Grattan Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin and joining Capel Street to Parliament Street and the south quays. The first bridge on site was built by Sir Humphrey Jervis as Essex Bridge to join several of Jervis developments to the opposite side of the river. Essex Bridge was a stone structure with 7 piers. In 1687 the bridge was damaged by a flood resulting in the loss of a hackney, the damage to the bridge was only partially repaired. In 1751 the second most northerly pier collapsed and damaged the adjacent arches, between 1753 and 1755 the bridge was rebuilt by George Semple, to correct flood and other structural damage and as one of the first initiatives of the Wide Streets Commission. During this construction, some features were removed. EG, A statue, by John van Nost the Elder, in 1937 it was bought by the Barber Institute for Fine Arts in Birmingham, in front of which it now stands. For much of the 18th century, Essex Bridge was the most westerly bridge on the Liffey, from 1872, the bridge was further remodelled, being widened and flattened with cast iron supports extended out from the stonework so as to carry pavements on either side of the roadway.
The bridge was lit by ornate lamp standards in cast iron, the bridge was reopened as Grattan Bridge in 1874, being named after Henry Grattan MP. In 2003/2004 the Dublin City Council and built what was intended to be a European-style book market on Grattan Bridge, the initiative included reconstruction of the bridge deck, with granite paving for the footpaths and a set of benches with wooden seats and toughened glass backs. Following this development, several temporary kiosks were built on the bridge, to create a contemporary version of an inhabited bridge. These kiosks have since been removed, as is tradition among Dubliners, the name used locally for the bridge will vary from Capel Street Bridge, to Grattan Bridge and the original Essex Bridge
Lucan Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in the town of Lucan in Dublin, Ireland. It joins Lucans Main Street to the Lower Lucan Road, carrying traffic towards Clonsilla, the bridge is the largest single span masonry arch bridge in Ireland, and is constructed from ashlar masonry with a span of 33 metres and a rise of 6.7 metres. It is framed by iron balustraded parapets made by the Royal Phoenix ironworks of Parkgate Street in Dublin, designed by George Knowles, it was built in 1814 in collaboration with James Savage to replace several previous bridges which were carried away by floods. The first bridge built on this spot was a stone laid down in the years of the reign of King John. A subsequent bridge was built by the first Agmondisham Vesey c,1730, but washed away within very short time. 1771, but this too washed away in a flood in 1786 – as did its replacement, in 1814, the present single-span bridge was completed by Savage & Knowles, and has remained largely unaffected by the effects of flooding common to this stretch of the Liffey.
The bridge, has seen some recent developments, with the raising of the roadway near both ends of the arch to lessen the gradient for road traffic
The Tom Clarke Bridge and commonly known as the East-Link Toll Bridge, is a toll bridge in Dublin, Ireland, on the River Liffey and operated by Dublin City Council. The bascule-type lifting bridge, which links North Wall to Ringsend, is the last bridge on the Liffey, the bridge forms part of the R131 regional road. The bridge is the most easterly crossing on the Liffey, the bridge was built by NTR, and opened to vehicular traffic in October 1984. The bridge reverted to city council control on 31 December 2015, the city centre is west of the bridge, which links routes on the eastern side of Dublin city. The Dublin Port Tunnel terminates north of the East-Link along East Wall Road, most of Dublins docklands are east of the bridge, but it is raised on average three times per day to allow river traffic to pass. As of 2016, between 14,000 and 17,000 vehicles per day cross the bridge, as of 2016, lorries and cars pay, either in cash or using electronic tokens, and cycles and motorbikes cross for free.
The tolling area and administrative offices are on the side of the bridge. Originally adopting a name, the East-Link bridge was officially renamed as Thomas Clarke Bridge by President Michael D. Higgins to commemorate the Irish republican Thomas Clarke. The renaming ceremony was on 3 May 2016, marking the centenary of the day Clarke was shot in Kilmainham Gaol for his involvement in the 1916 Easter Rising
John, King of England
John, known as John Lackland, was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of Johns reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henrys favourite child. He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England, Johns elder brothers William and Geoffrey died young, by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richards royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade, John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. Johns judicial reforms had a impact on the English common law system. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to Johns excommunication in 1209, Johns attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over Johns allies at the battle of Bouvines.
When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France and it soon descended into a stalemate. John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166, Henry had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard—Anjou and England—and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. The result was the Angevin Empire, named after Henrys paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more specifically, its seat in Angers. The Empire, was fragile, although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry. As one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henrys power in the provinces diminished considerably, scarcely resembling the concept of an empire at all. Some of the ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were slowly dissolving over time.
It was unclear what would happen to the empire on Henrys death, most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, and hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the line of the House of Capet. Henry had often allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, and sent John and this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical career
O'Donovan Rossa Bridge
ODonovan Rossa Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin and joining Winetavern Street to Chancery Place and the north quays. Replacing a short lived wooden structure, the masonry bridge on this site was built in 1684 as a five-span simple arch bridge. In December 1802 this bridge was swept away during a severe storm, in 1813 construction started on a replacement bridge — the current structure — a little further west to the designs of James Savage and was opened in 1816. It consists of three arch spans in granite, with sculptured heads, similar to those on OConnell Bridge. The heads represent Plenty, the Liffey, and Industry on one side, with Commerce, opened as Richmond Bridge, it was renamed in 1923 for Jeremiah ODonovan Rossa by the fledgeling Free State
Anna Livia Bridge
The Anna Livia Bridge, formerly Chapelizod Bridge, is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Chapelizod, Dublin and joining the Lucan Road to Chapelizod Road. As the Liffey flows into the town of Chapelizod, a weir divides the course to form a mill race. Split by the two bodies of water, the island at Chapelizod has been a base for industry since at least the 18th century, the main flow is crossed by a four-span stone arch bridge, having two large central spans and two much smaller end spans. This bridge was built in the 1660s, and originally named Chapelizod Bridge, the bridge was renamed in 1982 to mark the centenary of James Joyces birth. Dublin City Council planned changes to bridge, as part of a general Traffic Management Plan for the Chapelizod area, the changes include the construction of separate footbridge sections outside the parapets of the bridge, and the creation of cycle lanes on the bridge. Preparatory works for this initiative commenced in 2010 and the opening was held in December 2011
Liffey Railway Bridge
The Liffey Railway Bridge is a rail bridge spanning the River Liffey near Heuston railway station in Dublin in Ireland. It is an iron box truss structure, and joins lines from Heuston Station to Connolly Station through the Phoenix Park Tunnel. Historically used primarily for traffic, in November 2016, the bridge. The bridge and tunnel were built by the Great Southern and Western Railway company to connect Kingsbridge station to the Dublin docklands. The GSWR had to transfer the goods from the docks by road to Hueston which was time-consuming, because of the cost that MGWR were charging GSR for use of its line to the docklands, a new line was built directly to the docklands. An exception to this was occasional match-day services carrying Gaelic Athletic Association fans from southern lines to Connolly Station for Croke Park stadium, ultimately, in November 2016, the bridge and tunnel were reopened to more regular passenger traffic
OConnell Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin, and joining OConnell Street to DOlier Street, Westmoreland Street and the south quays. The original bridge was designed by James Gandon, and built between 1791 and 1794, originally humped, and narrower, Carlisle bridge was a symmetrical, three semicircular arch structure constructed in granite with a Portland stone balustrade and obelisks on each of the four corners. A keystone head at the apex of the central span symbolises the River Liffey, between 1877-1880 the bridge was reconstructed and widened. As can be seen on orthophotography it spans now 45 m of the Liffey and is about 50 m wide, when the bridge was reopened c.1882 it was renamed for Daniel OConnell when the statue in his honour was unveiled. In recent years, the lamps that graced the central island have been restored to their five lantern glory. In 2004, a pair of pranksters installed a plaque on the dedicated to Father Pat Noise, which remained unnoticed until May 2006.
Arthur Fields, locally known as The Man on The Bridge, there are actually two OConnell bridges in Dublin. The other spans the pond in St. Stephens Green, the bridge is the setting of Liam OFlahertys short story, The Sniper
The River Liffey is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. Its major tributaries include the River Dodder, the River Poddle, the river supplies much of Dublins water and a range of recreational opportunities. The river was previously named An Ruirthech, meaning fast runner, the word Liphe referred originally to the name of the plain through which the river ran, but eventually came to refer to the river itself. It was known as the Anna Liffey, possibly from an anglicisation of Abhainn na Life, James Joyce personified the river as Anna Livia Plurabelle in Finnegans Wake. See Annals of Inisfallen for the year 808, AI808.2 A defeat by the Laigin on Áed, son of Niall, the Liffey rises in the Liffey Head Bog between Kippure and Tonduff in the Wicklow Mountains, forming from many streamlets at Sally Gap. It crosses from County Wicklow into County Kildare at Poulaphouca and from County Kildare into County Dublin at Leixlip, the catchment area of the Liffey is 1,256 km2. The long term average flow rate of the river is 18.0 m3/s, the Liffey system is a substantial one, including dozens of smaller rivers and streams.
Early tributaries include the Athdown Brook, Shankill River, Ballylow Brook, Brittas River and Woodend Brook, downstream of Poulaphouca are the Lemonstown Stream, Kilcullen Stream and Pinkeen Stream, followed by the Painestown River, Rye Water, and the Griffeen River. Within Dublin are the various Phoenix Park streams on the bank, interspersed with right bank tributaries such as the Glenaulin Stream. In earlier times, the River Tolka was arguably a tributary of the Liffey, or at least shared its mouth, there are dams for three ESB hydroelectric power stations along the river, at Poulaphouca, Golden Falls and Leixlip. Major reservoir facilities exist at Poulaphouca, the Liffey does not feature natural lakes, and has few islands. Significant falls at Poulaphouca and at Golden Falls were flooded by reservoir construction, there remain areas of rapids, notably as the river approaches Dublin city. Towns along the river include Ballymore Eustace, Kilcullen, Caragh, Celbridge, the River Liffey in Dublin city has been used for many centuries for trade, from the Viking beginnings of the city up to recent times.
It is connected to the River Shannon via the Grand Canal, around 60% of the Liffeys flow is abstracted for drinking water and to supply industry. Much of this makes its way back into the river after purification in wastewater treatment plants, a popular myth is that Liffey water is used to brew Guinness but this is not true as Guinness uses water piped from the Wicklow mountains. ESB hydroelectric power stations exist along the river, at Poulaphouca, Golden Falls and Leixlip, a well-known sight on the Liffey up to the 1990s, the Lady Patricia and Miranda Guinness cargo ships were used to export Guinness from the St. Jamess Gate Brewery. In recent years, the regular traffic on the river within the city is the Liffey Voyage water tour bus service. Downstream of the East-Link bridge, the river is mainly used for commercial and ferry traffic
Frank Sherwin Bridge
Frank Sherwin Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin, Ireland. It joins St. Johns Road and the south quays from Heuston Station to Wolfe Tone Quay, designed within Dublin Corporations Road Design Division, the bridge is a three-span reinforced concrete structure. Frank Sherwin Bridge was opened in 1982 to remove traffic from the older and narrower Sean Heuston Bridge as part of an extended traffic management project on Dublins quays. This resulted in reversing the direction of the system on the quays to north quays eastbound/south quays westbound. The bridge was named for Dublin politician Frank Sherwin
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt.
/d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish.
Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle
Samuel Beckett Bridge
Samuel Beckett Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge in Dublin that joins Sir John Rogersons Quay on the south side of the River Liffey to Guild Street and North Wall Quay in the Docklands area. The architect is Santiago Calatrava, a designer of a number of innovative bridges and this is the second bridge in the area designed by Calatrava, the first being the James Joyce Bridge, which is further upstream. It is capable of opening through an angle of 90 degrees allowing ships to pass through and this is achieved through a rotational mechanism housed in the base of the pylon. The shape of the spar and its cables is said to evoke an image of a harp lying on its edge, the steel structure of the bridge was constructed in Rotterdam by Hollandia, a Dutch company responsible for the steel fabrication of the London Eye. The steel span of the bridge was transferred from the Hollandia wharf in Krimpen aan den IJssel on 3 May 2009, unhappiness was expressed over the fact that these restrictions would force drivers to use the East-Link Toll Bridge.
Dublin City Council replied that these restrictions were mandated by An Bord Pleanála to prevent users of the East-Link bridge from coming into the city, at the time of opening, there was criticism that no bus services had plans to use the bridge