Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Warren Woods State Park
Warren Woods is a 311-acre state park in Berrien County, near the town of Three Oaks. It is leased by private owners to the state of Michigan; the woods are named for the inventor of the featherbone corset. Starting in 1879, Warren bought 150 acres of the woods and 250 acres of the dunes, setting it aside for preservation; the park is home to the last climax beech-maple forest in Michigan. The virgin North American beech and sugar maple forest has specimens 125 feet tall and with girths greater than 5 feet in diameter; the remaining area in the park consists of floodplain oak-hickory forest. Because of the size and age of the trees, the rarity of the ecosystem, the area has been designated since 1967 as a National Natural Landmark. Many of the beeches, with their temptingly smooth, silver-grey bark, are scarred by hand-carved graffiti, some of it decades old; the park is administered by nearby Warren Dunes State Park. Most visitors come to walk the 3.5 miles of hiking trails, which run from the northern boundary on Warren Woods Road to a parking area accessed from the southern boundary on Elm Valley Road.
In the middle of the park the trail crosses the Galien River on a pedestrian bridge, where there is an interpretive station. The park contains the 42-acre Warren Woods Ecological Field Station owned and operated by the University of Chicago. Birders cite the park as a good place to spot pileated woodpeckers. Other visitors come to picnic; the park is the subject of ecological studies because, in combination with the ecosystems preserved in nearby Warren Dunes State Park, it completes a progression of ecological seres. The park offers picnicking. Warren Woods State Park Michigan Department of Natural Resources Warren Woods State Park Map Michigan Department of Natural Resources Warren Woods State Park Protected Planet
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is a U. S. National Lakeshore on the shore of Lake Superior in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, United States, it covers 73,236 acres. The park has extensive views of the hilly shoreline between Munising and Grand Marais in Alger County, with picturesque rock formations and sand dunes. Pictured Rocks derives its name from the 15 miles of colorful sandstone cliffs northeast of Munising; the cliffs reach up to 200 feet above lake level. They have been sculptured into a variety of shallow caves and formations resembling castle turrets and human profiles. Near Munising, visitors can visit Grand Island, most of, included in the separate Grand Island National Recreation Area; the U. S. Congress designated Pictured Rocks the first National Lakeshore in the United States in 1966, it is governed by the National Park Service, with 22 year-round NPS employees as of May 2006, received 476,888 visitors in 2005. The colors in the cliffs are created by the large amounts of minerals in the rock.
The cliffs are composed of the Munising Formation of 500-million-year-old Cambrian Period sandstone. The Munising Formation sits atop Precambrian sandstone of the Jacobsville Formation; the mottled red Jacobsville Formation is the oldest rock in the park. On top of the Munising Formation, acting as a cap over the other layers, is the hard sandstone of the younger Au Train Formation from the Ordovician Period. Streaks on the face of the cliffs come from groundwater leaching out of the rock and evaporating, leaving streaks of iron, limonite and other minerals. Although the Pictured Rocks shore waters are a rich fishing ground, the sandstone cliffs are dangerous to canoes and other open boats skirting the coastline. In 1658, the fur trader Pierre Esprit Radisson made this risky passage and noted that his Native American companions made an offering of tobacco to the local spirit of the cliffs. During the Romantic Era of the 1800s, a series of American writers described their feelings upon sight of the Pictured Rocks.
Geologist and US Indian Agent Henry Rowe Schoolcraft visited in 1820 and remarked upon "some of the most sublime and commanding views in nature". In 1850, George Copway Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh, a Mississaugas Ojibwa writer and Methodist missionary, published The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation, in which he cited the detailed description of the Pictured Rock by General Lewis Cass. Around 1850, developers planned a tourist resort, Grand Island City, adjacent to the Pictured Rocks near the current site of Munising. After the lumbering era ended around 1910, much of the land making up the current National Lakeshore reverted to the state of Michigan for unpaid property taxes. Eager for federal help and recognition, the state cooperated with the federal government in the region's redevelopment. In October 1966, Congress passed a bill authorizing the establishment of the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore "in order to preserve for the benefit, education, recreational use, enjoyment of the public, a significant portion of the diminishing shoreline of the United States and its related geographic and scientific features."
This was America's first National Lakeshore. On April 13, 2006, one of the named rock formations collapsed: the Inner Turret of Miner's Castle in the Munising Formation; the collapse was reported via cell phone by fisherman in the area, according to chief ranger Larry Hach. Miners Castle consists of crumbly cross-bedded sandstone poorly cemented by secondary quartz, according to Research Ecologist Walter Loope of the U. S. Geological Survey. Rockfalls along the cliffs occur in the spring and fall due to freezing-thawing action. On March 30, 2009, the Omnibus Public Land Management Act was signed into law, protecting 11,740 acres of Pictured Rocks as the Beaver Basin Wilderness. In 2010, singer Kid Rock filmed the video for his song "Born Free" at the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. In early 2014, Courtney Kotewa's snapshot of kayakers passing under a rock arch at the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore was chosen as the grand prize winner of 2013 Share the Experience photo contest, sponsored by the National Park Foundation.
Munising, on the western end of the lakeshore, is accessed by M-28 and M-94. Grand Marais, on the eastern end, is reached by M-77. Paved highways penetrate into the Lakeshore from both ends, connected by County Road H-58. Roads come close to the shoreline only near Miners Castle, 12 Mile Beach, the Grand Sable Dunes; the rest of the shoreline is seen from land only by hiking. A 42-mile section of the North Country Trail spans the lakeshore. A permit is needed for backcountry camping, allowed along many miles of the National Lakeshore; this means. Many boat companies offer daily trips along the lakeshore from Memorial Day weekend through the fall season. Sea kayaking is another popular way to explore the park. While this may be the best way to see the natural formations, it is a strenuous trip in cold, dangerous water, not be undertaken or without proper equipment. Guides are available; the most efficient port of entry for kayaks is from the harbor at Munising. In addition, pontoons can be cheaply rented locally.
Winter sports activities include cross-country skiing, snowmobiling, ice climbing, ice fishing. The administrators of Pictured Rocks have worked to make much of its rugged environment wheelchair accessible. Features include: Interagency Visitor Center, Munising Falls Interpretive Center, Miners Castle Information Station in Munis
Hiawatha National Forest
Hiawatha National Forest is a 894,836-acre National Forest in the Upper Peninsula of the state of Michigan in the United States. Commercial logging is conducted in some areas; the United States Forest Service administers this National Forest. In descending order of land area it lies in parts of Chippewa, Mackinac, Alger and Marquette counties. Chippewa and Mackinac counties are in the Eastside; the smaller Eastside contains about 44% of the forest's area, whereas the larger Westside has about 56%. Forest headquarters are located in Michigan. Eastside ranger district offices are located in Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace, while Westside offices are in Manistique and Rapid River. Eastside was a large infertile sandy area, never homesteaded or developed, it was designated Marquette National Forest by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909. This land was administered with Huron National Forest as the Michigan National Forest from 1918 until 1962, when it was transferred to Hiawatha; the forest was authorized to buy an additional 307,000 acres in 1925 and 50,000 acres in 1935.
Westside began being purchased in 1928 and was designated Hiawatha National Forest in 1931. This unit was extensively replanted by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Many wildlife species roam in this forest including timber wolves, white-tailed deer, golden eagles, black bears, coyotes, bald eagles, red foxes, river otters, Canadian lynxes, muskrats, sandhill cranes and wild turkeys; the forest has over 100 miles of shoreline. Both east and west units have shoreline on both Lake Lake Michigan; the west unit borders Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, administered by the National Park Service, the Grand Island National Recreation Area, separately administered by the U. S. Forest Service. Several lighthouses are located along the shores; the Point Iroquois Light is operated as a museum. The segment of the 4,600-mile-long North Country Trail passes through the forest; the Hiawatha National Forest contains six designated wilderness areas: Big Island Lake Wilderness Delirium Wilderness Horseshoe Bay Wilderness Mackinac Wilderness Rock River Canyon Wilderness Round Island WildernessThere are five National Wild and Scenic Rivers in the Forest: Carp River, Indian River, Sturgeon River, Tahquamenon River, Whitefish River.
According to the forest service, it was "Named after the Mohawk chief, who brought about the confederation known as the Five Nations of the Iroquois. He was the hero of Longfellow's poem,'Hiawatha'." Hiawatha National Forest has many popular areas for camping tourism. Some of the campgrounds include the following: AuTrain Bay Furnace Bay View: This is a 24 campsite campground located near Brimley, Michigan on Lake Superior, it offers a secluded beach. Brevoort Lake Camp 7 Lake Carp River: 44 campsites located near the Mackinaw Bridge. Fishing is possible here. Collwell Lake Corner Lake Flowing Well Foley Creek: 54 campsites located near the Mackinaw Bridge Indian River Island Lake Lake Michigan: 35 campsites on Lake Michigan located near the Mackinaw Bridge Little Bass Lake Little Bay De Noc Monocle Lake Campground: This is a 39-site campground located near Brimley, Michigan near Lake Superior, it is a popular destination for RV camping. Petes Lake Campground Soldiers Lake Recreation Area Three Lakes Campground Widewaters Campground Hiawatha National Forest Hiawatha National Forest Facebook
Highland Recreation Area
Highland State Recreation Area is a 5,900-acre state recreation area in the southeast part of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is located in north Oakland County, 14 miles west of Pontiac. Haven Hill Natural Area, within the Highland State Recreation Area, was designated in 1976 as a National Natural Landmark; the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, which owns and operates Highland, describes the recreation area as a parcel of forest and kettle lakes operated for light camping and drive-in/drive-out recreational day use. 45 miles of trails in the recreation area are designated for hiking, mountain biking, equestrian sports. West of Duck Lake Road in Highland State Recreation Area, a group of small moraines are locally called "mountains" -- the highest elevation in the park, Mount Kanzer, is 1,150 feet above sea level; the highland for which this recreation area is named is this group of moraines. South of Highland Road and east of Duck Lake Road lies the 721-acre Haven Hill Natural Area and National Natural Landmark, a component unit of the Highland Natural Area.
MDNR describes Haven Hill as an area that contains "all of southern Michigan's principal forest types within one small area, including swamp forest of tamarack, beech-maple forest, oak-hickory forest, mixed hardwood forest. The area has remained undisturbed for the past 75 years." Haven Hill was preserved as a natural area first by auto magnate Edsel Ford, whose estate it was, by MDNR after Ford's death in 1943. The Highland State Recreation Area, the Haven Hill Natural Area embedded within the recreation area, are both located on M-59 directly west of Pontiac, Michigan; the nearest limited-access highway is U. S. Highway 23 at M-59/Highland Road. Friends of Highland Recreation Area Highland Recreation Area Pure Michigan The Haven Hill Project Haven Hill Project Blog Haven Hill Project, Complete Haven Hill History Haven Hill Project, First History Hike Video Haven Hill Arch, White Lake, Michigan Waymarking.com Haven Hill Natural Area Protected Planet
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is the agency of the state of Michigan charged with maintaining natural resources such as state parks, state forests, recreation areas. It is governed by a director appointed by the Governor and accepted by the Natural Resources Commission; the Director is Keith Creagh. The DNR has about 1,400 permanent employees, over 1,600 seasonal employees. In 1887, the Michigan legislature created the salaried position of state game warden; the position, created to oversee market hunting and the supply of essential foodstuffs to local lumber camps, was the direct ancestor of the state's conservation infrastructure. In 1921, the Michigan Legislature created the Department of Conservation and a Conservation Commission to manage the state's natural resources; the first director of the department was John Baird. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources was created in 1965 as a part of the constitution required reorganization of the executive branch via Executive Organization Act of 1965.
Under Governor John Engler, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality was formed from the department's environmental regulation functions, the appointment of the department's commission chair was transferred to the governor. Several DNR boards and commissions were abolished with their powers transferred to the department director. In 2009, Governor Jennifer Granholm moved to merge Department of Environmental Quality back into the department and appoint the reunited department's director instead of the Natural Resources Commission; the state merged the two agencies to form the Department of Natural Resources and Environment. In 2010, Governor elect Rick Snyder has named Rodney Stokes as the new DNR director, has chosen to divide the DNRE into the original designations of Natural Resource Commission and the DNR divisions. Rodney Stokes says his first priority is to reverse the decline of hunting in Michigan, by eliminating the extended seasons, reducing the amount of antlerless licenses in Northern Michigan, improving habitat and removing license requirements for coyote and wolf.
On January 4, 2011, Governor Rick Snyder issued Executive Order 2011-1, which eliminates the Department of Natural Resources and Environment and creates the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Environmental Quality. * - denotes acting director** - denotes interim director "The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is committed to the conservation, management and enjoyment of the State's natural resources for current and future generations." The DNR is funded by the state general fund revenues, federal funds and a variety of restricted funds. Federal funding consists of special purpose categorical grants from various Federal agencies, such as the U. S. Department of the Interior and U. S. Department of Agriculture. Restricted funding is generated from user fees and other charges; these funds support programs for wildlife and fisheries programs, operation of Michigan state parks, harbor development, marine safety enforcement and education and off-road vehicle trail repair and development, operation of Michigan's 150 state forest campgrounds.
Restricted revenues, which by statute can only be used to support related programs, are generated from hunting and fishing license, state park entrance and camping fees, two percent of the gas tax, snowmobile registration and snowmobile trail and ORV permits and forest camping fees. The Michigan Natural Resources Commission is a seven-member public body whose members are appointed by the governor to a term of four years and subject to the advice and consent of the Michigan Senate; the NRC conducts public meetings in locations throughout Michigan. Citizens are encouraged to become involved in these public forums; the NRC establishes general policies for the Department of Natural Resources and hires the department's director. Voter adoption of Proposal G in November 1996, vests exclusive authority in the Natural Resources Commission to regulate the taking of game; the Michigan State Waterways Commission is responsible for the acquisition and maintenance of recreational harbors, channels and launching facilities, administration of commercial docks in the Straits of Mackinac.
Commission members are appointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Michigan Senate, to serve three-year terms. Upon expiration of a term, a member may continue to serve until re-appointed or a successor is appointed; the Michigan Natural Resources Trust Fund has been in place since 1976 and provides financial assistance to local governments and the Department of Natural Resources to purchase land or rights in land for public recreation. It assists in the appropriate development of land for public outdoor recreation; the MNRTF is supported by annual revenues from the development of State-owned mineral resources oil and gas. The program is administered by the MNRTF Board of Trustees and the Grants Management office of the DNR; the MNRTF Board of Trustees meets six times a year and all meetings are open to the public. MNRTF projects provide for outdoor recreation; the Mackinac Island State Park Commission is an appointed board of the State of Michigan that administers state parklands in the Straits of Mackinac area.
It performs public activities under the name Mackinac State Historic Parks. Park units include Mackinac Island State Park including Fort Mackinac and certain properties within the historic downtown of Mackinac Island, Michigan, it is assigned to the M