Abdelhadi Tazi was a scholar, writer and former Moroccan ambassador in various countries. Tazi was born in Fes and attended primary and secondary studies in his hometown. Since his youth, he has contributed to the Nationalist Movement and thus experienced exile and prison. Tazi died in Rabat, aged 94. 1947: Obtained the High degree Diploma in Theological studies from the University of Al Karaouine with "Honores". 1948: Teacher in the same University. 1953: Graduated from Moroccan Institute of High Studies. 1957: After Independence, he was appointed at Rabat, as Director of the Cultural Section in the Ministry of national Education. 1963: Obtained the Diploma of High Studies in History from the Mohammed V University with distinction "Excellent". 1966: English certificate from the language Institute of Baghdad. 1971: Obtained a PhD in History from the University of Alexandria with "Honores". Since his youth he has published numerous articles and essays and translated many works and studies from English and French into Arabic.
1963/1967: Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco in Iraq republic 1967/1968: Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco in Libya 1968/1972: Back to Baghdad as an ambassador, he achieved diplomatic missions within the Persian Gulf 1973: Director of the Institute for Scientific Research. 1979: Ambassador in the Islamic Republic of Iran in charge of mission at the Royal Cabinet of the Kingdom of Morocco. 1990: Chairman and Founder of the Moroccan Diplomatic Club. 1992: Chairman of the sixth International Conference of Geographical Names Standardization. One of his important work is the travels of Ibn battuta Rihla is a medieval book which recounts the journey of the 14th-century Moroccan scholar and traveler Ibn Battuta. Professor and lecturer in several Institutes, High Schools and Universities in Morocco and around the world about international relations and history. Has participated including summit conferences. Irakian Scientific Academy since 1966, Arabic Language Academy in Cairo 1976, Arab-Argentina Institute 1978, Ahl Albayt Academy and of the Arabic Language Academy of Jordan 1980, Constitution Committee of the Kingdom of Morocco Academy and member of this Academy since 1980, Arabic Language Academy of Damas since 1986 Institute of the Islamic Heritage, London since 1991, Egyptian Science Academy, 1996and of many other regional and international associations • Throne Wissam.
• El Hamala Al Kobra. • Wissam Arrafidaine. • The Intellectual first Class Merit Medal • The Gold Medal of the Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco. Here there are some of the author's works: Sourate Annour, explanation Literature of "Lamyat al Arab" 11 centuries History of the Qaraouiyn: Fes Weddings Annotation of the Ibn Sahib Assalat's book on the Almohades A glimpse on diplomatic history of Morocco Moroccan-American relations history Translation of "If I see three days" from Hellen Keller Al Qaraouiyn University History Libya, through the Journey of Ishaqui The "Badia Palace", world wonder In the shadow of faith Sicilia after Ambassador Ibn Othman memories Education in Arab countries Official Moroccan Letters - first part Moroccan-Iranian relations Falcon Hunting between the Machrek and the Maghreb French protectora: beginning and end Moroccan'Waqfs' in Jerusalem Annotations of the manuscript of Ibn Abo Al Ojals on Jews in Yemen History of the relations between Morocco and Oman In order to defend the territorial integrity Secret codes in Moroccan correspondences Annotations of the manuscript'Al Farid' of Abi Al Kassim Al Figuigui Iran between yesterday and today Summary of the history of Moroccan international relations Al Maghraoui and his pedagogic thinkings Moroccan diplomatic history Moroccan diplomatic history as a comic Women through the west Muslim history Annotations of the manuscript "Al Mazaa al latif" d'Ibn Zaydan Ibnou Majid and Portugal Annotations of "Ibn Batouta Journey" Jerusalem and Hebron according to Moroccan travellers Taha Hussein in Morocco Annotation of the transcript'Attorthorth' of Choyouti The Prophet's medicine between the Machriek and the Maghreb Moroccan International History A journey to Hijaz Moroccan Diplomatic History Annotations of a manuscript about the Moroccan movement for slavery abolition in Morocco Annotation of the manuscript concerning the journey of Ibn Othman to Malta and Napoli Summarised geographical lexique of Morocco Personal memories, started June 15, 2000 https://web.archive.org/web/20080820025337/http://www.abdelhaditazi.com/ Education in the Arab states Coexistence between democracy and Islamic Shoura developed through time Interview with Abdelhadi Tazi by Le Matin
Fez is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region. It is the second largest city in Morocco with a population of 1.4 million. Located to the northeast of Atlas Mountains, Fez is situated at the crossroad of the important cities of all regions, it is surrounded by the high grounds, the old city is penetrated by the River of Fez flowing from the west to east. Fez was founded under the Idrisid rule during the 8th-9th century, it consisted of competing settlements. The migration of 2000 Arab families in the early 9th century gave the nascent city its Arabic character. After the downfall of the Idrisid dynasty, several empires came and went until the 11th century when the Almoravid Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin united the two settlements and rebuilt the city, which became today's Fes el Bali quarter. Under the Almoravid rule, the city gained a reputation for the religious scholarship and the mercantile activity. Fez was expanded during the Almohad rule and became the largest city in the world during 1170-1180 with the estimated population of 200,000.
Fez reached its zenith in the Marinid-era. Numerous madrasas, mosques and city gates were constructed which survived up until today; these buildings are considered the hallmarks of Moroccan architectural styles. Marinid sultans founded Fes Jdid quarter, where newer palaces and gardens were established. During this time, the Jewish population of the city grew as well, with the Mellah attracting the Jewish migrants from other North African regions. After the overthrow of the Marinid dynasty, the city declined and replaced by Marrakesh for political and cultural influence, but remained as the capital under the Wattasids and modern Morocco until 1912. Today, the city consists of two old medina quarters, Fes el Bali and Fes Jdid, modern urban area of Ville Nouvelle constructed during the French colonial era; the medina of Fez is listed as a World Heritage Site and is believed to be one of the world's largest urban pedestrian zones. It has the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in 859 and the oldest continuously functioning university in the world.
It has Chouara Tannery from the 11th century, one of the oldest tanneries in the world. The city has been called the "Mecca of the West" and the "Athens of Africa," a nickname it shares with Cyrene in Libya. Fez or Fas is related to the Berber name Fazaz of the region in which it was built; the name is itself derived from an ancient Berber tribe, called the Banu Fazaz in Arabic chronicles. An unfounded myth is that it was derived from the Arabic word فأس Faʾs which means pickaxe, which legends say Idris I of Morocco used when he created the lines of the city. One noticeable thing was that the pickaxe was made from gold. During the rule of the Idrisid dynasty, Fez consisted of two cities: Fas, founded by Idris I, al-ʿĀliyá, founded by his son, Idris II. During Idrisid rule the capital city was known as al-ʿĀliyá, with the name Fas being reserved for the separate site on the other side of the river, it is not known whether the name al-ʿĀliyá referred to both urban areas. It wasn't until 1070 that the two agglomerations were united and the name Fas was used for the combined site.
The city was founded on a bank of the Jawhar river by Idris I in 789, founder of the Idrisid dynasty. His son, Idris II, built a settlement on the opposing river bank; these settlements would soon develop into two walled and autonomous sites in conflict with one another: Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya. In 808 Al-'Aliya replaced Walili as the capital of the Idrisids. Arab emigration to Fez, including 800 Andalusi families of Berber descent in 817–818 expelled after a rebellion against the Umayyads of Córdoba, 2000 Arab families banned from Kairouan after another rebellion in 824, gave the city its Arabic character; the Andalusians settled in what was called the Fez, while the Tunisians found their home in al-'Aliya. These two waves of immigrants would subsequently give their name to the sites'Adwat Al-Andalus and'Adwat al-Qarawiyyin. With the influx of Arabic-speaking Andalusians and Turnisians, the majority of the population was Arab, but rural Berbers from the surrounding countryside settled there throughout this early period in Madinat Fas and in Fes Jdid during the Marinid period.
Upon the death of Idris II in 828, the dynasty’s territory was divided among his sons. The eldest, received Fez; the newly fragmented Idrisid power would never again be reunified. During Yahya ibn Muhammad's rule in Fez the Kairouyine mosque, one of the oldest and largest in Africa, was built and its associated University of Al Quaraouiyine was founded. Comparatively little is known about Idrisid Fez, owing to the lack of comprehensive historical narratives and that little has survived of the architecture and infrastructure of early Fez; the sources that mention Idrisid Fez, describe a rather rural one, not having the cultural sophistication of the important cities of Al-Andalus and Ifriqiya. In the 10th century, the city was contested by the Caliphate of Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate of Tunisia, who ruled the city through a host of Zenata clients; the Fatimids took the city in 927 and expelled the Idrissids, after which their Miknasa
The fez is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat red, sometimes with a tassel attached to the top. It is named after the city of its origins, the Moroccan city Fez, the capital of the Kingdom of Morocco until 1927; the modern fez owes much of its popularity to the Ottoman era. The fez is confused with the Maghreb shashia, derived from the Arabic: شاشية, translit. Shāshiyya, originated from Chach, the former name of Tashkent; the two types of headgear are quite different: the fez is stiff and raised in shape, while the shashia is soft and its shape adheres to the top of the head, in the manner of a cap. The fez was introduced into ancient Greece, or the Balkans during the Byzantine reign, subsequently during the Ottoman period where various Slavs Bosniaks and Serbs, started wearing the head-wear; the fez is a part of the traditional clothing of Cyprus, is still worn by some Cypriots today. Traditionally, women wore a red fez over their heads, instead of a headscarf, while men wore a black or red cap.
The fez was sometimes worn by men with material around the base. In his 1811 journey to Cyprus, John Pinkerton describes the fez, "a red cap turned up with fur", as "the proper Greek dress". In the Karpass Peninsula, white caps are worn, a style considered to be based on ancient Cypriot Hellenic-Phoenician attire, thus preserving men's head-wear from 2,700 years earlier. In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire suppressed the Janissaries and began sweeping reforms of the military, his modernized military adopted Western style uniforms and, as headdresses, the fez with a cloth wrapped around it. In 1829 the Sultan ordered his civil officials to wear the plain fez, banned the wearing of turbans; the intention was to coerce the populace at large to update to the fez, the plan was successful. This was a radically egalitarian measure, which replaced the elaborate sumptuary laws that signaled rank and occupation, allowing prosperous non-Muslims to express their wealth in competitions with Muslims, foreshadowing the Tanzimat reforms.
Although tradesmen and artisans rejected the fez, it became a symbol of modernity throughout the Near East, inspiring similar decrees in other nations. To meet escalating demand, skilled fez makers were induced to immigrate from North Africa to Constantinople, where factories were established in the neighborhood of Eyüp. Styles soon multiplied, with nuances of shape, height and hue competing in the market; the striking scarlet and merlot colors of the fez were achieved through an extract of cornel. However, the invention of low-cost synthetic dyes soon shifted production of the hat to the factories of Strakonice, Czech Republic; the 1908 Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina resulted in a boycott of Austrian goods, which became known as the "Fez Boycott" due to the near monopoly the Austrians held on production of the hat. Although the headdress survived, the year-long boycott brought the end of its universality in the Ottoman Empire as other styles became acceptable; the fez was a brimless bonnet of red, white, or black with a turban woven around.
The turban was eliminated, the bonnet shortened, the color fixed to red. Praying while wearing a fez—instead of a headdress with brim—was easier because Muslims put their foreheads on the ground many times during the prayer sessions. A symbol of Ottoman modernity, the fez over time came to be seen as part of an "Oriental" cultural identity. Seen as exotic and romantic in the west, it enjoyed a vogue as part of men's luxury smoking outfit in the United States and the United Kingdom in the decades surrounding the turn of the 20th century; the fez had become traditional to the point that Mustafa Kemal Atatürk banned it in Turkey in 1925 as part of his modernizing reforms. A version of the fez was used as an arming cap for the 1400–1700s version of the mail armour head protector; the red fez with blue tassel was the standard headdress of the Turkish Army from the 1840s until the introduction of a khaki service dress and peakless sun helmet in 1910. The only significant exceptions were cavalry and some artillery units who wore a lambskin hat with coloured cloth tops.
Albanian levies wore a white version of the fez. During World War I the fez was still worn by some naval reserve units and by soldiers when off duty; the Evzones regiments of the Greek Army wore their own distinctive version of the fez from 1837 until World War II. It now survives in the parade uniform of the Presidential Guard in Athens. From the mid-19th century on the fez was adopted as the headdress of locally recruited "native" soldiers among the various colonial troops of the world; the French North African regiments wore red fezzes with detachable tassels of various colours. It was an off-duty affectation of the Zouaves to wear their fezzes at different angles according to the regiment; the Libyan battalions and squadrons of the Italian colonial forces wore lower, red fezzes over white skull caps. Somali and Eritrean regiments in Italian service wore high red fezzes with coloured tufts that
Kairouan, is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site; the city was founded by the Umayyads around 670. In the period of Caliph Mu'awiya, it became an important centre for Sunni Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning, thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina; the holy Mosque of Uqba is situated in the city. In 2014, the city had about 186,653 inhabitants; the name is an Arabic deformation of the Persian word کاروان kârvân, meaning "military/civilian camp", "caravan", or "resting place". Kairouan, the capital of Kairouan Governorate, lies south of Sousse, 50 km from the east coast, 75 km from Monastir and 184 km from Tunis; the foundation of Kairouan dates to about the year 670 when the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi of Caliph Mu'awiya selected a site in the middle of a dense forest infested with wild beasts and reptiles, as the location of a military post for the conquest of the West. The city of Kamounia was located where Kairouan now stands.
It had housed a Byzantine garrison before the Arab conquest, stood far from the sea – safe from the continued attacks of the Berbers who had fiercely resisted the Arab invasion. Berber resistance continued, led first by Kusaila, whose troops killed Uqba at Biskra about fifteen years after the establishment of the military post, by a Berber woman called Al-Kahina, killed and her army defeated in 702. Subsequently, there occurred a mass conversion of the Berbers to Islam. Kharijites or Islamic "outsiders" who formed an egalitarian and puritanical sect appeared and are still present on the island of Djerba. In 745, Kharijite Berbers captured Kairouan, at that time a developed city with luxuriant gardens and olive groves. Power struggles continued until Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab recaptured Kairouan at the end of the 8th century. In 800 Caliph Harun ar-Rashid in hereditary ruler of Ifriqiya. Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab founded the Aghlabid dynasty which ruled Ifriqiya between 800 and 909; the new Emirs made it their capital.
It soon became famous for its wealth and prosperity, reaching the levels of Basra and Kufa and giving Tunisia one of its golden ages long sought after the glorious days of Carthage. The Aghlabites built the great mosque and established in it a university, a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences, its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. In the 9th century, the city became a brilliant focus of Arab and Islamic cultures attracting scholars from all over the Islamic World. In that period Imam Sahnun and Asad ibn al-Furat made of Kairouan a temple of knowledge and a magnificent centre of diffusion of Islamic sciences; the Aghlabids built palaces and fine waterworks of which only the pools remain. From Kairouan envoys from Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire returned with glowing reports of the Aghlabites palaces and gardens – and from the crippling taxation imposed to pay for their drunkenness and sundry debaucheries; the Aghlabite pacified the country and conquered Sicily in 827.
In 893, through the mission of Abdullah al Mahdi, the Kutama Berbers from the west of the country started the movement of the Shiite Fatimids. The year 909 saw the overthrow of the Sunni Aghlabites who ruled Ifriqiya and the establishment of the Shiite Fatimid dynasty. During the rule of the Fatimids, Kairouan was neglected and lost its importance: the new rulers resided first in Raqqada but soon moved their capital to the newly built Al Mahdiyah on the coast of modern Tunisia. After succeeding in extending their rule over all of central Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, they moved east to Egypt to found Cairo making it the capital of their vast Caliphate and leaving the Zirids as their vassals in Ifriqiya. Governing again from Kairouan, the Zirids led the country through another artistic and agricultural heyday. Schools and universities flourished, overseas trade in local manufactures and farm produce ran high and the courts of the Zirids rulers were centres of refinement that eclipsed those of their European contemporaries.
When the Zirids declared their independence from Cairo and their conversion to Sunni Islam in 1045 by giving allegiance to Baghdad, the Fatimid Caliph Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah sent as punishment hordes of troublesome Arab tribes to invade Ifriqiya. These invaders so utterly destroyed Kairouan in 1057 that it never regained its former importance and their influx was a major factor in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had been dominant; some 1,700 years of intermittent but continual progress was undone within a decade as in most part of the country the land was laid to waste for nearly two centuries. In the 13th century under the prosperous Hafsids dynasty that ruled Ifriqiya, the city started to emerge from its ruins, it is only under the Husainid Dynasty that Kairouan started to find an honorable place in the country and throughout the Islamic world. In 1881, Kairouan was taken by the French; the French built the 600 mm Sousse–Kairouan Decauville railway, which operated from 1882 to 1996, before it was regauged to 1,000 mm gauge.
Jews were among the original settlers of Kairouan, the community played an important role in Jewish history, having been a world center of Talmudic and Hal
Andalusian Mosque is a mosque in Fes el Bali, the old medina quarter of the city of Fez, Morocco. The mosque dates back to the inception of the city in the 9th century, with the completion of the initial foundation in 859-860; this makes it one of the oldest mosques in the world. The mosque had been expanded several times since then. Today, it is one of the few remaining Idrisid-era establishments and the main landmarks of the city; the mosque was established in 859-860 by the Andalusian refugees from the city of Cordoba, under the sponsorship of Maryam bint Mohammed bin Abdullah. In 818, around hundreds of families fled Cordoba from the successive repressions after their rebellion against the Umayyads, they settled in the eastern bank of the River of Fez which used to be the settlement known as Al-'Aliya. The refugees began building the large Jami Masjid in the area soon after the migration; the original construction was modest. The mosque had access to abundant water through a channel known as Wadi Masmouda.
In the 10th century, the Umayyads of Cordoba erected the minaret. The minaret has simple decorations on its frame, it is built to resemble the minaret of the Mosque of Al-Quaraouiyine. During the rule of Obaidullah, a governor of Fez during the Fatimid-era, the mosque became the place for khutbah during the Friday Prayer, replacing the position of the Mosque of Al-Ashyakh, the first mosque built in the western settlement. Muhammad al-Nasir, the fourth Almohad caliph, ordered the construction of the gate during 1203-1207 which overlooks the northern facade; the gate is topped by two domes, one of, built of carved plasters and another is built of cedar wood, decorated by the combination of wooden zellige and qashani works. It was restored during the Alaouite period. Several historians and scholars, including the orientalist Georges Marçais praised the architecture as a masterpiece of Moroccan architectural style; the caliph built as well a water tank, a fountain which resembles that of the Mosque of Al Quaraouiyine on the northern facade of the building, an apartment made of stones for imams of the mosque on the second floor above the prayer hall for women.
During the Marinid period, several parts of the building including the ceiling and fountain were restored. The mosque contains seven courses for education, as well as two libraries to the Mosque of Al Quaraouiyine, which considered makes it the second most important mosque in the medina of Fez
Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate, "Arab" referred to any of the nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Today, Arabs inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Comoros, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen; the Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.
Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam, there are sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni, Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches. Other smaller minority religions are followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the Arab; the related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions; the term Arab occurs in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar; the term is mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, southern Jordan, the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, the first to speak Arabic. A
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.