Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are uni- and multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony. However, it can be hard to separate colonial protists from true multicellular organisms, because the two concepts are not distinct. Multicellularity has evolved independently at least 46 times in eukaryotes, in some prokaryotes, like cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, Magnetoglobus multicellularis or Methanosarcina. However, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups: animals, brown algae, red algae, green algae, land plants, it evolved for Chloroplastida, once or twice for animals, once for brown algae, three times in the fungi and several times for slime molds and red algae.
The first evidence of multicellularity is from cyanobacteria-like organisms that lived 3–3.5 billion years ago. To reproduce, true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells, an issue, studied in evolutionary developmental biology. Animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body, compared with 10–20 in plants and fungi. Loss of multicellularity occurred in some groups. Fungi are predominantly multicellular, though early diverging lineages are unicellular and there have been numerous reversions to unicellularity across fungi, it may have occurred in some red algae, but it is possible that they are primitively unicellular. Loss of multicellularity is considered probable in some green algae. In other groups parasites, a reduction of multicellularity occurred, in number or types of cells. Multicellular organisms long-living animals, face the challenge of cancer, which occurs when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development.
Changes in tissue morphology can be observed during this process. Cancer in animals has been described as a loss of multicellularity. There is a discussion about the possibility of existence of cancer in other multicellular organisms or in protozoa. For example, plant galls have been characterized as tumors, but some authors argue that plants do not develop cancer. In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell line evolved. However, Weismannist development is rare, as a great part of species have the capacity for somatic embryogenesis. One hypothesis for the origin of multicellularity is that a group of function-specific cells aggregated into a slug-like mass called a grex, which moved as a multicellular unit; this is what slime molds do. Another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would form around each nucleus, thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism.
A third hypothesis is that as a unicellular organism divided, the daughter cells failed to separate, resulting in a conglomeration of identical cells in one organism, which could develop specialized tissues. This is what animal embryos do as well as colonial choanoflagellates; because the first multicellular organisms were simple, soft organisms lacking bone, shell or other hard body parts, they are not well preserved in the fossil record. One exception may be the demosponge; the earliest fossils of multicellular organisms include the contested Grypania spiralis and the fossils of the black shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian Group Fossil B Formation in Gabon. The Doushantuo Formation has yielded 600 million year old microfossils with evidence of multicellular traits; until phylogenetic reconstruction has been through anatomical similarities. This is inexact, as living multicellular organisms such as animals and plants are more than 500 million years removed from their single-cell ancestors.
Such a passage of time allows both divergent and convergent evolution time to mimic similarities and accumulate differences between groups of modern and extinct ancestral species. Modern phylogenetics uses sophisticated techniques such as alloenzymes, satellite DNA and other molecular markers to describe traits that are shared between distantly related lineages; the evolution of multicellularity could have occurred in a number of different ways, some of which are described below: This theory suggests that the first multicellular organisms occurred from symbiosis of different species of single-cell organisms, each with different roles. Over time these organisms would become so dependent on each other they would not be able to survive
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Natural History Museum, Berlin
The Natural History Museum is a natural history museum located in Berlin, Germany. It exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history and in such domain it is one of three major museums in Germany alongside Naturmuseum Senckenberg in Frankfurt and Museum Koenig in Bonn. German speakers call this museum Museum für Naturkunde since this is the term that can be read in the façade's Museum, it is called Naturkundemuseum or Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin so that it can be distinguished from other museums in Germany named as Museum für Naturkunde. The museum's official name changed through time, it had been founded in 1810 as a part of the Berlin University, which changed its name to Humboldt University of Berlin in 1949. This is why the Natural History Museum in Berlin had been known for a long part of its history as the "Humboldt Museum", but in 2009 it left the university to join the Leibniz Association; the current official name is Museum für Naturkunde – Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung and the "Humboldt" name is no longer related to this museum.
Furthermore: there is another Humboldt-Museum in Berlin in Tegel Palace dealing with brothers Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt. The museum houses more than 30 million zoological and mineralogical specimens, including more than ten thousand type specimens, it is famous for two exhibits: the largest mounted dinosaur in the world, a well-preserved specimen of the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx. The museum's mineral collections date back to the Prussian Academy of Sciences of 1700. Important historic zoological specimens include those recovered by the German deep-sea Valdiva expedition, the German Southpolar Expedition, the German Sunda Expedition. Expeditions to fossil beds in Tendaguru in former Deutsch Ostafrika unearthed rich paleontological treasures; the collections are so extensive that less than 1 in 5000 specimens is exhibited, they attract researchers from around the world. Additional exhibits include a mineral collection representing 75% of the minerals in the world, a large meteor collection, the largest piece of amber in the world.
In November 2018 the German government and the city of Berlin decided to expand and improve the building for more than 600 million €. Since the museum renovation in 2007, a large hall explains biodiversity and the processes of evolution, while several rooms feature changing special exhibitions; the specimen of Giraffatitan brancai in the central exhibit hall is the largest mounted dinosaur skeleton in the world. It is composed of fossilized bones recovered by the German paleontologist Werner Janensch from the fossil-rich Tendaguru beds of Tanzania between 1909 and 1913; the remains are from one gigantic animal, except for a few tail bones, which belong to another animal of the same size and species. The historical mount was 12.72 m tall, 22.25 m long. In 2007 it was remounted according to new scientific evidence, reaching a height of 13.27 m. When living, the long-tailed, long-necked herbivore weighed 50 t. While the Diplodocus carnegiei mounted next to it exceeds it in length, the Berlin specimen is taller, far more massive.
The "Berlin Specimen" of Archaeopteryx lithographica, is displayed in the central exhibit hall. The dinosaur-like body with an attached tooth-filled head, claws, long lizard-like tail, the clear impression of feathers in the surrounding stone is strong evidence of the link between reptiles and birds; the Archaeopteryx is a transitional fossil. Recovered from the German Solnhofen limestone beds in 1871, it is only the third Archaeopteryx to be discovered and the most complete; the first specimen, a single 150-million-year-old feather found in 1860, is in the possession of the museum. The MFN's collection comprises 250,000 specimens of minerals, of which 4,500 are on exhibit in the Hall of Minerals. A large hall explains the principles of evolution, it was opened in 2007 after a major renovation of parts of the building. The Museum für Naturkunde now exhibits one of the best-preserved Tyrannosaurus skeletons worldwide. Of 300 bones, 170 have been preserved, which puts it in the third position among others.
Minerals in the museum were part of the collection of instructors from the Berlin Mining Academy. The University of Berlin was founded in 1810, acquired the first of these collections in 1814, under the aegis of the new Museum of Mineralogy. In 1857, the paleontology department was founded, 1854 a department of petrography and general geology was added. By 1886 the university was overflowing with collections, so design began on a new building nearby at Invalidenstraße 43, which opened as the Museum für Naturkunde in 1889; the museum was built on the site of a former ironworks and this is reflected in two spectacular cast iron stairwells within the building. Of particular significance is the contribution of the first director after the move to the new building. In the past the museum consisted of the entire collections being open to the public, but Karl Möbius instigated a clear split between a public exhibition sp
The European Council is a collective body that defines the European Union's overall political direction and priorities. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission; the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy takes part in its meetings. Established as an informal summit in 1975, the European Council was formalised as an institution in 2009 upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, its current president is Donald Tusk, former Prime Minister of Poland. While the European Council has no formal legislative power, it is a strategic body that provides the union with general political directions and priorities, acts as a collective presidency; the European Commission remains the sole initiator of legislation, but the European Council is able to provide an impetus to guide legislative policy. The meetings of the European Council, still referred to as EU summits, are chaired by its president and take place at least twice every six months.
Decisions of the European Council are taken by consensus, except where the Treaties provide otherwise. The European Council gained the status of an EU institution after the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007, distinct from the Council of the European Union. Before that, the first summits of EU heads of state or government were held in February and July 1961, they were informal summits of the leaders of the European Community, were started due to then-French President Charles de Gaulle's resentment at the domination of supranational institutions over the integration process, but petered out. The first influential summit held, after the departure of de Gaulle, was the Hague summit of 1969, which reached an agreement on the admittance of the United Kingdom into the Community and initiated foreign policy cooperation taking integration beyond economics; the summits were only formalised in the period between 1974 and 1988. At the December summit in Paris in 1974, following a proposal from then-French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, it was agreed that more high level, political input was needed following the "empty chair crisis" and economic problems.
The inaugural European Council, as it became known, was held in Dublin on 10 and 11 March 1975 during Ireland's first Presidency of the Council of Ministers. In 1987, it was included in the treaties for the first time and had a defined role for the first time in the Maastricht Treaty. At first only a minimum of two meetings per year were required, which resulted in an average of three meetings per year being held for the 1975-1995 period. Since 1996, the number of meetings were required to be minimum four per year. For the latest 2008-2014 period, this minimum was well exceeded, by an average of seven meetings being held per year; the seat of the Council was formalised in 2002. Three types of European Councils exist: Informal and Extraordinary. While the informal meetings are scheduled 1½ years in advance, they differ from the scheduled ordinary meetings by not ending with official Council conclusions, as they instead end by more broad political Statements on some cherry picked policy matters.
The extraordinary meetings always end with official Council conclusions - but differs from the scheduled meetings by not being scheduled more than a year in advance, as for example in 2001 when the European Council gathered to lead the European Union's response to the 11 September attacks. Some meetings of the European Council—and, before the Council was formalised, meetings of the heads of government—are seen by some as turning points in the history of the European Union. For example: 1969, The Hague: Foreign policy and enlargement. 1974, Paris: Creation of the Council. 1985, Milan: Initiate IGC leading to the Single European Act. 1991, Maastricht: Agreement on the Maastricht Treaty. 1992, Edinburgh: Agreement to retain at Strasbourg the plenary seat of the European Parliament. 1993, Copenhagen: Leading to the definition of the Copenhagen Criteria. 1997, Amsterdam: Agreement on the Amsterdam Treaty. 1998, Brussels: Selected member states to adopt the euro. 1999. 1999, Tampere: Institutional reform 2000, Lisbon: Lisbon Strategy 2002, Copenhagen: Agreement for May 2004 enlargement.
2007, Lisbon: Agreement on the Lisbon Treaty. 2009, Brussels: Appointment of first president and merged High Representative. 2010, European Financial Stability FacilityAs such, the European Council had existed before it gained the status as an institution of the European Union with the entering into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, but after it had been mentioned in the treaties it could only take political decisions, not formal legal acts. However, when necessary, the Heads of State or Government could meet as the Council of Ministers and take formal decisions in that role. Sometimes, this was compulsory, e.g. Article 214 of the Treaty establishing the European Community provided that ‘the Council, meeting in the composition of Heads of State or Government and acting by a qualified majority, shall nominate the person it intends to appoint as President of the Commission’. In that case, what was politically part of a European Council meeting was a meeting of the Council of Ministers; when the European Council, alre
University of Amsterdam
The University of Amsterdam is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The UvA is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the VU University Amsterdam. Established in 1632 by municipal authorities and renamed for the city of Amsterdam, the University of Amsterdam is the third-oldest university in the Netherlands, it is one of the largest research universities in Europe with 31,186 students, 4,794 staff, 1,340 PhD students and an annual budget of €600 million. It is the largest university in the Netherlands by enrollment; the main campus is located with a few faculties located in adjacent boroughs. The university is organised into seven faculties: Humanities and Behavioural Sciences and Business, Law and Dentistry; the University of Amsterdam has produced six Nobel Laureates and five prime ministers of the Netherlands. In 2014, it was ranked 50th in the world, 15th in Europe, 1st in the Netherlands by the QS World University Rankings; the university placed in the top 50 worldwide in seven fields in the 2011 QS World University Rankings in the fields of linguistics, philosophy, science and econometrics, accountancy and finance.
In 2018 and 2019 the two departments of Media and Communication were ranked 1st in the world by subject by QS Ranking. Close ties are harbored with other institutions internationally through its membership in the League of European Research Universities, the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe, European University Association, the International Student Exchange Programs, Universitas 21. In January 1632, the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam was founded by the municipal authorities in Amsterdam, it was devoted to medical teaching. The first two professors were Gerardus Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus; the Athenaeum Illustre provided education comparable to other higher education institutions, although it could not confer doctoral degrees. After training at the Athenaeum, students could complete their education at a university in another town. At the time, Amsterdam housed several other institutions of higher education, including the Collegium Chirugicum, which trained surgeons, other institutions that provided theological courses for the Remonstrant and the Mennonite communities.
Amsterdam's large degree of religious freedom allowed for the establishment of these institutions. Students of the Colegium Chirugicum and the theological institutions attended classes at the Athenaeum Illustre. In 1815 it was given the statutory obligation “to disseminate taste and learning" and “to replace, at least in part, the institutes of higher education and an academic education for those young men whose circumstances unable them to spend the time necessary for an academic career at an institute of higher education.” The Athenaeum began offering classes for students attending non-academic professional training in pharmacy and surgery in 1800. The Athenaeum Illustre worked together with Amsterdam's theological institutions such as the Evangelisch-Luthers Seminarium and the Klinische School, the successor to the Collegium Chirurgicum; the Athenaeum remained a small institution until the 19th century, with no more than 250 students and eight professors. Alumni of the Athenaeum include Cornelis Petrus Tiele.
In 1877, the Athenuem Illustre became the Municipal University of Amsterdam and received the right to confer doctoral degrees. This gave the university the same privileges as national universities while being funded by the city of Amsterdam; the professors and lecturers were appointed by the municipal council. This resulted in a staff, in many ways more colorful than the staffs of national universities. During its time as a municipal university, the university flourished, in particular in the science department, which counted many Nobel prize winners: Tobias Asser, Christiaan Eijkman, Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Pieter Zeeman, Frits Zernike; the University of Amsterdam's municipal status brought about the early addition of the faculties of Economics and Social Sciences. After the World War II the dramatic rise in the cost of university education put a constraint on the university's growth. In 1961, the national government made the university a national university, giving it its current name, the University of Amsterdam.
Funding was now given by the national government instead of the city and the appointment of professors was transferred to the board of governors. The city of Amsterdam retained a limited influence until 1971, when the appointment was handed over to the executive board. During May 1969, the university became the focus of nationwide news when UvA's administrative centre at the Maagdenhuis was occupied by hundreds of students who wanted more democratic influence in educational and administrative matters; the protest lasted for days and was broken up by the police. During the 1970s and 1980s, the university was the target of nationwide student actions; the university saw considerable expansion since becoming a national university, from 7,500 students in 1960 to over 32,000 in 2010. In 2007, UvA undertook the construction of the Science Park Amsterdam, a 70 hectare campus to house the Faculty of Science along with the new University Sports Center. Much of the park has now been completed; the University of Amsterdam began working in close collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam.
In 2008, the University of Amsterdam and VU University jointly founded the Amsterdam Univer
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi