A father is the male parent of a child. Besides the paternal bonds of a father to his children, the father may have a parental and social relationship with the child that carries with it certain rights and obligations. An adoptive father is a male who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological father is the male genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or sperm donation. A biological father may have legal obligations to a child not raised by him, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative father is a man whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepfather is a male, the husband of a child's mother and they may form a family unit, but who does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child; the adjective "paternal" comparatively to "maternal" for a mother. The verb "to father" means to procreate or to sire a child from which derives the noun "fathering".
Biological fathers determine the sex of their child through a sperm cell which either contains an X chromosome, or Y chromosome. Related terms of endearment are dad, pappa and pop. A male role model that children can look up to is sometimes referred to as a father-figure; the paternity rights of a father with regard to his children differ from country to country reflecting the level of involvement and roles expected by that society. Paternity leaveParental leave is when a father takes time off to support his newly born or adopted baby. Paid paternity leave first began in Sweden in 1976, is paid in more than half of European Union countries. In the case of male same-sex couples the law makes no provision for either one or both fathers to take paternity leave. Child custodyFathers' rights movements such as Fathers 4 Justice argue that family courts are biased against fathers. Child supportChild. Paternity fraudAn estimated 2% of British fathers experiences paternity fraud during a non-paternity event, bringing up a child they wrongly believe to be their biological offspring.
In all cultures fathers are regarded as secondary caregivers. This perception is changing with more and more fathers becoming primary caregivers, while mothers go to work or in single parenting situations, male same-sex parenting couples. In the West, the image of the married father as the primary wage-earner is changing; the social context of fatherhood plays an important part in the well-being of men and all their children. In the United States 16% of single parents were men as of 2013. Involved fathers offer developmentally specific provisions to their children and are impacted themselves by doing so. Active father figures may play a role in reducing behavior and psychological problems in young adults. An increased amount of father–child involvement may help increase a child's social stability, educational achievement, their potential to have a solid marriage as an adult, their children may be more curious about the world around them and develop greater problem solving skills. Children who were raised with fathers perceive themselves to be more cognitively and physically competent than their peers without a father.
Mothers raising children together with a father reported less severe disputes with their child. The father-figure is not always a child's biological father and some children will have a biological father as well as a step- or nurturing father; when a child is conceived through sperm donation, the donor will be the "biological father" of the child. Fatherhood as legitimate identity can be dependent on domestic behaviors. For example, a study of the relationship between fathers, their sons, home computers found that the construction of fatherhood and masculinity required that fathers display computer expertise. Roman law defined fatherhood as "Mater semper certa; the recent emergence of accurate scientific testing DNA testing, has resulted in the family law relating to fatherhood experiencing rapid changes. In medieval and most of modern European history, caring for children was predominantly the domain of mothers, whereas fathers in many societies provide for the family as a whole. Since the 1950s, social scientists and feminists have challenged gender roles in Western countries, including that of the male breadwinner.
Policies are targeting fatherhood as a tool of changing gender relations. In early human history there have been notable instances of patricide. For example: Tukulti-Ninurta I, Assyrian king, was killed by his own son after sacking Babylon. Sennacherib, Assyrian king, was killed by two of his sons for his desecration of Babylon. King Kassapa I creator of the Sigiriya citadel of ancient Sri Lanka killed his father king Dhatusena for the throne. Emperor Yang of Sui in Chinese history killed his father, Emperor Wen of Sui. Beatrice Cenci, Italian noblewoman who, according to legend, killed her father after he imprisoned and raped her, she was condemned and beheaded for the crime along with her brother and her stepmother in 1599. Lizzie Borden killed her father and her stepmother with an axe in Fall River, Massachusetts, in 1892, she was acquitted. Iyasus I of Ethiopia, one of the great warrior emperors of Ethiopia, was deposed by his son Tekle Haymanot in 1706 and subsequentl
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day is an American federal holiday marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr, it is observed on the third Monday of January each year, around King's birthday, January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act; the earliest Monday for this holiday is January 15 and the latest is January 21. King was the chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which protested racial discrimination in federal and state law; the campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays, it was observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000. The idea of Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a holiday was promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations. After King's death, U.
S. Representative John Conyers and U. S. Senator Edward Brooke introduced a bill in Congress to make King's birthday a national holiday; the bill first came to a vote in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1979. However, it fell five votes short of the number needed for passage. Two of the main arguments mentioned by opponents were that a paid holiday for federal employees would be too expensive, that a holiday to honor a private citizen would be contrary to longstanding tradition. Only two other figures have national holidays in the U. S. honoring them: George Washington and Christopher Columbus. Soon after, the King Center turned to support from the corporate community and the general public; the success of this strategy was cemented when musician Stevie Wonder released the single "Happy Birthday" to popularize the campaign in 1980 and hosted the Rally for Peace Press Conference in 1981. Six million signatures were collected for a petition to Congress to pass the law, termed by a 2006 article in The Nation as "the largest petition in favor of an issue in U.
S. history". Senators Jesse Helms and John Porter East led opposition to the holiday and questioned whether King was important enough to receive such an honor. Helms criticized King's opposition to the Vietnam War and accused him of espousing "action-oriented Marxism". Helms led a filibuster against the bill and on October 3, 1983, submitted a 300-page document to the Senate alleging that King had associations with communists. Democratic New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan declared the document a "packet of filth", threw it on the Senate floor and stomped on it. President Ronald Reagan opposed the holiday, citing cost concerns; when asked to comment on Helms' accusations that King was a communist, the president said "We'll know in thirty-five years, won't we?", in reference to the eventual release of FBI surveillance tapes, sealed. But on November 2, 1983, Reagan signed a bill, proposed by Representative Katie Hall of Indiana, to create a federal holiday honoring King; the bill had passed the Senate by a count of 78 to 22 and the House of Representatives by 338 to 90, veto-proof margins.
The holiday was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986. It is observed on the third Monday of January; the bill established the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal Holiday Commission to oversee observance of the holiday, Coretta Scott King, King's wife, was made a member of this commission for life by President George H. W. Bush in May 1989. Although the federal holiday honoring King was signed into law in 1983 and took effect three years not every U. S. state chose to observe the holiday at the state level until 1991, when the New Hampshire legislature created "Civil Rights Day" and abolished "Fast Day". In 2000, Utah became the last state to name a holiday after King when "Human Rights Day" was changed to "Martin Luther King Jr. Day". In 1986, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat, created a paid state MLK holiday in Arizona by executive order just before he left office, but in 1987, his Republican successor Evan Mecham, citing an attorney general's opinion that Babbitt's order was illegal, reversed Babbitt's decision days after taking office.
That year, Mecham proclaimed the third Sunday in January to be "Martin Luther King Jr./Civil Rights Day" in Arizona, albeit as an unpaid holiday. In 1990, Arizona voters were given the opportunity to vote on giving state employees a paid MLK holiday; that same year, the National Football League threatened to move Super Bowl XXVII, planned for Arizona in 1993, if the MLK holiday was voted down. In the November election, the voters were offered two King Day options: Proposition 301, which replaced Columbus Day on the list of paid state holidays, Proposition 302, which merged Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays into one paid holiday to make room for MLK Day. Both measures failed to pass, with only 49% of voters approving Prop 302, the more popular of the two options; the state lost the chance to host Super Bowl XXVII, subsequently held at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. In a 1992 referendum, the voters, this time given only one option for a paid King Day, approved state-level recognition of the holiday.
On May 2, 2000, South Carolina governor Jim Hodges signed a bill to make King's birthday an official state holiday. South Carolina was the last state to recognize the day as a paid holiday for all state employees. Prior to this, employees could choose between celebrating Martin Lu
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics becoming governor, his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. The next year, he was elected vice president of the United States, he succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and as a man who said little and had a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity; as a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions.
That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength". Scholars have ranked Coolidge in the lower half of those presidents, he is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire economics, while supporters of an active central government view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only US president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Junior was called by his middle name, Calvin. Coolidge Senior engaged in many occupations and developed a statewide reputation as a prosperous farmer and public servant, he held various local offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector and served in the Vermont House of Representatives as well as the Vermont Senate. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer.
She was chronically ill and died from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of 15 of appendicitis, when Coolidge was 18. Coolidge's father married a Plymouth schoolteacher in 1891, lived to the age of 80. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638. Coolidge's great-great-grandfather named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth, his grandfather Calvin Galusha Coolidge served in the Vermont House of Representatives. Coolidge was a descendant of Samuel Appleton, who settled in Ipswich and led the Massachusetts Bay Colony during King Philip's War. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and St. Johnsbury Academy, before enrolling at Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the debating class; as a senior, he graduated cum laude. While at Amherst, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, a Congregational mystic, with a neo-Hegelian philosophy.
Coolidge explained Garman's ethics forty years later: here is a standard of righteousness that might does not make right, that the end does not justify the means, that expediency as a working principle is bound to fail. The only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give, yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry. What they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great, but the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service... At his father's urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the common practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field, reading law with them. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County.
In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge opened his own law office in Northampton in 1898, he practiced commercial law. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services. In 1903, Coolidge met Grace Anna Goodhue, a University of Vermont graduate and teacher at Northampton's Clarke School for the Deaf, they married on October 4, 1905 at 2:30 p.m. in a small ceremony which took place in the parlor of Grace's family's house, following a vain effort at postponement by Grace's mother. The newlyweds went on a honeymoon trip to Montreal planned for two weeks but cut short by a week at Coolidge's request. After 25 years he wrote of Grace, "for a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities and I have rejoiced in her graces"; the Coolidges had two sons: John and Calvin Jr.. Calvin Jr. died at age 16 from blood poisoning. On June 30, 1924 Calvin Jr had played tennis with his brother on the White House tennis courts without putting on socks and developed a blister on one of his toes.
The blister subsequently
U.S. Open (golf)
The United States Open Championship known as the U. S. Open, is the annual open national championship of golf in the United States, it is the third of the four major championships in golf, is on the official schedule of both the PGA Tour and the European Tour. Since 1898 the competition has been 72 holes of stroke play, with the winner being the player with the lowest total number of strokes, it is staged by the United States Golf Association in mid-June, scheduled so that, if there are no weather delays, the final round is played on the third Sunday, Father's Day. The U. S. Open is staged at a variety of courses, set up in such a way that scoring is difficult, with a premium placed on accurate driving; as of 2019 the U. S. Open awards a $12 million purse, the largest of all 4 major championships and second largest of all PGA Tour events; the first U. S. Open was played on October 4, 1895, on a nine-hole course at the Newport Country Club in Newport, Rhode Island, it was played in a single day. Ten professionals and one amateur entered.
The winner was Horace Rawlins, a 21-year-old Englishman, who had arrived in the U. S. earlier that year to take up a position at the host club. He received $150 cash out of a prize fund of $335, plus a $50 gold medal. In the beginning, the tournament was dominated by experienced British players until 1911, when John J. McDermott became the first native-born American winner. American golfers soon began to win and the tournament evolved to become one of the four majors. Since 1911, the title has been won by players from the United States. Since 1950, players from only six countries other than the United States have won the championship, most notably South Africa, which has won five times since 1965. A streak of four consecutive non-American winners occurred from 2004 to 2007 for the first time since 1910; these four players, South African Retief Goosen, New Zealander Michael Campbell, Australian Geoff Ogilvy and Argentine Ángel Cabrera, are all from countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Northern Ireland's Graeme McDowell became the first European player to win the event since Tony Jacklin of England in 1970.
U. S. Open play is characterized by tight scoring at or around par by the leaders, with the winner emerging at around par. A U. S. Open course is beaten and there have been many over-par wins. An Open course is quite long and will have a high cut of primary rough; some courses that are attempting to get into the rotation for the U. S. Open will undergo renovations to develop these features. Rees Jones is the most notable of the "Open Doctors"; as with any professional golf tournament, the available space surrounding the course and local infrastructure factor into deciding which courses will host the event. The U. S. Open is open to any professional, or to any amateur with a USGA Handicap Index not exceeding 1.4. Players may obtain a place by being exempt or by competing in qualifying; the field is 156 players. About half of the field is made up of players who are exempt from qualifying; the current exemption categories are: Winners of the U. S. Open for the last ten years Winner and runner-up from the previous year's U.
S. Amateur and winners of the previous year's U. S. Junior Amateur and U. S. Mid-Amateur Winner of the previous year's Amateur Championship The previous year's Mark H. McCormack Medal winner for the top-ranked amateur golfer in the world Winners of each of Masters Tournament, Open Championship and PGA Championship for the last five years Winners of the last three Players Championships Winner of the current year's BMW PGA Championship Winner of the last U. S. Senior Open In the year after the Olympic golf tournament, the reigning men's gold medalist Top 10 finishers and ties from the previous year's U. S. Open Players who qualified for the previous year's Tour Championship The top 60 in the Official World Golf Ranking as of two weeks before the start of the tournament The top 60 in the OWGR as of the tournament date Special exemptions selected by the USGA All remaining spots after the second top 60 OWGR cutoff date filled by alternates from qualifying tournaments; the exemptions for amateurs apply.
Before 2011, the sole OWGR cutoff for entry was the top 50 as of two weeks before the tournament. An exemption category for the top 50 as of the tournament date was added for 2011 in response to the phenomenon of golfers entering the top 50 between the original cutoff date and the tournament. Through 2011, exemptions existed for leading money winners on the PGA, European and Australasian tours, as well as winners of multiple PGA Tour eve
Hallmark Cards, Inc. is a private, family-owned U. S. company based in Missouri. Founded in 1910 by Joyce Hall, Hallmark is the oldest and largest manufacturer of greeting cards in the United States. In 1985, the company was awarded the National Medal of Arts. In addition to greeting cards, Hallmark manufactures such products as party goods, gift wrap, stationery. Hallmark acquired Binney & Smith in 1987, would change its name to Crayola, LLC after its well-known Crayola brand of crayons and colored pencils; the company is involved in television, having produced the long-running Hallmark Hall of Fame series since 1951, launching the Hallmark Channel 50 years later. Driven by an early 20th-century postcard craze, Joyce Clyde Hall and his older brothers and Rollie, began the Norfolk Post Card Company in 1907 headquartered in the Norfolk, Nebraska bookstore at which they worked; the next year, Rollie bought out the store's non-family business partner and it became "Hall Brothers", doing business as the Hall Book Store.
The postcard business soon outgrew the store's resources, Joyce moved it to Kansas City in 1910. By 1912, the postcard craze had faded and the company had begun selling "Christmas letters" and greeting cards, shortening its name a few years to the Norfolk Card Company. In 1917, Hall and his brother Rollie "invented" modern wrapping paper when they ran out of traditional colored tissue paper at the stationery store and substituted fancy French envelope lining paper. After selling the lining paper again the next year, the Hall Brothers started printing their own designed wrapping paper. In 1922, the company expanded throughout the country; the staff grew from 4 to 120 people, the line increased from holiday cards to include everyday greeting cards. In 1928, the company introduced the brand name Hallmark, after the hallmark symbol used by goldsmiths in London in the 14th century, began printing the name on the back of every card; that same year, the company became the first in the greeting card industry to advertise their product nationally.
Their first advertisement appeared in Ladies' Home Journal and was written by J. C. Hall himself. In 1931, the Canadian William E. Coutts Company, Ltd. a major card maker, became an affiliate of Hall Brothers – their first international business venture. In 1944, it adopted its current slogan, "When you care enough to send the best." It was created by C. E. Goodman, a Hallmark marketing and sales executive, written on a 3x5 card; the card is on display at the company headquarters. In 1951, Hall sponsored a television program for NBC that gave rise to the Hallmark Hall of Fame, which has won 80 Emmy Awards. Hallmark now has its own cable television channel, the Hallmark Channel, established in 2001. For a period of about 15 years, Hallmark owned a stake in the Spanish language network Univision. In 1954, the company name was changed from Hall Brothers to Hallmark. In 1958, William E. Coutts Company, Ltd. was acquired by Hallmark. Until the 1990s, Hallmark's Canadian branch was known as Coutts Hallmark.
In 1973, Hallmark Cards started manufacturing Christmas ornaments. The first collection included 18 ornaments, including six glass ball ornaments; the Hallmark Keepsake Ornament collection is available for just one year. By 1998, 11 million American households collected Hallmark ornaments, 250,000 people were members of the Keepsake Ornament Collector's Club; the Collector's Club was launched nationally on June 1, 1987. One noted Christmas ornament authority is Clara Johnson Scroggins who has written extensively about Keepsake Ornaments and has one of the largest private collections of Christmas ornaments. In 1980, Hallmark Cards acquired Valentine & Sons of Dundee, one of the world's oldest publishers of picture postcards. In 1998, Hallmark made a number of acquisitions, including Britain-based Creative Publishing, U. S.-based InterArt. Worldwide, Hallmark has over 27,000 employees. About 2,700 Hallmarkers work at the Kansas City headquarters. Donald J. Hall Sr. serves as chairman. Donald J. Hall Jr. serves as CEO.
David E. Hall is the company president. Hallmark's creative staff consists of around 900 artists, stylists, writers and photographers. Together, they generate more than 19,000 new and redesigned greeting cards and related products per year; the company offers more than 48,000 products in its model line at any one time. Hallmark offers or has offered the following products and services: Hallmark Cards feature several brands and licenses. Shoebox, the company's line of humorous cards, evolved from studio cards. Maxine, was introduced in 1986 when she appeared on several Shoebox cards the year the alternative card line was launched. Hoops & yoyo, were characters created by Mike Adair. Revilo is another popular line, by artist Oliver Christianson. Forever Friends was purchased in 1994 from English entrepreneur Andrew Brownsword, who for four years subsequently was Chief Executive of Hallmark Europe. Image Craft was acquired by the William E. Coutts Company subsidiary of Hallmark Canada in the mid-2000s.
Hallmark has provided software for printing cards. This software has been known as Hallmark Card Studio, with partner Nova Development, Microsoft Greetings Workshop in partner with Microsoft; some of the licensors for Hallmark's greeting cards and gift products include: The Hallmark Visitors Center is located at the company's headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri. The C