Swiss chocolate is chocolate produced in Switzerland. While cacao beans and other ingredients such as sugar can originate from outside Switzerland, the actual production of the chocolate must take place in Switzerland. Switzerland's chocolates have earned an international reputation for high quality with many famous international chocolate brands. Switzerland is renowned for its milk chocolate. In 1875, a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk, invented by Henri Nestlé, Peter's neighbour in Vevey; the 17th century saw the start of chocolate processed in Switzerland. In the 18th century chocolate was only produced in a few areas, such as the Ticino. In the 19th and early-20th centuries, the following chocolate factories were founded: 1819 - Cailler in Vevey 1826 - Favarger in Versoix, Canton of Geneva 1826 - Suchard in Serrières 1830 - Kohler in Lausanne 1836 - Sprüngli in Zurich, company split into Confiserie Sprüngli and Lindt & Sprüngli in 1892 1852 - Maestrani in Luzern 1862 - Klaus in Le Locle 1867 - Peter in Lausanne 1879 - Lindt in Bern 1887 - Frey in Aarau 1899 - Tobler in Bern 1901 - Chocolat de Villars in Villars sur Glâne 1908 - Felchlin in Schwyz 1928 - Stella SA in Lugano 1929 - Camille Bloch in Courtelary 1932 - Teuscher in a small town in the Swiss Alps 1932 - Bernrain in Kreuzlingen 1933 - Chocolats Halba in Wallisellen 1934 - Kägi Söhne AG in ToggenburgIn the second half of the 19th century, Swiss Chocolate started to spread abroad.
Linked to this was the invention of Milk Chocolate by Daniel Peter in Vevey and the invention of the conching by Rodolphe Lindt. From the 19th century until the First World War and throughout the Second World War the Swiss chocolate industry was export-oriented. After the Second World War Switzerland began to outsource production due to commercial restrictions. Today most Swiss chocolate is consumed by the Swiss themselves, Switzerland has the highest per capita rate of chocolate consumption worldwide. In 2004, 148,270 tonnes of chocolate were produced in Switzerland. 53% of this was exported. The gross income of the Swiss chocolate industry in 2004 was 1.37 billion CHF. In 1901, Swiss chocolate producers created. In 1916, this was divided into the Chambre syndicale des fabricants suisses de chocolat and the Convention chocolatière suisse; the former "Chambre syndicale" protects the interests of Swiss chocolate producers. The "Convention chocolatière" focused on the quality of the chocolate and sought a uniform price strategy.
In 1994 the Convention was disbanded. Belgian chocolate Culinary Heritage of Switzerland Much of the content of this article comes from the equivalent German-language Wikipedia article; the following references are cited by that German-language article: Alain J. Bourgard: CH comme Chocolat, 2003, ISBN 2-8321-0036-8Specific Swiss chocolate in the online Culinary Heritage of Switzerland database. Chocosuisse: Union of Swiss Chocolate Manufacturers Information about Swiss Chocolat:www.swissworld.org Annual International Chocolatiers and Chocolate Fair
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation; the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a great influence on the canton, which consists of the city and its hinterlands. Geneva was controlled by the Allobroges tribe until 121 BC, it was annexed to the Roman Empire in 121 BC and remained part of it until 443. In 443, Burgundians took over Geneva. In 532, the land controlled by Burgundians became part of the Frankish Empire. Geneva became a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy in 888. Geneva became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1032 and remained in it until the Peace of Westphalia; the Prince-Bishopric of Geneva was a Prince-Bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 1154, but from 1290, secular authority over the citizens was divided from the bishop's authority, at first only lower jurisdiction, the office of vidame given to François de Candie in 1314, but from 1387 the bishops granted the citizens of Geneva full communal self-government.
As from 1416, the Dukes of Savoy attempted to annex the city, both by claiming secular authority and by installing members of the Savoy dynasty as bishops, the city sought assistance in allying itself with the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, given a constitution in 1543; the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an "everlasting ally" in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, in February 1794, the Republic gave itself a new, revolutionary constitution which proclaimed the equality of all citizens. After the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. Robespierre's death prompted the French invasion of 1798, the annexation of Geneva which became the capital of the French département du Léman; the Napoleonic army left Geneva on December 30, 1813, on the next day the return of the Republic was proclaimed.
Geneva joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Congress of Vienna. The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers; the canton is surrounded on all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on the northeast. The adjoining French départements are Haute-Savoie; the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton. Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 13 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2017: Genève, 200,548 residents Vernier, 35,132 residents Lancy, 31,942 residents Meyrin, 24,144 residents Carouge, 22,336 residents Onex, 18,977 residents Thônex, 14,091 residents Versoix, 13,329 residents Le Grand-Saconnex, 12,131 residents Chêne-Bougeries, 11,862 residents Veyrier, 11,540 residents Plan-les-Ouates, 10,697 residents Bernex, 10,007 residents The constitution of the canton was established in 1847 and has, since been amended several times.
The cantonal government has seven members. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time; the last election was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, any change to the Constitution is subject to compulsory referendum. In addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, 10,000 persons may propose a new law; the Republique and Canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council. On 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was The Liberals which received three seats with 20.5% of the votes. The next two most popular parties were the Social Democratic Party with 3 seats, followed by UDC/SVP with two seats, the Christian Democratic People's Party, Green Party, the Geneva Citizens' Movement each with one seat. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 42.9%. On 8/16 November 2015, in the federal election, Councilor Liliane Maury Pasquier, member of the Social Democratic Party, was re-elected in the second round as Conseillère des États of the canton of Geneva with a majority of 44,215 votes.
She is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the second round with a majority of 42,075 votes, he is part of the Council of States since 2007. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Combined with the SD for this election The population of the canton is 495,249. As of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40.1% of the total population. The population of the canton, as of December
Versoix is a municipality in the Canton of Geneva, which sits on the north-west side of Lac Léman north-east of the city of Geneva. Versoix has an area, as of 2009, of 10.51 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.06 km2 or 29.1 % is used for agricultural purposes, while 38.1 % is forested. Of the rest of the land, 3.4 km2 or 32.4% is settled, 0.08 km2 or 0.8% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 19.4% and transportation infrastructure made up 8.7%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 2.8%. Out of the forested land, 36.1% of the total land area is forested and 2.0% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 23.1% is used for growing crops and 3.5% is pastures, while 2.5% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.4 % is in lakes and 0.4 % streams. The municipality of Versoix consists of the sub-sections or villages of Richelien, Sauverny, Petit-Saint-Loup, Versoix-la-Ville, Pont-Céard, Port-Choiseul, Versoix-Bourg, Versoix - lac, Crève-Cœur.
It is the last town of the Canton of Geneva on the road northeast towards Lausanne, before the Canton of Vaud starts. It is a train stop on the Swiss Federal Railways line running between Geneva. On the Vaud side, the next village is called Mies; the distance from the centre of Geneva is about 10 km, it takes around 15 minutes by train or car to get into downtown. Versoix has a population of 13,329; as of 2008, 41.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 23.3%. It has changed at a rate of 5.8 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with English being second most German being third. There are 3 people who speak Romansh; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 51.7 % female. The population was made up of 2,831 non-Swiss men. There were 2,713 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 1,979 or about 19.2% were born in Versoix and lived there in 2000. There were 1,978 or 19.2% who were born in the same canton, while 1,603 or 15.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 4,052 or 39.3% were born outside of Switzerland.
In 2008 there were 75 live births to Swiss citizens and 54 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 57 deaths of Swiss citizens and 10 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 18 while the foreign population increased by 44. There were 40 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 124 non-Swiss men and 94 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 56 and the non-Swiss population increased by 211 people. This represents a population growth rate of 2.2%. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 28.3% of the population, while adults make up 60.5% and seniors make up 11.2%. As of 2000, there were 4,482 people who never married in the municipality. There were 689 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 3,977 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household.
There were 1,282 households that consist of only one person and 296 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 4,089 households that answered this question, 31.4% were households made up of just one person and there were 28 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 906 married couples without children, 1,323 married couples with children There were 384 single parents with a child or children. There were 54 households that were made up of unrelated people and 112 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 671 single family homes out of a total of 1,179 inhabited buildings. There were 243 multi-family buildings, along with 201 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 64 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 113 were built before 1919, while 90 were built between 1990 and 2000; the greatest number of single family homes were built between 1981 and 1990.
The most multi-family homes were built before 1919 and the next most were built between 1991 and 1995. There were 19 multi-family houses built between 1996 and 2000. In 2000 there were 4,536 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 1,406. There were 293 single room apartments and 991 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 3,734 apartments were permanently occupied, while 676 apartments were seasonally occupied and 126 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 6.1 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.12%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Bourg, a Bronze Age littoral settlement, the Villa Bartholony (Sans Souci