Presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
The Presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad consists of the 9th and 10th governments of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Ahmadinejad's government began in August 2005 after his election as the 6th president of Iran and continued after his re-election in 2009. Ahmadinejad left office in August 2013 at the end of his second term, his administration was succeeded by the 11th government, led by Hassan Rouhani. In Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's government has seen controversy over policies such as his 2007 Gas Rationing Plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption, cuts in maximum interest rates permitted to private and public banking facilities. Abroad, his dismissal of international sanctions against Iran's nuclear energy program, his call for an end of the state of Israeli and description of the Holocaust as a myth, has drawn criticism. Ahmadinejad was not known when he entered the presidential election campaign, although he had made his mark in Tehran for rolling back earlier reforms, he is a member of the Central Council of the Islamic Society of Engineers, but his key political support is inside the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran.
Ahmadinejad sent mixed signals about his plans for his presidency to attract both religious conservatives and the lower economic classes. His campaign slogan was: "It's possible and we can do it". In the campaign, he took a populist approach, he emphasized his own modest life, compared himself with Mohammad Ali Rajai, Iran's second president. Ahmadinejad said, he was a "principlist", acting politically based on revolutionary principles. One of his goals was "putting the petroleum income on people's tables", meaning Iran's oil profits would be distributed among the poor. Ahmadinejad was the only presidential candidate who spoke out against future relations with the United States, he told Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting the United Nations was "one-sided, stacked against the world of Islam." He opposed the veto power of the UN Security Council's five permanent members: "It is not just for a few states to sit and veto global approvals. Should such a privilege continue to exist, the Muslim world with a population of nearly 1.5 billion should be extended the same privilege."
He defended Iran's nuclear program and accused "a few arrogant powers" of trying to limit Iran's industrial and technological development in this and other fields. In his second round campaign, he said, "We didn't participate in the revolution for turn-by-turn government.…This revolution tries to reach a world-wide government." He spoke of an extended program using trade to improve foreign relations, called for greater ties with Iran's neighbours and ending visa requirements between states in the region, saying that "people should visit anywhere they wish freely. People should have freedom in their pilgrimages and tours."Ahmadinejad described Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, a senior cleric from Qom as his ideological and spiritual mentor. Mesbah founded the Haghani School of thought in Iran, he and his team supported Ahmadinejad's 2005 presidential campaign. Ahmadinejad won 62 percent of the vote in the run-off poll against Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei authorized his presidency on 3 August 2005.
Ahmedinejad kissed Khamenei's hand during the ceremony to show his loyalty. Ahmadinejad's team lost the 2006 city council elections, his spiritual mentor, Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, was ranked sixth on the country's Assembly of Experts. In the first nationwide election since Ahmadinejad became President, his allies failed to dominate election returns for the Assembly of Experts and local councils. Results, with a turnout of about 60%, suggested a voter shift toward more moderate policies. According to an editorial in the Kargozaran independent daily newspaper, "The results show that voters have learned from the past and concluded that we need to support.. Moderate figures." An Iranian political analyst said that "this is a blow for Ahmadinejad and Mesbah Yazdi's list." On 23 August 2008, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei announced that he "sees Ahmadinejad as president in the next five years," a comment interpreted as indicating support for Ahmadinejad's reelection. 39,165,191 ballots were cast in the election on 12 June 2009, according to Iran's election headquarters.
Ahmadinejad won 24,527,516 votes. In second place, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, won 13,216,411 of the votes; the election drew unprecedented public interest in Iran. The election results were disputed by both Mousavi and Ahmadinejad and their respective supporters who believed that electoral fraud occurred during the election. Street protests commenced the day after the election and continued off and on into 2010. Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei declared the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a "divine assessment," and formally endorsed Ahmadinejad as President on 3 August 2009. Ahmadinejad was sworn in for a second term on 5 August 2009. Several Iranian political figures appeared to avoid the ceremony. Former presidents Mohammad Khatami, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, head of the Expediency Discernment Council, along with opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi, did not attend the ceremony. Opposition groups asked protesters on reformist websites and blogs to launch new street demonstrations on the day of the inauguration ceremony.
On inauguration day, hundreds of riot police met opposition protesters outside parliament. After taking the oath of office, broadcast live on Irani
Sadeq Khalilian is an Iranian economist and politician who served as agriculture minister from 2009 to 2013 in the government headed by Mahmoud Ahmedinejad. Khalilian was born in Ahvaz in the Khouzaestan province in 1959, he holds a bachelor's degree from Ahvaz University. He received a PhD in agricultural economy from Tarbiat Modares University in 1996. During his studies, he was a member of the Islamic Association of Students. Khalilian became a member of IRGC after graduation. In 1990, he began to work at Tarbiat Modares University's faculty of agriculture as a faculty member. From 1998 to 2000, he served at different administrative positions at the university, he served as deputy agriculture minister until 2009. After the presidential elections in 2009, Ahmedinejad nominated Khalilian as agriculture minister, he was approved by the Majlis on 3 September 2009. He won 200 votes in 54 votes against. Khalilian registered for the 2013 presidential election, but he withdrew his candidacy on 14 May
Alireza Ali Ahmadi is an Iranian politician and former Minister of Education from 2006 to 2009. Before his appointment as Minister of Education, he was Chancellor of Payame Noor University, he was proposed Minister of Commerce in Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's first cabinet which he was not confirmed by the Iranian Parliament. He was one of the candidates in 2013 presidential election but was withdrew on 21 May
Mohammad-Hassan Nami is an Iranian military officer. He held office as the minister of communication and information technology under Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2013. Nami served as head of the geography organization of the Iranian armed forces, deputy chairperson of joint chiefs-of-staff of Iranian Army and deputy minister of defence and armed forces logistics, he was the military attaché of Iranian embassy in Pyongyang, North Korea and holds a doctorate degree in state management from Kim Il Sung University, as well as a Ph. D. in political geography and one in strategic management
Qom is the seventh metropolis and the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province, it is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158, it is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida; the city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, is a significant destination of pilgrimage, with around twenty million pilgrims visiting the city every year, the majority being Iranians but other Shi'a Muslims from all around the world. Qom is famous for a Persian brittle toffee known as Sohan, considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops. Qom has developed into a lively industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran, it is a regional centre for the distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, a natural gas pipeline from Bandar Anzali and Tehran and a crude oil pipeline from Tehran run through Qom to the Abadan refinery on the Persian Gulf.
Qom gained additional prosperity when oil was discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran. Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south on a low plain; the shrine of Fatimeh Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. The city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, comprising 528,332 women. Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiʿah both around the globe. Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten Marja'-e taqlid or "Source to be Followed" that reside there; the number of seminary schools in Qom is now over fifty, the number of research institutes and libraries somewhere near two hundred and fifty.
Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom. Another popular religious site of pilgrimage outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom's proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Qom. Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan. Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Naraq, Pardisan City and Jasb; the surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh and Ashtian and Jafarieh. Qom has a hot desert climate with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Summer weather is hot and rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. An example of the latter situation was in January 2008 when minima fell to −23 °C or −9.4 °F on the 15th, whilst earlier similar situations occurred in January 1964 and to a lesser extent January 1950, January 1972 and December 1972.
The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be documented, although the earlier epochs remain unclear. Excavations at Tepe Sialk indicate that the region had been settled since ancient times, more recent surveys have revealed traces of large inhabited places south of Qom, dating from the 4th and 1st millennium BC. While nothing is known about the area from Elamite and Achaemenid times, there are significant archeological remains from the Seleucid and Parthian epochs, of which the ruins of Khurha are the most famous and important remnants, their dating and function have instigated long and controversial debates and interpretations, for they have been interpreted and explained variously as the remains of a Sasanian temple, or of a Seleucid Dionysian temple, or of a Parthian complex. Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the nearby highway and was used until Sasanian times.
The published results of the excavations carried out in 1955 by Iranian archeologists have, revived the old thesis of a Seleucid religious building. Besides Khurha, mentioned as Khor Abad at Qomi in the 9th century, the region has turned up a few other remnants from this epoch, including the four Parthian heads found near Qom, now kept in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran. Qomi names Parthian personalities as founders of villages in the Qom area; the possible mention of Qom in the form of Greek names in two ancient geographical works remains doubtful. The Sasanian epoch offers many archeological findings and remnants, besides the fact that various sources mention Qom; the most interesting building from an archeological point of view is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar in Qom itself, long thought to have served religious purposes, while more recent research points to an administrative use. The wider surroundings of Qom contain numerous traces from palaces, religious and administrative buildings; some of these are mentioned by Qomi, who names many more fire temples in the urban area of present
Vice President of Iran
The Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs. As of July 2009, there are 12 Vice Presidents in Iran; the First Vice President is the most important as he or she leads cabinet meetings in the absence of the president. The role of First Vice President was created in the revision of the Constitution in 1989, it took over some of the responsibilities of the Prime Minister. According to Article 124, the First Vice President chairs the board of ministers and coordinates the other vice presidencies, if let by the President. According to Article 131, the First Vice President takes over as acting President in cases where the President in incapacitated, but only if permitted by the Supreme Leader. According to the same Article, the First Vice President must make sure that a new president is elected in fifty days. According to Article 132, during the time an Acting President is serving, the Majlis cannot impeach ministers and it can't disapprove newly introduced ministers.
Referendums and revisions to the Constitution are forbidden. Current officeholders are ex officio Vice Presidents: Vice President and Head of Environmental Protection Organization Vice President and Head of Atomic Energy Organization Vice President and Head of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization Vice President and Head of Management and Planning Organization Vice President and Head of Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs Vice President and Head of National Elites Foundation Vice President and Head of Administrative and Employment Affairs OrganizationFormerly, heads of these two organization below were ex-officio Vice Presidents: Vice President and Head of Physical Education Organization Vice President and Head of National Youth OrganizationBoth organizations were merged into Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports; the President may or may not choose vice presidents for specific issues, but their existence is not obligatory. Some of the offices held by vice presidents are: Vice President for Parliamentary Affairs Vice President for Legal Affairs Vice President for Executive Affairs Vice President for International Affairs Vice President for Economic Affairs Vice President for Women and Family Affairs Vice President for Management and Human Resources Development Vice President for Supervision and Strategic Affairs Vice President for Development and Social Affairs Chief of Staff of the President of Iran Advisor to the President of Iran Aide to the President of Iran
Ali Akbar Salehi
Ali Akbar Salehi is an Iranian academic and the head of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. He served as head of AEOI from 2009 to 2010 and was appointed to the post for a second time on 16 August 2013. Before his appointment of his current position, he was foreign affairs minister from 2010 to 2013, he was the Iranian representative in the International Atomic Energy Agency from 1998 to 2003. Salehi was born in Iraq, on 24 March 1949 to ethnic Persian parents, he received a bachelor of science degree in physics from the American University of Beirut in 1971 and a PhD in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977. Salehi is fluent in Arabic, in addition to his native Persian. Salehi is full professor and was chancellor of the Sharif University of Technology and a member of the Academy of Sciences of Iran and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Italy, he served as the chancellor of the Sharif University of Technology from 1982 to 1985 and once again from 1989 to 1993.
While chancellor, Salehi was involved in an attempt to obtain dual-use technologies from a European supplier, according to David Albright of the Institute for Science and International Security, citing some 1,600 telex documents from the 1990s. He was chancellor of Imam Khomeini International University for two years. An ISIS report claims the Physics Research Center acted as a front in the late 1980s and early 1990s to obtain illicit nuclear technologies. ISIS claims. Salehi was appointed as permanent representative of Iran to International Atomic Energy Agency by the president Mohammad Khatami on 13 March 1997 and remained in the post until 22 August 2005. On 18 December 2003, Salehi signed the Additional Protocol to the safeguard agreement, on behalf of Iran, he was replaced by Pirooz Hosseini. Salehi was deputy secretary-general of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference under Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu from 2007 to 2009, he resigned on 16 July 2009 when President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad appointed Salehi as the new head of Iran's Atomic Energy Organization, replacing Gholam Reza Aghazadeh who resigned on 10 July.
Salehi resigned from office on 23 January 2011. On 13 December 2010, Ahmadinejad dismissed Manouchehr Mottaki for unknown reasons and appointed Salehi in an acting capacity. On 23 January 2011, Ahmadinejad nominated Salehi to become foreign minister; the Iranian Parliament voted him on 30 January and he became the foreign minister of Iran, gaining 146 positive votes. The European Union and the Treasury of the United Kingdom had put Salehi into the sanction list as an asset freeze target on 18 November 2009 due to his previous involvement in Iran's nuclear programme; the EU waived this designation when he became foreign minister in 2010. His term as foreign minister ended on 15 August 2013 when Mohammad Javad Zarif took the position in the elected President Hassan Rouhani's government. A day after, Rouhani appointed Salehi as head of Atomic Energy Organization for a second time on 16 August 2013. Salehi replaced Fereydoon Abbasi in the post; as the head of the AEOI when Iran was facing increased scrutiny in light of International Atomic Energy Agency findings, Salehi was designated for financial sanctions and travel restrictions by the European Union and the United Kingdom.
Salehi and Ernest Moniz joined 2015 Geneva Iran and P5+1 nuclear talks to discuss more about technical aspects of Iran nuclear program. Salehi has been selected among the ten people who mattered the year 2015 by Nature magazine because of his role in nuclear talks. Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant List of Iranian officials