In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra. It contains the larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, a flap separating the esophagus from the trachea preventing food and drink being inhaled into the lungs; the throat contains various blood vessels, pharyngeal muscles, the nasopharyngeal tonsil, the tonsils, the palatine uvula, the trachea, the esophagus, the vocal cords. Mammal throats consist of the hyoid bone and the clavicle; the "throat" is sometimes thought to be synonymous for the isthmus of the fauces. It works with the mouth and nose, as well as a number of other parts of the body, its pharynx is connected to the mouth, allowing speech to occur, food and liquid to pass down the throat. It is joined to the nose by the nasopharynx at the top of the throat, to ear by its Eustachian tube; the throat's trachea carries inhaled air to the bronchi of the lungs. The esophagus carries food through the throat to the stomach. Adenoids and tonsils are composed of lymph tissue.
The larynx contains vocal cords, the epiglottis, an area known as the subglottic larynx—the narrowest section of the upper part of the throat. In the larynx, the vocal cords consist of two membranes that act according to the pressure of the air; the Jugulum is a low part of the throat, located above the breast. The term Jugulum is reflected both by the internal and external jugular veins, which pass through the Jugulum. Strep throat Tracheotomy Tonsilloliths Throat singing
Frenulum of lower lip
The frenulum labii inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip
The palatine raphe is a raphe running across the palate, from the palatine uvula to the incisive papilla. "Anatomy diagram: 05287.011-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2013-04-22. Diagram at bris.ac.uk Diagram at ana.bris.ac.uk Diagram at waybuilder.net
Buccal fat pad
The buccal fat pad, is one of several encapsulated fat masses in the cheek. It is a deep fat pad located on either side of the face between the buccinator muscle and several more superficial muscles; the inferior portion of the buccal fat pad is contained within the buccal space. It should not be confused with the malar fat pad, directly below the skin of the cheek, it should not be confused with jowl fat pads. It is implicated in the formation of hollow cheeks and the nasolabial fold, but not in the formation of jowls; the buccal fat pad is composed of several parts, although how many parts seems to be a point of disagreement and no single consistent nomenclature of these parts has been observed. It was described as being divided into three lobes, the anterior and posterior, “according to the structure of the lobar envelopes, the formation of ligaments, the source of the nutritional vessels”. There are four extensions from the body of the buccal fat pad: the sublevator, the melolabial, the buccal, the pterygoid.
The nomenclature of these extensions derives from their proximal muscles. The anterior lobe of the buccal fat surrounds the parotid duct, which conveys saliva from the parotid gland to the mouth, it is a triangular mass with one vertex at the buccinators, one at the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, one at the orbicularis oris. The intermediate lobe lies between the posterior lobes over the maxilla; the intermediate lobe seems to lose a significant amount of volume between adulthood. The posterior lobe of the buccal fat pad runs from the infraorbital fissure and temporal muscle to the upper rim of the mandible and back to the mandibular ramus; some people describe the buccal fat pad’s primary function in relation to chewing and suckling in infants. This theory derives some support from the loss of volume to the intermediate lobe, which would be most directly involved in chewing and sucking, from infancy to adulthood. Another proposed function is as gliding pads that facilitate the action of the muscles of mastication.
The buccal fat pad may function as a cushion to protect sensitive facial muscles from injury due to muscle action or exterior force. The Buccal fat pad is used in facial recontouring. Several authors discuss the importance of the buccal fat pad in attaining good results from a facelift. Buccal flaps are used in reconstruction of the periorbital area after injury, they are used to repair congenital defects of the oral cavity or for repair of congenital cleft palate. Removal of the buccal fat pad is sometimes used to reduce cheek prominence, although this procedure may carry with it a significant risk of damage to the buccal branch of the facial nerve and the parotid ducts
The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria. These medications are used when a bacterial infection is suspected but the group of bacteria is unknown or when infection with multiple groups of bacteria is suspected; this is in contrast to a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, effective against only a specific group of bacteria. Although powerful, broad-spectrum antibiotics pose specific risks the disruption of native, normal bacteria and the development of antimicrobial resistance. An example of a used broad-spectrum antibiotic is ampicillin. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are properly used in the following situations: Empirically, when the causative organism is unknown, but delays in treatment would lead to worsening infection or spread of bacteria to other parts of the body; this occurs, for example, in meningitis, where the patient can become fatally ill within hours if broad-spectrum antibiotics are not initiated.
For drug-resistant bacteria that do not respond to narrow-spectrum antibiotics. In the case of superinfections, where there are multiple types of bacteria causing illness, thus warranting either a broad-spectrum antibiotic or combination antibiotic therapy. For prophylaxis in order to prevent bacterial infections occurring. For example, this can occur before surgery, to prevent infection during the operation, or for patients with immunosuppression who are at high-risk for dangerous bacterial infections. Antibiotics are grouped by their ability to act on different bacterial groups. Although bacteria are biologically classified using taxonomy, disease-causing bacteria have been classified by their microscopic appearance and chemical function; the morphology of the organism may be classified as cocci, bacilli, spiral-shaped or pleomorphic. Additional classification occurs through the organism's ability to take up the Gram stain and counter-stain. Further classification includes their requirement for oxygen, patterns of hemolysis, or other chemical properties.
The most encountered groupings of bacteria include gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacilli, atypical bacteria, anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotics are grouped by their ability to act on different bacterial groups. For example, 1st-generation cephalosporins are effective against gram-positive bacteria, while 4th-generation cephalosporins are effective against gram-negative bacteria. Empiric antibiotic therapy refers to the use of antibiotics to treat a suspected bacterial infection despite lack of a specific bacterial diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis of the species of bacteria occurs through culture of blood, sputum, or urine, can be delayed by 24 to 72 hours. Antibiotics are given after the culture specimen has been taken from the patient in order to preserve the bacteria in the specimen and ensure accurate diagnosis. Alternatively, some species may be identified through a stool test. Clinicians use a step-wise approach to determining appropriate empiric therapy. First, the potential diagnoses are established and any predisposing risk factors are determined.
The most bacterial species for this type of infection are identified. Lastly, an antibiotic or group of antibiotics are chosen that are reliably effective against the potential species of bacteria. Clinicians aim to choose empiric antibiotic combinations that cover all appropriate bacteria but minimize coverage of inappropriate bacteria, as to reduce the incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics have been shown to be just as effective as broad-spectrum alternatives for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infections, have a lower risk of side effects in children. A community-wide antibiogram that lists the susceptibility of community-acquired and hospital-acquired bacteria is helpful in guiding empiric therapy. Many professional organizations publish guidelines for empiric antibiotic therapy, as do hospitals, with their choices tailored for their specific resistance patterns. Many of these guidelines offer guidance on antibiotic dose and duration of therapy.
Once a specific species has been identified and its susceptibilities determined, antibiotics can be "narrowed" to a medication which targets a more specific range of bacteria. If no specific species are identified, patients may continue on the empiric regimen. There are an estimated 10-100 trillion multiple organisms; as a side-effect of therapy, antibiotics can change the body's normal microbial content by attacking indiscriminately both the pathological and occurring, beneficial or harmless bacteria found in the intestines and bladder. The destruction of the body's normal bacterial flora is thought to disrupt immunity and lead to a relative overgrowth in some bacteria or fungi. An overgrowth of drug-resistant microorganisms can lead to a secondary infection such as Clostridium difficile or candidiasis; this side-effect is more with the use of broad-spe
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location