Harry Payne Whitney
Harry Payne Whitney was an American businessman, thoroughbred horse breeder, member of the prominent Whitney family. Harry Payne Whitney was born on April 29, 1872 in New York City, he was the eldest son of Flora Payne and William C. Whitney, the wealthy businessman and United States Secretary of the Navy. Harry was the older brother of William Payne Whitney, his sister, Pauline Payne Whitney, was married to Almeric Hugh Paget, 1st Baron Queenborough, his youngest sister, Dorothy Payne Whitney, was married Willard Dickerman Straight and Leonard Knight Elmhirst, after Straight's death. Harry Payne Whitney studied at Groton School in Groton, Massachusetts attended Yale University, graduating with a law degree in 1894, he was a member of the Bones. In 1904, after the death of his father, he inherited $24,000,000, in 1917, he inherited $12,000,000 from his uncle, Oliver Hazard Payne. An avid sportsman, he was a ten-goal polo player, his love of the sport was inherited from his father, involved with polo when it was first organized in the United States in 1876 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. H. P. Whitney organized the U. S. polo team that beat England in 1909.
"Whitney Field" polo field near Saratoga Springs, New York is named for him. He was a board member of the Montauk Yacht Club and competed with his yacht Vanitie in the America's Cup. Whitney served on the board of directors of the Long Island Motor Parkway, built by his wife's cousin, William Kissam Vanderbilt II. Whitney enjoyed quail hunting and purchased the 14,000-acre Foshalee Plantation in northern Leon County, Florida from Sydney E. Hutchinson of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Whitney was a major figure in thoroughbred horse racing and in 2018 he was voted one of the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame's most prestigious honors as an Exemplar of Racing. Harry Whitney inherited a large stable from his father (including the great filly Artful and her sire Hamburg, in 1915 established a horse breeding farm in Lexington, Kentucky where he developed the American polo pony by breeding American Quarter Horse stallions with his thoroughbred mares, he was thoroughbred racing's leading owner of the year in the United States on eight occasions and the breeder of two hundred stakes race winners.
His leading sire was first Hamburg and the great sire Broomstick, by Ben Brush. His Kentucky-bred horse Whisk Broom II raced in England at age six came back to the U. S. where he won the New York Handicap Triple. He owned Upset, who gave Man o' War the only loss of his career. Whitney had nineteen horses who ran in the Kentucky Derby, winning it the first time in 1915 with another Broomstick foal, the first filly to capture the race. Regret went on to earn Horse of the Year honors and was named to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame. Whitney won the Kentucky Derby for the second time in 1927 with the colt Whiskery, his record of six wins in the Preakness Stakes stood as the most by any breeder until 1968 when Calumet Farm broke the record. Whitney's colt Burgomaster won the 1906 Belmont Stakes and received Horse of the Year honors. Amongst many, Whitney's breeding operation produced Johren. Whitney's stable won the following prestigious U. S. Triple Crown races: Kentucky Derby: 1915: Regret 1927: Whiskery Preakness Stakes: 1908: Royal Tourist 1913: Buskin 1914: Holiday 1921: Broomspun 1927: Bostonian 1928: Victorian Belmont Stakes: 1905: Tanya 1906: Burgomaster 1913: Prince Eugene 1918: JohrenHis Lexington, Kentucky stud farm was passed on to his son, C.
V. Whitney, who owned it until 1989 when it became part of Gainesway Farm. On August 25, 1896 he married a member of the wealthy Vanderbilt family. In New York, the couple lived in town houses belonging to William Whitney, first at 2 East 57th St. across the street from Gertrude's parents, after William Whitney's death, at 871 Fifth Avenue. They had a country estate in Westbury, Long Island. Together, they had three children: Flora Payne Whitney Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Barbara Whitney. Harry Whitney died in 1930 at age fifty-eight, he and his wife are interred in The Bronx. TIME magazine reported that at the time of his death, Harry Payne Whitney's estate was appraised by New York State for tax collection purposes at $62,808,000 net; the benefactor to many organizations, in 1920 H. P. Whitney financed the Whitney South Seas Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History, Rollo Beck's major zoological expedition that sent teams of scientists and naturalists to undertake botanical research and to study the bird population of several thousand islands in the Pacific Ocean.
The Whitney Collection of Sporting Art was donated in his memory to the Yale University Art Gallery. "Gentleman's Estate". Time Magazine. 1934-07-30. Retrieved 2008-08-09. June 5, 1904 New York Times article on Harry Payne Whitney Harry Payne Whitney obituary
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
The black rat —also known as ship rat, roof rat, or house rat—is a common long-tailed rodent of the stereotypical rat genus Rattus, in the subfamily Murinae. Black rats are generalist omnivores, they are serious pests to farmers. They are black to light brown in color with a lighter underside. Domesticated black rats are sometimes kept as pets, but are much less common in this role than the larger brown rat; the black rat is one of the many species described by the zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae. It was named as Mus rattus, in the mouse genus. Three subspecies were once recognized, but today are considered invalid: Rattus rattus rattus – roof rat Rattus rattus alexandrinus – Alexandrine rat Rattus rattus frugivorus – fruit rat A typical adult black rat is 12.75 to 18.25 cm long, not including a 15 to 22 cm tail, weighs 75 to 230 g, depending on the subspecies. Despite its name, the black rat exhibits several colour forms, it is black to light brown in colour with a lighter underside.
In England during the 1920s, several variations were bred and shown alongside domesticated brown rats. This included an unusual green-tinted variety; the black rat has a scraggly coat of black fur, is smaller than the brown rat. Rattus rattus. Evidence suggests that R. rattus existed in prehistoric Europe as well as the Levant during post-glacial periods. The specific origin of the black rat is uncertain due to the rat's reintroduction. Evidence such as DNA and bone fragments suggests that the rats did not come from Europe, but migrated from southeast Asia. Rats are resilient vectors for many diseases because of their ability to hold so many infectious bacteria in their blood. Rats played a primary role in spreading bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, responsible for the Plague of Justinian and the Black Death. A study published in 2015 indicates that other Asiatic rodents served as plague reservoirs, from which infections spread as far west as Europe via trade routes, both overland and maritime.
Although the black rat was a plague vector in European ports, the spread of the plague beyond areas colonized by rats suggests that the plague was circulated by humans after reaching Europe. The modern black rat was spread across Europe in the wake of the Roman conquest and arose from an ancestor that originated in southeast Asia Malaysia; the Mediterranean black rats differ genetically from their southeast Asian ancestors by having 38 instead of 42 chromosomes. Therefore, it seems that speciation could have occurred when the rats colonized southwest India, the primary country from which Romans obtained their spices; because Rattus rattus is a passive traveler, they could have traveled to Europe during the trading between Rome and southwestern Asian countries. Evidence suggests that, in 321–331 B. C. Egyptian birds were preying on Mediterranean rats, though this is not enough to prove that Egypt was the source of the rats. Black rats are considered omnivores and eat a wide range of foods, including seeds, stems, fungi, a variety of invertebrates and vertebrates.
They are generalists, thus not specific in their food preferences, indicated by their tendency to feed on any meal provided for cows, chickens and dogs. They are similar to the tree squirrel in their preference of nuts, they drink about 15 millilitres per day. Their diet is high in water content, they are a threat to many natural habitats because they feed on insects. They are a threat to many farmers, since they feed on a variety of agricultural-based crops, such as cereals, sugar cane, cocoa and coffee beans; the black rat originated in India and Southeast Asia, spread to the Near East and Egypt, throughout the Roman Empire, reaching Great Britain as early as the 1st century A. D.. Europeans subsequently spread it throughout the world; the black rat is again confined to warmer areas, having been supplanted by the brown rat in cooler regions and urban areas. In addition to the brown rat being larger and more aggressive, the change from wooden structures and thatched roofs to bricked and tiled buildings favored the burrowing brown rats over the arboreal black rats.
In addition, brown rats eat a wider variety of foods, are more resistant to weather extremes. Black rat populations can explode under certain circumstances having to do with the timing of the fruiting of the bamboo plant, cause devastation to the plantings of subsistence farmers. Black rats are thought to have arrived in Australia with the First Fleet, subsequently spread to many coastal regions in the country. In New Zealand, black rats have an unusual distribution and importance, in that they are utterly pervasive through native forests and urban parklands; this is typical only of oceanic islands that lack native mammals other rodents. Throughout most of the world, black rats are found only in disturbed habitats near people near the coast. Black rats are the most frequent predator of small forest birds and lizards in New Zealand forests, are key ecosystem changers. Controlling their abundance on large areas of the New Zealand mainland is a crucial current challenge for conservation managers.
Black rats adapt to a wide range of habitats. In urban areas they are
The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. The Marquesas are located at 9.7812° S, 139.0817° W. The highest point is the peak of Mount Oave on Ua Pou island at 1,230 m above sea level. Research based on 2010 studies suggests the islands were colonized in two successive waves by indigenous colonists from West Polynesia, beginning c. 1025–1120 AD, leading to the development of a "remarkably uniform culture, human biology and language."The Marquesas Islands form one of the five administrative divisions of French Polynesia. The capital of the Marquesas Islands administrative subdivision is the settlement of Taiohae on the island of Nuku Hiva; the population of the Marquesas Islands was 9,346 inhabitants at the August 2017 census. The Marquesas Islands group is one of the most remote in the world, lying about 852 mi northeast of Tahiti and about 3,000 mi away from the west coast of Mexico, the nearest continental land mass.
They fall into two geographical divisions: the northern group, consisting of Eiao, Motu One, the islands centered on the large island of Nuku Hiva: Motu Iti, Ua Pou, Motu Oa and Ua Huka, the southern group of Fatu Uku, Moho Tani, Fatu Hiva and Motu Nao, clustered around the main island of Hiva ʻOa. With a combined land area of 1,049 square kilometres, the Marquesas are among the largest island groups of French Polynesia discovered by Spanish galleons fleets en route to Manila, Nuku Hiva being the second largest island in the entire territory, after Tahiti. With the exception of Motu One, all the islands of the Marquesas are of volcanic origin. In contrast to the tendency to associate Polynesia with lush tropical vegetation, the Marquesas are remarkably dry islands. Though the islands lie within the tropics, they are the first major break in the prevailing easterly winds that spawn from the extraordinarily dry Humboldt Current; because of this, the islands are subject to frequent drought conditions, only those that reach highest into the clouds have reliable precipitation.
This has led to historical fluctuations in water supply, which have played a crucial role in the sustainability of human populations in certain sections of the various islands throughout the archipelago. This is evident in the low historical population of Ua Huka and the intermittent inhabitability of Eiao; the Marquesas Islands are thought to have formed by a center of upwelling magma called the Marquesas hotspot. Eiao Hatutu Motu Iti Motu Oa Motu One Nuku Hiva Ua Huka Ua Pou Fatu Hiva Fatu Huku Hiva ʻOa Moho Tani Motu Nao Tahuata Terihi There are a number of seamounts or shoals, located in the area of the northern Marquesas. Among these are: Clark Bank Hinakura Bank Lawson Bank Bank Jean Goguel The bulk of the Marquesas Islands are of volcanic origin, created by the Marquesas hotspot that underlies the Pacific Plate; the Marquesas Islands lie above a submarine volcanic plateau of the same name. The plateau, like the islands, is believed to be less than 5 million years old, though one hypothesis has the plateau as older and having a mirror image, the Inca Plateau, subducting under northern Peru.
Except for Motu One, all the Marquesas are high islands. Motu One is a low island. Unlike the majority of French Polynesian islands, the Marquesas are not surrounded by protective fringing reefs. Except for Motu One, in bays and other protected areas, the only other coral in the Marquesas is found in a rather strange place: on the top of the island of Fatu Huku; the South Equatorial Current lashes the islands mercilessly, which has led to sea-caves dotting the islands' shores. Except for where the valleys empty into the small bays, the islands are remarkable for their mountain ridges, which end abruptly as cliffs where they meet the sea; the islands are estimated to range in age from Fatu Hiva to the oldest, Eiao. Temperatures in the Marquesas are stable year around, but precipitation is variable. Precipitation is much greater on the east parts of the islands than on the western parts. Average annual precipitation can vary from more than 100 inches on windward shores and mountains to a low as 20 inches in the "desert" region of Nuku Hiva.
Droughts, sometimes lasting several years, are frequent and seem to be associated with the El Niño phenomena. The statistics from the weather station at Atuona on Hiva ʻOa is representative of the average sea-level climate of the Marquesas. Illustrating the variability of precipitation, the highest annual rainfall recorded in Atuona is 148.2 inches. The first recorded settlers of the Marquesas were Polynesians, from archaeological evidence, was long believed by scholars to have arrived from West Polynesia before 100 AD. However, a 2010 study using revised, high-precision radiocarbon dating based on more reliable samples has established that the period of eastern Polynesian colonization took place much in a shorter time frame of two waves: the "earliest in the Society Islands A. D. ∼1025–112
Pomarea is a genus of birds in the monarch flycatcher family Monarchidae. The genus is restricted to the islands of Polynesia; the monarchs of this genus are around 15–19 cm long and most have sexually dimorphic plumage. The genus Pomarea contains six extant species: Rarotonga monarch Tahiti monarch Marquesan monarch Ua Pou monarch Iphis monarch Fatu Hiva monarch †Maupiti monarch †Nuku Hiva monarch †Eiao monarch Formerly, some authorities considered the following species as species within the genus Pomarea: Bougainville monarch Chestnut-bellied monarch The genus is threatened, with three of the six remaining species listed as critically endangered, one endangered and two vulnerable. Three species have become extinct; the principal threat to all these species is predation by the introduced black rat
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes, which facilitates perching. With more than 110 families and some 6,409 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided into three clades, Acanthisitti and Passeri; the passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous; the terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds. The order is divided into three suborders, Tyranni and the basal Acanthisitti. Oscines have the best control of their syrinx muscles among birds, producing a wide range of songs and other vocalizations.
The acanthisittids or New Zealand wrens are tiny birds restricted to New Zealand, at least in modern times. Most passerines are smaller than typical members of other avian orders; the heaviest and altogether largest passerines are the thick-billed raven and the larger races of common raven, each exceeding 1.5 kg and 70 cm. The superb lyrebird and some birds-of-paradise, due to long tails or tail coverts, are longer overall; the smallest passerine is the short-tailed pygmy tyrant, at 4.2 g. The foot of a passerine has three toes directed forward and one toe directed backward, called anisodactyl arrangement; this arrangement enables the passerine birds to perch upon vertical surfaces, such as trees and cliffs. The toes have no webbing or joining, but in some cotingas, the second and third toes are united at their basal third; the hind toe joins the leg at the same level as the front toes. The passeriformes have this toe arrangement in common with hunting birds like falcons; the leg arrangement of passerine birds contains a special adaptation for perching.
A tendon in the rear of the leg running from the underside of the toes to the muscle behind the tibiotarsus will automatically be pulled and tighten when the leg bends, causing the foot to curl and become stiff when the bird lands on a branch. This enables passerines to sleep. Most passerine birds develop 12 tail feathers, although the superb lyrebird has 16. Certain species of passerines have stiff tail feathers, which help the birds balance themselves when perching upon vertical surfaces; some passerines in the family Ploceidae, are well known for their elaborate sexual ornaments, including long tails. A well-known example is the long-tailed widowbird; the chicks of passerines are altricial: blind and helpless when hatched from their eggs. Hence, the chicks require extensive parental care. Most passerines lay coloured eggs, in contrast with nonpasserines, most of whose eggs are white except in some ground-nesting groups such as Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, in some parasitic cuckoos, which match the passerine host's egg.
Vinous-throated parrotbill has two egg colours and blue. This can prevent the brood parasitic Common cuckoo. Clutches vary in size: some larger passerines of Australia such as lyrebirds and scrub-robins lay only a single egg, most smaller passerines in warmer climates lay between two and five, while in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, hole-nesting species like tits can lay up to a dozen and other species around five or six; the family Viduidae do not build their own nests, they lay eggs in other birds' nests. The evolutionary history of the passerine families and the relationships among them remained rather mysterious until the late 20th century. In many cases, passerine families were grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities that, it is now believed, are the result of convergent evolution, not a close genetic relationship. For example, the wrens of the Eurasia. Much research remains to be done, but advances in molecular biology and improved paleobiogeographical data are revealing a clearer picture of passerine origins and evolution that reconciles molecular affinities, the constraints of morphology and the specifics of the fossil record.
The first passerines are now thought to have evolved in the Southern Hemisphere in the late Paleocene or early Eocene, around 50 million years ago. The initial split was between the New Zealand wrens and all other passerines, the second split involved the Tyranni and the Passeri; the latter experienced a great radiation of forms out of the Australian continent. A major branch of the Passeri, parvorder Passerida, expanded deep into Eurasia and Africa, where a further explosive radiation of new lineages occurred; this led to three major Passerida lineages comprising about 4,000 species, which in addition to the Corvida and numerous minor linea