rules. Thus, the qadi was chosen from amongst those who had mastered the sciences of law. In constructing their legal doctrine, these legal scholars took as their point of departure the precedents established by the qadis. During the period of the Abbasid Caliphate, the office of the qadi al-qudat was established. Among the most famous of the early qadi al-qudat was Qadi Abu Yusuf, a disciple of the famous early jurist Abu Hanifa; the office of the qadi continued to be a important one in every principality of the caliphates and sultanates of the Muslim empires over the centuries.
The rulers appointed qadis in every region and village for judicial and administrative control and to establish peace and justice over the dominions they controlled. The Abbasids created the office of chief qadi, whose holder acted as adviser to the caliph in the appointment and dismissal of qadis. Islamic states retained this office, while granting to its holder the authority to issue appointments and dismissals in his own name; the Mamluk state, which ruled Egypt and Syria from 1250 to 1516 CE, introduced the practice of appointing four chief qadis, one for each of the Sunni legal schools. Although the primary responsibility of a qadi was a judicial one, he was charged with certain nonjudicial responsibilities as well, such as the administration of religious endowments, the legitimization of the accession or deposition of a ruler, the execution of wills, the accreditation of witnesses, guardianship over orphans and others in need of protection, supervision of the enforcement of public morals.
A qadi is a judge responsible for the application of Islamic positive law. The office originated under the rule of the first Umayyad caliphs, when the provincial governors of the newly created Islamic empire, unable to adjudicate the many disputes that arose among Muslims living within their territories, began to delegate this function to others. In this early period of Islamic history, no body of Islamic positive law had yet come into existence, the first qadis therefore decided cases on the basis of the only guidelines available to them: Arab customary law, the laws of the conquered territories, the general precepts of the Qurʾān, their own sense of equity. During the Umayyad period, a growing class of Muslim legal scholars, distinct from the qadis, busied themselves with the task of supplying the needed body of law, by the time of the accession to power of the Abbasid dynasty in 750 their work could be said to have been completed. In constructing their legal doctrine, these legal scholars took as their point of departure the precedents established by the qadis, some of which they rejected as inconsistent with Islamic principles as these were coming to be understood, but most of which they adopted, with or without modification.
Thus the first qadis in effect laid the foundations of Islamic positive law. Once this law had been formed, the role of the qadi underwent a profound change. No longer free to follow the guidelines mentioned above, a qadi was now expected to adhere to the new Islamic law, this adherence has characterized the office since. A qadi continued, however, to be a delegate of a higher authority the caliph or, after the demise of the caliphate, the supreme ruler in a given territory; this delegate status implies the absence of a separation of powers. On the other hand, a certain degree of autonomy was enjoyed by a qadi in that the law that he applied was not the creation of the supreme ruler or the expression of his will. What a qadi owed to the supreme ruler was the power to apply the law, for which sanctions were necessary that only the supreme ruler as head of the state could guarantee. Similar to a qadi, a mufti is an interpreting power of Shari'a law. Muftis are jurists that give authoritative legal opinions, or fatwas, have been known to rank above qadis.
With the introduction of the secular court system in the 19th century, Ottoman councils began to enforce criminal legislation, in order to emphasize their position as part of the new executive. This creation of the hierarchical secular judiciary did not displace the original Shari'a courts. Shari'a justice developed along lines comparable to what happened to the organization of secular justice: greater bureaucratization, more precise legal circumscription of jurisdiction, the creation of a hierarchy; this development began in 1856. Until the Qadi’s Ordinance of 1856, the qadis were appointed by the Porte and were part of the Ottoman religious judiciary; this Ordinance recommends the consultation of muftis and'ulama'. In practice, the sentences of qadis were checked by muftis appointed to the courts. Other important decisions were checked by the mufti of the Majlis al-Ahkdm or by a council of'ulama' connected with it, it is said that if the local qadi and mufti disagreed, it became cu
The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty; the sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language; the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughal Empire; the context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes.
This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves rose up to become rulers, conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent, it is part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab; the wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. The raids did not extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms; the Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.
Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time. Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others. After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves, the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish. Iltutmish's power was precarious, a number of Muslim amirs challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power, his rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, this led to a series of wars.
Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He
The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature; the Quran is divided into chapters. Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, through the archangel Gabriel, incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad; the word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, other names and words are said to refer to the Quran. According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it; the codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman's codex, considered the archetype of the Quran known today.
There are, variant readings, with minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures, it summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185, it sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, it emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Hadith are additional written traditions supplementing the Quran. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia law. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.
The word qurʼān appears assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun of the Arabic verb qaraʼa, meaning "he read" or "he recited"; the Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it."In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited ". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." The word may assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term has related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran; each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts.
Such terms include kitāb. The latter two terms denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts with a definite article, the word is referred to as the "revelation", that, "sent down" at intervals. Other related words are: dhikr, used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, ḥikmah, sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it; the Quran describes itself as "the discernment", "the mother book", "the guide", "the wisdom", "the remembrance" and "the revelation". Another term is al-kitāb, though it is used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels; the term mus'haf is used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. Islamic tradition relates that Muhammad received his first revelation in the Cave of Hira during one of his isolated retreats to the mountains. Thereafter, he received revelations over a period of 23 years. According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad immigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily.
It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the Battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. Thus a group of Muslims became literate; as it was spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Mu
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in