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Faust (opera)

Faust is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One. It debuted at the Théâtre Lyrique on the Boulevard du Temple in Paris on 19 March 1859, with influential sets designed by Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry, Jean Émile Daran, Édouard Desplechin, Philippe Chaperon; the original version of Faust employed spoken dialogue, it was in this form that the work was first performed. The manager of the Théâtre Lyrique, Léon Carvalho cast his wife Marie Miolan-Carvalho as Marguerite and there were various changes during production, including the removal and contraction of several numbers; the tenor Hector Gruyer was cast as Faust but was found to be inadequate during rehearsals, being replaced by a principal of the Opéra-Comique, Joseph-Théodore-Désiré Barbot, shortly before the opening night. After a successful initial run at the Théâtre Lyrique the publisher Antoine Choudens, who purchased the copyright for 10,000 francs, took the work on tour through Germany, Belgium and England, with Marie Miolan-Carvalho repeating her role.

Performances in Germany followed, with Dresden Semperoper in 1861 being the first to bill the work as Margarethe rather than Faust. For many years this custom - or alternatively, staging the opera as Gretchen - continued in Germany; some sources claim this was out of respect for Part I of Goethe's poetic drama, which the opera follows closely. Others claim the opposite: that the retitling was done to emphasise Gounod's opera's reliance on Goethe's characters, to differentiate it from Louis Spohr's Faust, which had held the stage for many years in Germany and had appeared in a three-act revision, it is possible that the 1861 Dresden title change was out of respect for Spohr's close and long association with the city. The opera was given for the first time in Italy at La Scala in 1862 and in England at Her Majesty’s Theatre, London in 1863. In 1864, when the opera was given at the same venue in English, Gounod took a theme from the prelude to the opera and wrote a new aria for the star baritone Charles Santley in the role of Valentin,'Even bravest heart may swell'.

This number was translated into French for subsequent productions as ‘Avant de quitter ces lieux’ and has become one of the most familiar pieces from the opera. In 1869 a ballet had to be inserted before the work could be played at the Opéra: it became the most performed opera at that house. With the change from spoken dialogue to sung recitatives, plus the musical and balletic additions, the opera was thus transformed into a work following the conventions of grand opera. Although the opera is still performed, it no longer sits in the "top twenty" performed worldwide, it was Faust with which the Metropolitan Opera in New York City opened for the first time on 22 October 1883. It is the eighth most performed opera there, with 753 performances through the 2012-2013 season, it was not until the period between 1965 and 1977 that the full version was performed, all performances in that production included the Walpurgisnacht ballet. A recording was made in 2018 of the 1859 version, by Les Talens Lyriques conducted by Christophe Rousset, which endeavoured to present the opera as first performed at the Théâtre Lyrique "closer in kinship to the traditional opéra comique in its interleaving of musical numbers with spoken passages".

The recording, produced by Bru Zane, featured Véronique Gens, Benjamin Bernheim and Andrew Foster-Williams in principal roles. Place: Germany Time: 16th century Faust's cabinet Faust, an aging scholar, determines that his studies have come to nothing and have only caused him to miss out on life and love, he stops each time when he hears a choir. He curses hope and faith, asks for infernal guidance. Méphistophélès appears and, with a tempting image of Marguerite at her spinning wheel, persuades Faust to buy Méphistophélès's services on Earth in exchange for Faust's in Hell. Faust's goblet of poison is magically transformed into an elixir of youth, making the aged doctor a handsome young gentleman. At the city gates A chorus of students and villagers sings a drinking song. Valentin, leaving for war with his friend Wagner, entrusts the care of his sister Marguerite to his youthful friend Siébel. Méphistophélès appears, provides the crowd with wine, sings a rousing, irreverent song about the Golden Calf.

Méphistophélès maligns Marguerite, Valentin tries to strike him with his sword, which shatters in the air. Valentin and friends use the cross-shaped hilts of their swords to fend off what they now know is an infernal power. Méphistophélès is joined by the villagers in a waltz. Marguerite appears and Faust declares his admiration, but she refuses Faust's arm out of modesty, a quality that makes him love her more. Marguerite's garden The lovesick boy Siébel leaves a bouquet for Marguerite. Faust sends Méphistophélès in search of a gift for Marguerite and sings a cavatina idealizing Marguerite as a pure child of nature. Méphistophélès brings in a decorated box containing exquisite jewelry and a hand mirror and leaves it on Marguerite's doorstep, next to Siébel's flowers. Marguerite enters, ponderin

Magnetic Scrolls

Magnetic Scrolls was a British video game developer active between 1984 and 1990. A pioneer of audiovisually elaborate text adventure games, it was one of the two largest and most acclaimed interactive fiction developers of the 1980s. Formed by Anita Sinclair, Ken Gordon and Hugh Steers in 1984, London-based Magnetic Scrolls dabbled with development on the Sinclair QL home computer before deciding to take advantage of the emerging Atari ST and Amiga gaming platforms. Having secured a publication deal with Rainbird, a British software label owned by Telecomsoft, they began work producing an ambitious text adventure game that would become The Pawn. During the mid-1980s, the text adventure market was thriving, although only a few developers specialised in the genre; the undisputed giants of the genre were Infocom, based in Cambridge, who redefined the genre by ensuring the interface never provided a barrier between the player and the fictional elements of the game. Infocom's dominance of the text adventure market ensured they had few rivals in the United States.

Adventure International, owned by Scott and Lexis Adams, had been an early competitor of Infocom, but they went out of business long before Infocom had hit their stride. Their only other serious competitor was Sierra On-Line, owned by Ken and Roberta Williams, who specialised in graphical adventure games. During the early to mid-1980s Level 9 Computing dominated the UK text adventure market. Delta 4 and CRL produced a number of text adventures that were critical and commercial hits but were never a serious rival to Level 9; until they were acquired by Activision in 1985, Infocom's titles were something of a rarity in the UK, only available as expensive imports. Magnetic Scrolls took advantage of this considerable gap in the UK market with their first release, The Pawn; the Pawn, written by Rob Steggles, was released in 1985, on a wide range of 8-bit and 16-bit platforms, to considerable acclaim. One of the game's biggest selling points, besides the advanced text parser, engrossing story and exquisite packaging, were the high resolution illustrations that accompanied many of the game's locations.

Although decidedly antiquated by today's standards, at the time they were considered state-of-the-art. The ZX Spectrum version of the game did not include graphics. In 1987, Magnetic Scrolls released two new games. Steggles returned to write The Guild of Thieves, a traditional treasure hunt, while Georgina Sinclair and Michael Bywater wrote the contemporary fantasy of Jinxter. Both games met with similar critical acclaim as The Pawn. For their next release, Magnetic Scrolls decided to experiment with the boundaries of interactive fiction. Once again written by Rob Steggles, with the help of Hugh Steers, the game was a contemporary thriller that explored corporate corruption and greed. Corruption abandoned the traditional puzzle-solving, treasure-hunting gameplay of many text adventure games, requiring the player to progress by conversing with characters, collecting evidence and working against the clock in order to beat the game; the game came packaged with a cassette tape containing a series of audio conversations.

The player would be prompted to play them at specific points during the story, adding an extra layer of depth to the game. Released towards the end of 1988 was Fish!, a more light-hearted, surreal adventure game, where the player assumed the role of a dimension-jumping goldfish. Written by John Molloy, Pete Kemp, Phil South and edited by Rob Steggles, Fish! would prove to be the last of Magnetic Scrolls' traditional commercial releases. Myth was released in 1989 through Official Secrets, an adventure gaming club set up by Tony Rainbird after he parted ways with Telecomsoft. Now based in Hertfordshire, Magnetic Scrolls produced this mini-adventure as a freebie that would be given away to those who signed up to join Official Secrets; the gaming club didn't last long and was assimilated into Tony Rainbird's new Special Reserve company, specialising in mail order computer hardware and software. Wonderland had been in development at Magnetic Scrolls for some time and was released by Virgin Mastertronic in 1990.

Magnetic Scrolls had devised a brand new interface, christened Magnetic Windows, to take advantage of the Amiga and Atari ST's advanced capabilities. Incorporating auto-mapping, help functions and separate, resizable windows for graphics and text, written by David Bishop and based on the works of Lewis Carroll, was a deliberate attempt to push the text adventure in a new, hi-tech direction. Magnetic Scrolls succeeded in all their objectives, but the traditional text-based genre had begun to die out as gamers craved more visually elaborate gaming experiences. In 1988, Magnetic Scrolls began to collaborate with Infocom, Douglas Adams and Michael Bywater on a sequel to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy; this project was never finished. A playable draft of an early part of the game, along with the personal and commercial circumstances behind its ill-fated development, came to public attention twenty years later. In 1991, Virgin Interactive released The Magnetic Scrolls Collection Vol 1, containing new versions of The Guild of Thieves and Fish! that took advantage of the Magnetic Windows engine.

A second collection, containing their remaining games, was never completed. As a consequence of the dying text adventure market, Magnetic Scrolls ceased publishing in 1992, they were acquired by MicroProse that year. A number of Magnetic Scrolls' staff went on to help develop a 3D role-playing video game entitled The Legacy: Realm of Terror, released on the PC to lukewarm reviews, but Micr

2017–18 Gibraltar Second Division

The 2017–18 Gibraltar Second Division was the fifth season of the second tier football in Gibraltar since the Gibraltar Football Association joined UEFA. Like the previous season, this year the league was contested by 9 clubs; the season began on 26 September 2017, is expected to end in May 2018, with a mid-season break anticipated while Victoria Stadium underwent improvements. There will be no Chesterton's Cup this season. Gibraltar Phoenix were the reigning champions, having won the league for the first time the previous season and earning promotion to the Premier Division. Boca Gibraltar won their first title this season, securing the title by a single point after a 1-1 draw with arch-rivals Bruno's Magpies on the final day of the season. Clubs play; the Second Division winner is promoted while the second-placed team enters a playoff with the ninth-placed team from the Premier Division. This season sees the continuation of the Home Grown Player rule, requiring clubs to name 3 home grown players in their matchday squads with at least one of them on the field of play at all times.

On 1 October, FC Olympique were awarded a 3-0 win over College 1975 after College fielded an ineligible player. The match had finished 2-1 to Olympique. On 2 February 2018, Angels were expelled from the league due to violations of squad quota and Home Grown Player rules, with their record expunged. Gibraltar Phoenix were promoted to the 2017–18 Gibraltar Premier Division as champions last season. Bruno's Magpies lost their promotion playoff. Europa Pegasus had applied to join the division for the coming season after their expulsion at the end of the 2015–16 season, but the Gibraltar Football Association turned down their request, citing new rules now forbidding feeder clubs from joining the Gibraltar football pyramid. 1 Norberto Alonso Simón was re-appointed by Leo in January after being dismissed by the new owners. As of 22 May 2018 15 goals for College 1975 2017–18 Gibraltar Premier Division Gibraltar Football Association

Cristian Panait

Cristian Panait was a Romanian prosecutor for criminal investigation at the Supreme Court of Justice who, on April 10, 2002, committed suicide after coming under pressure to prosecute another justice official, Alexandru Lele. In the spring of 2002, Cristian Panait was pressured by his superiors to investigate a colleague who had prosecuted the son of a former prefect in Bihor County for petrol smuggling, he was sent to penalize the prosecutor Alexandru Lele over his courage to order the arrest of the son of Bihor County prefect, Adrian Tarau, one of ruling Romanian party Social Democratic Party's main sponsors. Alexandru Lele affirmed the then-Prime Minister Adrian Năstase was "trampling criminal investigations under foot." Several Romanian newspapers claimed that political interference at a high level was influencing seniors in the prosecution office to force Panait to make the investigation. Panait refused to submit to such demands and his superiors took the case away from him. Despite this, Panait turned it into the office.

His superiors took away all his cases. Arguably, a large conspiracy surrounded Panait to demonstrate to him that he was schizophrenic and on the verge of a nervous breakdown. Alexandru Lele stated that the Supreme Court of Justice had the Prosecutor General's Office should take into account "the likelihood of prosecutor Cristian Panait's being killed", he affirmed: "I am sure that political pressure was put on Panait regarding at least two of the cases he was in charge of - my case and that of deputy Gheorghiu, but I do not think investigators took into account this possibility". An article from Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung talks about Victor Ponta’s involvement in the accidental death of Panait, who suffered a lethal accident soon after meeting with Ponta. Monica Macovei, who served as Justice Minister between 2004 and 2007, stated that she was skeptical about the correctness of the investigation into Cristian Panait’s death; the case received major mainstream attention after the announcement made by Tudor Giurgiu that he will direct a fictionalized film adaptation based on the story.

The film was released in 2015 under the name Why Me?. Young prosecutor said to have jumped to death under pressure in a probe Post-mortem psychological expertise application on prosecutor Panait fiercely contested The curse of Cristian Panait's death Death of prosecutor Panait reinvestigated

Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics

Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics is a book by the 20th century Russian philosopher and literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin. It was published in 1929 in Leningrad under the title Problems of Dostoevsky's Creative Art but was re-published with significant additions under the new title in 1963 in Moscow; the book was first translated into English in 1973 by R. William Rotsel but this version is now out of print. Caryl Emerson's 1984 translation is the version used for academic discussion in English. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics is considered to be a seminal work in Dostoevsky studies and an important contribution to literary theory. Bakhtin introduces a number of key concepts, such as polyphony and carnivalisation, to elucidate what he saw as unique in Dostoevsky's literary art, he argues that Dostoevsky's works are dialogical, unfolding on the basis of interaction between autonomous voices, as opposed to monological, where plot and character unfold within the confines of a single authorial universe.

In consequence, it is argued that attempts to expound Dostoevsky's novels from any sort of monological critical perspective will always fail to penetrate them. There are 5 chapters, a brief preface and Conclusion. In the Preface Bakhtin writes: "We consider Dostoevsky one of the greatest innovators in the realm of artistic form, he created a new type of artistic thinking, which we have provisionally called polyphonic. This type of artistic thinking found its expression in Dostoevsky's novels, but its significance extends far beyond the limits of the novel and touches upon several basic principles of European aesthetics, it could be said that Dostoevsky created something like a new artistic model of the world, one in which many basic aspects of old artistic form were subjected to a radical restructuring. The present work aims at bringing out, through theoretical literary analysis, this fundamental innovation of Dostoevsky." Bakhtin begins by identifying polyphony as the chief characteristic of Dostoevsky's work: "A plurality of independent and unmerged voices and consciousnesses, a genuine polyphony of valid voices..."

The discussion of polyphony and its incommensurability with the usual monological approach to writing and criticism is followed by an overview of the available scholarly literature on Dostoevsky that from Russia. Each critic or theorist is assessed according to the degree to which they approach an understanding of polyphony as the essential quality of Dostoevsky's writing. According to Bakhtin, Dostoevsky is not interested in characters as individuals or social types occupying a specific place in the author's universe, where who or what they are is fixed, limited by certain'objective' qualities; the hero interests Dostoevsky as a "particular point of view on the world and on oneself." Dostoevsky thus carries out a kind of "Copernican revolution" in fiction by making subjectivity and self-consciousness the basis for a character's exposition, so that the functions reserved for the author or narrator are transferred into the field of vision of the character themselves: "the author no longer illuminates the hero's reality but the hero's self-consciousness."

Alongside the hero's consciousness, only other self-defining and self-validating consciousnesses can be juxtaposed. There can be no overriding authorial or narratorial voice: such a voice can only be another voice in the polyphonic texture. Bakhtin calls self-consciousness Dostoevsky's "artistic dominant". In Dostoevsky, the hero's discourse about himself is merged with his ideological discourse about the world. There is an "artistic fusion" of personal life with worldview that strengthens the integrity of self-signification in the face of the myriad forms of external definition; this fusion lends an unprecedented power to the idea in Dostoevsky. In a character of the monological type, an idea becomes "a mere aspect of reality, one more of reality's predetermined features": in Dostoevsky it acquires the power to live in the world through its fusion with an unfinalized consciousness in its interaction with others of the same kind; the idea, as Dostoevsky understood it, is not some sort of entity residing within a person's head, it is a "live event" played out in the realm of inter-subjectivity.

Like the word, the idea inherently seeks the other's response: it is by nature dialogic. Its outwardly monologic form is the conventional form of expression that has emerged, according to Bakhtin, from the trend toward ideological monologism characteristic of modern times. In the earlier work, this chapter only discussed the function of the adventure plot in Dostoevsky's novels. In the revised work it is expanded to include discussions of Dostoevsky's place at the end of a literary tradition going back to the ancient world, his translation of the folk carnival ethos—where conventional behaviours and attitudes are suspended, undermined or overturned—into the literary realm. Bakhtin argues that dialogic interactions of the kind found in Dostoevsky are not reducible to forms that are studiable by linguistics and can only be understood as discourse; the discursive word is never separate from a subject who utters it in address to another subject: the word must be embodied for it to have any dialogical status.

Bakhtin identifies three main types of discourse: unmediated discourse directed toward its referential object. It is this third type in its vario

Valvata tricarinata

Valvata tricarinata, common name the three-ridge valvata or threeridge valvata, is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Valvatidae, the valve snails. This species occurred along the Gulf of Maine. There is great variation in the degree of carination of the shell. Valvata tricarinata is abundant in nearly all lacustrine and fluviatile deposits in North America of the Pleistocene period; the fossil shells are more variable than the Recent ones. There were described eight subspecies; this article incorporates public domain text from the reference. Turgeon, D. D. et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26 Photo of the shell of Valvata tricarinata