Fault Milestone One
Fault Milestone One is a visual novel video game developed by Alice in Dissonance and published by Sekai Project. It was first released in Japan for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux in 2013, with an English version localized and released by Sekai Project the following year. Versions for the PlayStation 4 and Nintendo Switch are planned to be released in 2019. Fault Milestone One follows the royal guardian Ritona, who uses magic to escape the kingdom of Rughzenhaide, along with princess Selphine, after it gets attacked by mercenaries; the two arrive in a strange country unfamiliar to them halfway across the world, follows their attempt to return home. It is the first entry in the Fault series, was followed by Fault Milestone Two in 2015. Considered a "kinetic novel", the game is linear and features little gameplay interaction by players; the game was written by Munisix, with artwork by Hare Konatsu. The story was based on a pitch for a role-playing game delivered to Munisix; when Alice in Dissonance were approached by Sekai Project about an English localization, they wanted to add some polish first.
They financed the localization, as well as ports for other platforms through a crowdfunding campaign in 2014. The game was a commercial success according to Munisix, received positive reception. Fault Milestone One is a linear visual novel with no player interaction aside from one player decision early in the game that affects some dialogue; the game focuses with the player being an observer. The player has access to an in-game encyclopedia detailing concepts seen in the game; the game is set in a world where the art of using magic, called "manakravte", exists and is used in every aspect of life. However, not everywhere on the planet has high concentration of mana; these places, called the "Outer-Pole", have instead had advances in medicine. The story follows the manakravter Ritona, the royal guardian for princess Selphine of the kingdom of Rughzenhaide. Among other characters are Rune, a girl from the Outer-Pole, her brother Rudo, the head of a major company. Fault Milestone One was developed by Alice in Dissonance as the first work under Project Written, the name of their operations.
It was written by Munisix, with character designs and other art by Hare Konatsu. The "Milestone" in the title comes from how Alice in Dissonance wanted to do something different from the commonly-used word "Episode". While Munisix is a native speaker of English, he chose to write the game in Japanese, stating that his reason for this was that he had had more exposure to the visual novel medium in Japanese than in English saying that he would have used English if he were to write a movie script. According to him, the writing is the aspect that takes the most time during the production, with a lot of time spent on coming up with ideas and turning them into "something consistent". Describing himself as a disorganized person, he has said that they have had to delete whole segments due to him overlooking some aspect of the game's world; the game's story began as a pitch for a role-playing game, delivered to Munisix at some point in the 2000s. It included the premise of a princess defeating an enemy that had devastated her homeland, as well as character names and personalities, asked Munisix to write a story.
Munisix found the pitch underwhelming, but still worked on it, attempting to make it more interesting. Not wanting to abandon the work he had put into the project, Munisix continued with the project, making several changes to the point where it no longer resembled the original pitch. Among these were additions to the game world and cast, including the creation of Ritona and the Outer and Inner-Poles, the concept of the "path down", a motivation for the game's antagonist, he changed the structure of the story so that it could work as a manga or as "a better game than it was intended to be". Munisix wrote the main characters to be strong women who can "more than adequately do" what male characters from shōnen manga can, intending for both male and female players to be able to look up to them, he did not consider the characters' sexual or affectionate attractiveness to be a primary goal, intended for them to be "gritty and cool" rather than "cute and lovely". He based Rune's condition on psychopathy.
He aimed to give each part of the game world its own feeling: Rughzenhaide and the Alliance were made similar to the Age of Enlightenment, but with an information technology revolution that did not require computers. According to Munisix, the names of characters and locations came about with no time spent on any naming scheme, he tried to write slice-of-life scenes for the game, but felt that they were not compelling or convincing, stating that the tense situations the main characters are in throughout the story leave little room for levity, as they need to get home alive and have to consider potential dangers. For the game's character design, Munisix gave Konatsu specifications of what each character would look like, they go through multiple prototypes, with some designs turning into other characters, some clothes being reused on other characters. Due to misunderstandings, Konatsu designed Rune as a male character. Munisix had imagined Rune as wearing a skirt and having long, black hair. Howev
An error is an action, inaccurate or incorrect. In some usages, an error is synonymous with a mistake. In statistics, "error" refers to the difference between the value, computed and the correct value. An error could result in a deviation from the intended performance or behaviour. One reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows: An'error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. A'mistake' is an error caused by a fault: the fault being misjudgment, carelessness, or forgetfulness. Now, say that I run a stop sign because I was in a hurry, wasn't concentrating, the police stop me, a mistake. If, however, I try to park in an area with conflicting signs, I get a ticket because I was incorrect on my interpretation of what the signs meant, that would be an error; the first time it would be an error. The second time it would be a mistake. In human behavior the norms or expectations for behavior or its consequences can be derived from the intention of the actor or from the expectations of other individuals or from a social grouping or from social norms.
Gaffes and faux pas can be labels for certain instances of this kind of error. More serious departures from social norms carry labels such as misbehavior and labels from the legal system, such as misdemeanor and crime. Departures from norms connected to religion can have other labels, such as sin. An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar and orthography are sometimes referred to as errors. However, in light of the role of language usage in everyday social class distinctions, many feel that linguistics should restrain itself from such prescriptivist judgments to avoid reinforcing dominant class value claims about what linguistic forms should and should not be used. One may distinguish various kinds of linguistic errors – some, such as aphasia or speech disorders, where the user is unable to say what they intend to, are considered errors, while cases where natural, intended speech is non-standard, are considered legitimate speech in scholarly linguistics, but might be considered errors in prescriptivist contexts.
See Error analysis. A gaffe is made in a social environment and may come from saying something that may be true but inappropriate, it may be an erroneous attempt to reveal a truth. Gaffes can be malapropisms, grammatical errors or other verbal and gestural weaknesses or revelations through body language. Revealing factual or social truth through words or body language, can result in embarrassment or, when the gaffe has negative connotations, friction between people involved. Philosophers and psychologists interested in the nature of the gaffe include Freud and Gilles Deleuze. Deleuze, in his Logic of Sense, places the gaffe in a developmental process that can culminate in stuttering. Sports writers and journalists use "gaffe" to refer to any kind of mistake, e.g. a dropped ball by a player in a baseball game. See medical error for a description of error in medicine. In statistics, an error is not a "mistake" but rather a difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the accepted true, specified, or theoretically correct value.
In science and engineering in general an error is defined as a difference between the desired and actual performance or behavior of a system or object. This definition is the basis of operation for many types of control systems, in which error is defined as the difference between a set point and the process value. An example of this would be the thermostat in a home heating system—the operation of the heating equipment is controlled by the difference between the thermostat setting and the sensed air temperature. Another approach is related to considering a scientific hypothesis as true or false, giving birth to two types of errors: Type 1 and Type 2; the first one is. Engineers seek to design devices and systems and in such a way as to mitigate or preferably avoid the effects of error, whether unintentional or not; such errors in a system can be latent design errors that may go unnoticed for years, until the right set of circumstances arises that cause them to become active. Other errors in engineered systems can arise due to human error.
Human factors engineering is applied to designs in an attempt to minimize this type of error by making systems more forgiving or error-tolerant. Numerical analysis provides a variety of techniques to represent and compute approximations to mathematical numerical values. Errors arise from a trade-off between efficiency and precision, limited anyway, since only a finite amount of values can be represented exactly; the discrepancy between the exact mathematical value and the stored/computed value is called the approximation error. The word cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης. In applying corrections to the trajectory or course being steered cybernetics can be seen as the most general approach to error and its correction for the achievement of any goal; the term was suggested by Norbert Wiener to describe a new science of control and information in the animal and the machine. Wiener's early work was on noise; the cyber
Glossary of tennis terms
This page is a glossary of tennis terminology. Ace: Serve where the tennis ball lands inside the service box and is not touched by the receiver. Aces are powerful and land on or near one of the corners at the back of the service box; the term was used to indicate the scoring of a point. Action: Synonym of spin ad: Used by the chair umpire to announce the score when a player has the advantage, meaning they won the point after a deuce. See scoring in tennis ad court: Left side of the court of each player, so called because the ad point following a deuce is always served to this side of the court. Advantage: When one player wins the first point from a deuce and needs one more point to win the game. Advantage set: Set won by a player or team having won at least six games with a two-game advantage over the opponent. Final sets in the singles draws of the Australian Open, the French Open and the tennis Olympic event, Fed Cup, are all advantage sets; the Davis Cup was until 2015. All: Used by the chair umpire to announce scores when both players have the same number of points or the same number of games.
When both players are at 40, the preferred term is deuce. All-Comers: Tournament in which all players took part except the reigning champion; the winner of the All-Comers event would play the title holder in the Challenge Round. All-court: Style of play, a composite of all the different playing styles, which includes baseline and serve and volley styles. Alley: Area of the court between the singles and the doubles sidelines, which together are known as tramlines. Alternate: Player or team that gains acceptance into the main draw of a tournament when a main draw player or team withdraws; such a player may be a lucky loser. Approach shot: A groundstroke shot used as a setup as the player approaches the net using underspin or topspin. ATP: Abbreviation for Association of Tennis Professionals, the main organizing body of men's professional tennis. ATP Champions' Race: ATP point ranking system that starts at the beginning of the year and by the end of the year mirrors the ATP entry system ranking; the top eight players at the end of the year qualify for the ATP Finals.
ATP Finals: Formerly known as the Tennis Masters Cup, it is the annual season-ending tournament featuring eight of the top-ranked men in the world. Australian formation: In doubles, a formation where the server and partner stand on the same side of the court before starting the point. Backhand: Stroke in which the ball is hit with the back of the racket hand facing the ball at the moment of contact. A backhand is hit by a right-handed player when the ball is on the left side of the court, vice versa. Backhand smash: A type of smash played over the backhand side. Backcourt: The area of the tennis court between the baseline and the service line. Backspin: Shot that rotates the ball backwards after it is hit; the trajectory of the shot is affected by an upward force. See Magnus effect. Backswing: Portion of a swing where the racket is swung backwards in preparation for the forward motion to hit the ball. Bagel: Colloquial term for winning or losing a set 6–0. See breadstick. Bagnall–Wild: A method of draw which places all byes in the first round.
Introduced in the 1880s. Ball boy: a person a child tasked with retrieving tennis balls from the court that have gone out of play and supplying the balls to the players before their service. Ball boys in net positions kneel near the net and run across the court to collect the ball, while ball boys in the back positions stand in the back along the perimeter of the arena. Ball boys in the back are responsible for giving the balls to the player serving. Ball toss: The action of throwing up the ball prior to the serve. Baseline: Line at the farthest ends of the court indicating the boundary of the area of play. If the ball goes over the baseline it will be the other player's point. Baseliner: Player who plays around the baseline during play and relies on the quality of his or her ground strokes. Big serve: Forceful serve giving an advantage in the point for the server. Bisque: One stroke, which may be claimed by the receiver at any part of the set. Part of the handicapping used during the early era of the sport.
Abolished by the LTA in 1890. Block: Defensive shot with little backswing and shortened action instead of a full swing while returning a serve. Bounce: The upward movement of the ball after it has hit the ground; the trajectory of the bounce can be affected by the surface and weather, the amount and type of spin and the power of the shot. Breadstick: Colloquial term for winning or losing a set 6–1, with the straight shape of the one being reminiscent of the straight shape of a breadstick. See bagel. Break: To win a game as the receiving player or team, thereby breaking serve. At high level of play the server is more to win a game, so breaks are key moments of a match. Noun: break. Break back: To win a game as the receiving player or team after losing the previ
A software bug is an error, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. The process of finding and fixing bugs is termed "debugging" and uses formal techniques or tools to pinpoint bugs, since the 1950s, some computer systems have been designed to deter, detect or auto-correct various computer bugs during operations. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program's source code or its design, or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy. Bugs can trigger errors. Bugs may cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Other bugs qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges; some software bugs have been linked to disasters.
Bugs in code that controlled the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine were directly responsible for patient deaths in the 1980s. In 1996, the European Space Agency's US$1 billion prototype Ariane 5 rocket had to be destroyed less than a minute after launch due to a bug in the on-board guidance computer program. In June 1994, a Royal Air Force Chinook helicopter crashed into the Mull of Kintyre, killing 29; this was dismissed as pilot error, but an investigation by Computer Weekly convinced a House of Lords inquiry that it may have been caused by a software bug in the aircraft's engine-control computer. In 2002, a study commissioned by the US Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology concluded that "software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that they cost the US economy an estimated $59 billion annually, or about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product". The term "bug" to describe defects has been a part of engineering jargon since the 1870s and predates electronic computers and computer software.
For instance, Thomas Edison wrote the following words in a letter to an associate in 1878: It has been just so in all of my inventions. The first step is an intuition, comes with a burst difficulties arise—this thing gives out and that "Bugs"—as such little faults and difficulties are called—show themselves and months of intense watching and labor are requisite before commercial success or failure is reached; the Middle English word bugge is the basis for the terms "bugbear" and "bugaboo" as terms used for a monster. Baffle Ball, the first mechanical pinball game, was advertised as being "free of bugs" in 1931. Problems with military gear during World War II were referred to as bugs. In a book published in 1942, Louise Dickinson Rich, speaking of a powered ice cutting machine, said, "Ice sawing was suspended until the creator could be brought in to take the bugs out of his darling."Isaac Asimov used the term "bug" to relate to issues with a robot in his short story "Catch That Rabbit", published in 1944.
The term "bug" was used in an account by computer pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of a malfunction in an early electromechanical computer. A typical version of the story is: In 1946, when Hopper was released from active duty, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she continued her work on the Mark II and Mark III. Operators traced an error in the Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay; this bug was removed and taped to the log book. Stemming from the first bug, today we call errors or glitches in a program a bug. Hopper did not find the bug, as she acknowledged; the date in the log book was September 9, 1947. The operators who found it, including William "Bill" Burke of the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Virginia, were familiar with the engineering term and amusedly kept the insect with the notation "First actual case of bug being found." Hopper loved to recount the story. This log book, complete with attached moth, is part of the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
The related term "debug" appears to predate its usage in computing: the Oxford English Dictionary's etymology of the word contains an attestation from 1945, in the context of aircraft engines. The concept that software might contain errors dates back to Ada Lovelace's 1843 notes on the analytical engine, in which she speaks of the possibility of program "cards" for Charles Babbage's analytical engine being erroneous:... an analysing process must have been performed in order to furnish the Analytical Engine with the necessary operative data. Granted that the actual mechanism is unerring in its processes, the cards may give it wrong orders; the first documented use of the term "bug" for a technical malfunction was by Thomas Edison. The Open Technology Institute, run by the group, New America, released a report "Bugs in the System" in August 2016 stating that U. S. policymakers should make reforms to help researchers address software bugs. The report "highlights the need for reform in the field of software vulnerability discovery and disclosure."
One of the report’s authors said that Congress has not done enough to address cyber software vulnerability though Congress has passed a number of bills to combat the larger issue of cyber security. Government researchers and cyber security experts are the people who discover software flaws
Welcome (Taproot album)
Welcome is the second major label album by the nu metal group Taproot. It was released on October 15, 2002. "Poem" served as the album's lead became a smash hit, propelling the group to stardom. A follow-up single, "Mine," was produced and its video was directed by System of a Down bassist Shavo Odadjian; the third single and video was announced for "Art," but curiously Atlantic pulled the plug soon after the announcement, further irking fans who claimed the label was holding Taproot back. Welcome remains Taproot's most successful record, selling around 450,000 copies; the band performed on Disturbed's Music as a Weapon II in promotion of the album. During a break in their intense touring schedule in support of their debut album, Taproot went to Los Angeles to record several demos with Toby Wright; those tracks were "Poem to Self", "Remain", "Get Me", "When", "Transparent". Bolstered by their new recordings, the band featured "Poem to Self", "Transparent", "Get Me" on tour during 2001, with "Poem to Self" soon becoming one of their most popular songs.
During the early development of Welcome, Taproot had given producer Toby Wright 40 complete songs. Wright said that while they were good, the songs were not up to the band's potential, he forced them to start from scratch. Several earlier tracks were reworked for the album; some of the demos include "Can't Believe", "Poem to Self", "Sumtimes", "Remain", "Strive", "Free", "Fort", "Like", "Promise", "When", "Transparent", "Contradiction", "Keep Your Head Up", "Not a Quitter", "Fault", "Get Me", "Can You", "Indecisive", "Myself", "Dreams". This was met with resentment from the band, but they wrote new songs that they felt show greater maturity. One of the most prominent songs to survive the fresh batch was "Poem," which had seen prior success after being debuted by the band during concerts, such as Ozzfest 2001, went on to be arguably Taproot's most well known single. Other songs that were refined with Toby Wright from earlier demos include "When", "Fault", "Sumtimes", "Like"; as with many Toby Wright productions, songs throughout Welcome are heavy on multi-tracked vocals and layered guitars.
While many of their early demos were not recorded for this effort, Taproot did re-record "Remain", "Transparent", "Free" with Toby Wright. Some of these tracks were included on foreign releases of the album as a bonus track as well as the Poem single, were posted to the band's official MySpace page. "Remain", has yet to be released. Critical response to Welcome was mixed. Various prominent media critics considered the album too mediocre to stand out among current alternative metal and nu metal acts. However, melodic improvements from Taproot's prior effort were cited. AllMusic's Brian O'Neill compared the band's stylistic "idolatry" as a shift from Korn to Alice in Chains. Robert Cherry of Rolling Stone cited the "me, me, me" lyrics as evidence of needed maturity but added that Welcome "marks a self-preserving transition from new metal to art metal." The publication cited Taproot as one of the "Bands to Watch in 2002." CMJ New Music Report described the album as a combination of Alice in Chains.
According to the lyric booklet, there are alternative titles to some of these tracks The band recorded three additional songs during the Welcome sessions. Two of them, "Transparent" and "Free", can both be found on the "Poem" CD single as B-sides and on the Japanese pressing of Welcome as bonus tracks; the lyrics to "Free" can still be found in the lyric booklet of Welcome. The third track, "Remain," has yet to be released. Taproot Mike DeWolf - Guitar Phil Lipscomb - Bass Jarrod Montague - Drums Stephen Richards - Guitar, vocalsProduction Tom Baker - Mastering David Benveniste - A&R, executive producer Elliott Blakey - Engineer Steve Sisco - Mixing assistant Tom Storms - A&R Valente Torrez - Assistant engineer Jeff Turzo - Digital programming Andy Wallace - Mixing Toby Wright - Engineer, producerArt direction Christina Dittmar Taproot Album - Billboard Singles - Billboard
Fault Milestone Two
Fault Milestone Two is a visual novel developed by Alice in Dissonance and published by Sekai Project for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux. It is the second entry in the Fault series, is set after the events of Fault Milestone One; the game features no player choices, follows the characters of Selphine and Ritona, who were transported across the world following an attack on their kingdom of Rughzenhaide. Together, with their newfound friend Rune, the game follows their attempt to return to Rughzenhaide to confront the forces that lead the attack; the game is directed by Munisix, with artwork by Hare Konatsu. It was intended to be released as a single game, but was split into two episodes due to its length and how the developers did not want to raise its price to match; the first episode, Side: Above, was released in 2015, while the second, Side: Below, is planned for release in 2020. The episodes are designed to fit around the prequel game Fault: Silence the Pedant, planned to be released in 2019.
According to Munisix, the first episode was a commercial success. Fault Milestone Two is a linear visual novel without player choices, it is set in a world where magic exists, takes place after the events of its predecessor Fault Milestone One. It follows the characters of Selphine and Ritona, who have been transported far away following an attack on their homeland, the kingdom of Rughzenhaide. Together, with their newfound friend Rune, they attempt to return home to confront the forces that lead the attack; the game was developed by the doujin froup Alice in Dissonance as part of Project Written, the name of their operations. It was written by Munisix, with character designs and other art by Hare Konatsu. Munisix had intended to localize Fault Milestone One himself, but Sekai Project ended up doing the localization following a crowdfunding campaign in 2014. While the game had been intended to be released during Comiket in January 2015, it ended up being delayed. Alice in Dissonance stated that the game was playable from start to finish, but that several sections of the game required improvements before the game could be released.
In July 2015, they announced that the game would be broken up into the two episodes, known as Side: Above and Side: Below, as they thought the story had gotten too long to be sold for US$15, with Side: Above being the same length as Fault Milestone One, they wanted to avoid raising the price to match. Due to this split, they had to rein in some story elements, which Munisix stated was a beneficial thing, as those elements could have otherwise gone out of control. Munisix considered giving Side: Below the title of Milestone Three, but decided against it as they wanted each "milestone" to have its own consistent theme. For Fault Milestone Two, the theme is explored in different ways in each of the episodes, they were designed so that the prequel game, Fault: Silence the Pedant, planned for release between Side: Above and Side: Below, can fit between them. Like with Fault Milestone One, the developers wanted to include one player choice in Side: Above. A new presentation system was added for the game, intended to make the experience more immersive and feel "larger than life".
Fault Milestone Two is being released in two episodes: Side: Side: Below. The first episode was released for Microsoft Windows, OS X and Linux on August 16, 2015 in Japanese, in English on September 8, 2015; the second episode was planned to be released in 2017, but was delayed into 2020. Work on the game's localization began in January 2015, when Sekai Project stated that they had started the planning phase of the localization, released a teaser trailer for it. A demo was released in April 2015, it was first only made available for people who had backed Fault Milestone One's crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter, but was released to the public. According to Munisix, the game was a commercial success, with the series selling over 420,000 copies combined by March 2018; the Steam release of Side: Above had an estimated total of 50,000 players by July 2018. It was reviewed by Marcus Estrada at Hardcore Gamer, who said that the plot was less dramatic than that of Fault Milestone One, but still managed to be compelling and giving insight into the characters of Ritona, Rune and Rhegan.
He criticized it for being short, said that the lack of player choices meant that there was little reason to replay it. He said that the game's visuals looked "gorgeous" and worked well with the story, that the art style was above the more "standardized anime art" used in other visual novels from the same time, he enjoyed the music, saying that the soundtrack was "full of standouts" that emphasized the story well. Official website Fault Milestone Two at The Visual Novel Database
Show jumping known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that includes dressage, eventing and equitation. Jumping classes are seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, sometimes show jumping is but one division of large, all-breed competitions that include a wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA or the British Showjumping Association in Great Britain. International competitions are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Show jumping events have jumper classes and hunt seat equitation classes. Hunters are judged subjectively on the degree to which they meet an ideal standard of manners and way of going.
Conversely, jumper classes are scored objectively, based on a numerical score determined only by whether the horse attempts the obstacle, clears it, finishes the course in the allotted time. Jumper courses tend to be much more complex and technical than hunter courses because riders and horses are not being judged on style. Courses are colorful and at times, quite creatively designed. Hunters have meticulous turnout and tend toward quiet, conservative horse tack and rider attire. Hunter bits, crops and martingales are regulated. Jumpers, while caring for their horses and grooming them well, are not scored on turnout, are allowed a wider range of equipment, may wear less conservative attire, so long as it stays within the rules. Formal turnout always is preferred. In addition to hunters and jumpers, there are equitation classes, sometimes called hunt seat equitation, which judges the ability of the rider; the equipment and fence styles used in equitation more resemble hunter classes, although the technical difficulty of the courses may more resemble jumping events.
Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals and double and triple combinations with many turns and changes of direction. The intent is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for blatant disobedience, such as refusals. Horses are allowed a limited number of refusals before being disqualified. A refusal may lead to a rider exceeding the time allowed on course. Placings are based on "faults" accumulated. A horse and rider who have not accumulated any jumping faults or penalty points are said to have scored a "clear round". Tied entries have a jump-off over a raised and shortened course, the course is timed. In most competitions, riders are allowed to walk the initial course but not the jump-off course before competition to plan their ride. Walking the course before the event is a chance for the rider to walk the lines he or she will have to ride, in order to decide how many strides the horse will need to take between each jump and from which angle.
Going off course will cost time if minor errors are made and major departures will result in disqualification. The higher levels of competition, such as "A" or "AA" rated shows in the United States, or the international "Grand Prix" circuit, present more technical and complex courses. Not only is the height and width of an obstacle increased to present a greater challenge, technical difficulty increases with tighter turns and shorter or unusual distances between fences. Horses sometimes have to jump fences from an angle rather than straight on. For example, a course designer might set up a line so that there are six and a half strides between the jumps, requiring the rider to adjust the horse's stride in order to make the distance. Unlike show hunter classes, which reward calmness and style, jumper classes require boldness, power and control; the first round of the class consists of the rider and horse having to go around the course without refusing or knocking down any jumps while staying within the time allowed.
If the horse/rider combination completes the first round then they move on to the second round, called the "jump-off". In a jump-off, the rider needs to plan ahead of time because they need to be speedy and not have any faults; the jump-off has fewer jumps than the first round but is much more difficult. To win this round, the rider has to be the quickest while still not refusing or knocking down any jumps. Show jumping is a new equestrian sport; until the Inclosure Acts, which came into force in England in the 18th century, there had been little need for horses to jump fences but with this act of Parliament came new challenges for those who followed fox hounds. The Inclosure Acts brought fencing and boundaries to many parts of the country as common ground was dispersed amongst separate owners; this meant that those wishing to pursue their sport